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Full text of "A collection of voyages and travels: consisting of authentic writers in our own tongue, which have not before been collected in English, or have only been abridged in other collections. And continued with others of note, that have published histories, voyages, travels, journals or discoveries in other nations and languages, relating to any part of the continent of Asia, Africa, America, Europe, or the islands thereof,from the earliest account to the present time..."

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O F 

Voyages and Travels, 


Authentic Writers in our own Tongue, which have 

not before been collected in Englijh y or have only been abridged 
in other Collections. 

And continued with 

Others of Note, that have publifhed Histories, Voyages, 
Travels, Journals or Discoveries in other Nations and 


Any Part of the Continent of ASIA, AFRICA, AMERICA, 
EURO P E, or the Islands thereof, from the earlieft Account to the 
prefent Time. 


According to the P A R T S of the W O R L D, to which they particularly relate : 


Historical Introductions to each Account, where thought neceflary, contain- 
ing either the L I V E S of their AUTHORS, or what elfe could be difcovered 
and was fuppofed capable of entertaining and informing the curious Reader. 

And with great Variety of 

Cuts, Prospects, Ruins, Maps, and Charts. 


From the curious and valuable LIBRARY of the late 


Interfperfed and illuftrated with NOTES, 


Either a General Account of the Discovery of thofe Countries, or an 
Abftract of their Histories, Government, Trade, Religion, &c. collected 
from Original Papers, Letters, Charters, Letters Patents, Acts 
of Parliament, &c. not to be met with, and proper to explain many obfcure 
Paffages in other Colledions of this Kind. 

VOL. I. 

L O N D O N: 
Printed for and Sold by THOMAS OSBORNE of Grafs-Im. 








T O 


Member of the Honourable House of Commons. 

IT is with great Pleafure that I take the Liberty of prefixing 
your Name to this Collection, becaufe I may do it with fo 
great Propriety. The Memory of a Gentleman of your 
Character deferves to be perpetuated, as an Incitement to Virtue 
in the diftant Ages ; and this Work, confiding of the moll du- 
rable Materials, is the belt qualified to hand it down to lateft 

Thefe are not the fcattered Memoirs of homebred Writers, 
that impofe their own Inventions and romantic Stories, or, which 
is equally as peccant, their crude, and unfeen Defcriptions of 
Men, Places, and Things : But a genuine Account of diftant 
Nations and States; a Collection inriched with many Original 
Difcoveries, and frequently imbellifhed with the Addition of the 
prefent State of thofe Dominions, which have of late undergone 
any confiderable Alterations ; and, though the ancient Drefs of * 
fome Parts thereof deprives it of fome modern Decorations, yet, in 
this Particular, it claims the Preference, that nothing is here 
related, that may be fufpected of being fabulous : For, though 
Amufement has in. fome Meafure been regarded, the Choice of 
Subjects in this Collection has, with more Juftice to the Reader, 
been defigned for his Inftruction in Cofmography, and for his more 
advantageous Knowledge of the feparate Government, Revenue, 
Strength, Religion, Cuftoms, Interefts, Products, Trade, Com- 
merce and Navigation of each Country herein defcribed. 

To whom then mould I appeal, or whofe immediate Patronage 
mould I feek, in the Publication of fo ufeful, and fo national 
a Work, but of one, whofe Knowledge of Books, and Men, 
and Things, enable him to form a right Judgment of its Ufe- 
fulnefs to the travelling and trading Part of Mankind, and to 
the Politician and Statefman, in judging and regulating their 
Domeftic Affairs, agreeable to the different Interefts of other 
States; whofe Station of Life calls upon him to be watchful over 
the , Liberty, Property, and Commerce of the Subject, and to 
diftinguifh and defend the true Intereft and Prerogative of the 

Crown ; 


Crown ; and whofe unblemifhed Charader, uncorrupted Heart, 
Uprightnefs of his Intentions Uniformity of his Adions, and 
unfliaken Zeal for the publi^Welfere fet him above the Reach 
of Malice, and gain him the^deferved Affedions of a grateful 

Nation ? *,**** 

Let me, therefore, honoured Sir ! plead your Acceptance or 

this fmall Token of public Gratitude for" your conftant Atten- 
dance, and upright Behaviour, in the Britijh Parliament ; where 
you fit as one of the Arbiters of the Fortune of Europe in parti- 
cular, and aDiredor and Encourager of our Trade and Navi- 
gation throughout the whole World ; as the excellent Laws 
enaded for the Support and Encouragement thereof, by your 
Concurrence in the Houfe of Commons, are more than a fufficient 


I need not rake the Ames of the Dead to blazon your Me- 
rit; for, though the ancient and honourable Name of Carew is 
found as early as the Norman Conqueft, and the Blood of your 
honourable Family has warmed the Veins of the braveft and moft 
deferving Nobility of this Nation in different Ages : Your per- 
fonal Worth and Efteem, as a Friend, a Hufband, a Parent, 
and a Patriot, want no Alliances to render you truly beloved by 
the prefent Generation, and to tranfmit your Fame to the lateft 
Pofterity which is the Attempt of this fincere and afedionate 

Addrefs, from 

7 ■■■-•••.•■ f 


S I Ry 

Your moft obedient y r devoted y 

Humbk Servant y 


*■ ■ 









Publifhed from the 

EARL of OXFORD'S Library. 


H E Introduction contains fome its extent, buildings, government, trade, 

ufeful geographical obfervations &c. and of the two famous univerfities 

on the figure, fituation, motion, of Oxford and Cambridge. Concluding 

parts, divifion, and meafurement with feveral ufeful obfervations on the 

of the earth : On the longitudeand latitude, government, laws, religion, morals, ge- 

meridian equator, and different climates : nius, temper, virtues, vices, diet, diver- 

On the origin of mankind, the peopling of fions, cuftoms, trade, ornaments and 

the world, the navigation of the ancients, curiofities, feas, harbours, rivers, fifhery, 

&c. the invention of the mariners com* beafts, fowls, birds, and minerals. Then 

pafs ; properties of the loadftone ; origin he proceeds to that part of Great-Britain 

of government, and the feveral forts of called Scotland', of which he gives you but 

government both ancient and modern : a fhort, yet one of the moft accurate de- 

On trade and commerce, and on the re- fcriptions ; particularifihg its extent and 

ligions and languages throughout the contents ; and impartially relates his ob- 

whole world. To which are added in- fervations on the air, foil, manners, lan- 

ftructions for travellers. guage, government, religion, and trade 

I. After a geographical defcription of of that ancient flourifhing, but now al- 

Europe, follows the voyage of don Ma- moft impoverifhed nation. 
nuel Gonzales, late merchant of the city 

of Lijbon, in Portugal, to Great- Britain, II. The travels of John Story through 
containing an hiftorical, geographical, to- Sweden are juftly to be efteemed", both on 
pographical, political, and ecclefiaftical account of the author, who was born a 
account of England and Scotland, with a gentleman, and bred a fcholar ; but 
curious collection of things particularly obliged to travel, to avoid the perfecuti- 
rare, both in nature and antiquity. on of the iniquitous court of Star-Cham- 
ber, which fpared no man, either for his 
This ingenious author, in feveral learning, wealth, or power, that mould 
chapters, alter giving the reafons of his prefume to contradict or queftion the fa- 
voyage, records a fuccindt hiftory.of the rious methods then purfued in church and 
realm of England from the invafion of the ftate : and, efpecially, on account of its 
Romans under Julius Cafar, to the year furvey and defcription of that kingdom and 
of Chrift 1660, with a breviate of the its provinces, in lb fhort a compafs. And, 
kings, and moft remarkable events during after he has, as it were, depicted that 
that long tract of time : Then he gives kingdom in its moft flourifhing ftate, our 
you the political and ecclefiaftical divifion author inriches his furvey with particular 
of England, with a particular account of obfervations on the riches, antiquity, na- 
the air, foil, product, and manufactures ture, manners, government of the realm, 
of every county, as well as of the towns and on the might and power of its king, 
of trade therein, including an exact de- as well by fea as by land, his great officers, 
fcription of London, both/ in regard to cuftoms and revenues of the crown. Then 
V O L. I. a he 



he plays the hiftorian ; and, by way of pany, or entertaining any thoughts of mar- 
illuftration of the premifes, he gives you rying her after her divorce knowing the 
a catalogue, and the moll memorable afts : lady to be a woman of no clear character, 
and deeds, with their alliances and iffiie He was a man of admirable wit and learn- 
of thofe kings that have conduced moil to ing, as appears from all his writings ;, and 
the raifin^ and well governing of this m this particular piece, fmall as it is, he 
kingdom T concluding, more particular- difclofes the : excellency of his political pe- 
ly, concerning the illuftrious, invincible, netration and knowledge in the true intereft 
Ixt^t Gufiavuf Adolphus the Second. of thofe nations through which he has 

e* *» x travelled ; and more than once leems to 

N B It appears from a Manufcript write with a prophetic fpirit, as the modem 
' prefixed to thefe Travels, That events have fufficiently proved. His farft 
Millifent, the famous auctioneer, care is to give an account how and why the 
was of opinion, That this indi- Dutch revolted from the Spamjh govern- 
vidual Book thereof was then ment ; and then he defcnbes the form or 
the only one exifting, and fold their new government, and fhews from 
it for one pound five (hillings. whence their revenue anfeth ; their expen- 
r ces, ftrength, (hipping, trade, dilcipline, 

III. AdefcriptionofAf«/*w)>, contain-' army, provinces, and character of the na- 
ing, firft, its ancient and modern ftate, tives Then he proceeds to his obfervati- 
fituation, extent, latitude, divifion into ons the Spamjh Netherlands, and concludes 
provinces, rivers, foil, fterility, and fer- with an excellent charader of the kingdom 
tilitv, with the commodities, and obfer- of trance, wherein is fet forth the form or 
vations on the extremities of weather, its government, how its monarchy became 
heat and cold. Secondly, Its cities, towns, abfolute •, the ftate of the church, and its 
fortifications and manner of building -, the ftrength, revenue, expences, interefts, and 
firft difcovery made by the Englijh ; the ftate of its nobility and commonalty, 
populoufnefs of the country, wild beafts, 

and difpofition of the natives. Thirdly, V. A tour in France and Italy, made by 
Their religion, marriages, obedience of an Englijh gentleman i in the year i6 75 . 
the women to their husbands, divorce, bu- This curious piece, which is transmitted to 
rials, and other ceremonies: with fome re- us without a name, befpeaks the authors 
marks on their diet, liquors, ftoves, hot- praife and capacity, for he is juft in his 
houfes habits, &e. Fourthly, The go- defcnption, and Laconically eloquent .in his 
vernment of the provinces and (hires •, their didion. His intention ferns to inform a 
courts of juftice, parliaments, &c. Fifthly, traveller in the parts he defcnbes with a 
Their military affairs, degrees and order juft idea of the fituation, buildings, ftrengtn, 
in it, arms, difcipline, with other particu- government, religion, revenue, interefts 
lars. Sixthly, A defcription of ftrange fifh, trade, &c. of thofe places he fliall pafi 
beafts, fowl, and other rarities peculiar to through in his way from Dieppe to Venice 
Mufcovy. And, Seventhly, The fucceftion But he is more particular in his plan ot 
of the royal houfe of Mufcovy to the year Rme, of whofe churches, relicks monu- 
1608, containing an hiftorical account of ments of antiquity, palaces, villas, &c, 
all the material tranfadtions that happened he conveighs the moft exadt and true ao 
in that natio? for one-thoufand fix-hundred count that I ever met with 111 fo narrow a 
years •, the manner of the Czar's coronati- compafs. 
on, arms of Mufcovy, degrees of the nobi- 

lity, fcfc. The whole including all that is VI. A true relation of the travels and 
neceffary to be known concerning that vaft moft miferable captivity of William Davis, 
empire ; and, in a particular manner, cal- under the duke of Florence, wherein is tru- 
culated for the ufe and intereft of thofe that ly fet down the manner of his taking, the 
trade to that nation. long time of his flavery, and the means of 

his delivery, after eight years and ten 
IV. Sir Thomas Overburfs obfervations months captivity in the gallies ; difcover- 
in his travels. Sir Thomas, the author of ing many main lands, lfiands, rivers ci- 
this fcarce and truly valuable piece, is re- ties and towns of the Chriftians and lnh- 
cordedto have been a moft accomplifhed dels, the condition of the people, and the 
perfon, and was much efteemed at the manner of their country, with many more 
court of king James I. but at laft fell, by ftrange things ; written by himfelf. 
poifon, a facnfice to the refentment and It begins with a defcnption of Civita Fee- 
paffion of a wicked woman, Frances, the chia, which is a ftrong fea-port, belonging 
wife of Robert Earl of EJfex, becaufe he to the pope. Then he deienbes Algier, 
endeavoured to diffuade his patron, Robert and the nature, laws, and cuftoms of that 
Vifcount i^kftr, from keeping her com- ftate; particularly the manner of their 

j --- chooung 

The C O N T E NTS. iii 

choofing a firft wife, and the ceremony of and difcipline of the Turkijh army, I ap- 

a Chriftian turning Turk. This is fol- prehend, is a peculiar of this author's, 

lowed with an account of 'Tunis and its na- His defcription of Grand. Cairo and the ad- 

tives : and a defcription of Leghorn, Na- jacent pieces of antiquity and curiofity, are 

pies, the river of Amazons, the iflands of very entertaining and inftrufting. His 

Malta and Cyprus, in which is included account of the ftrength of the great "Turk 

the oath taken by the knights of Malta. by fea and land, and of the methods to 

raife and difcipline his forces, are well 

VII. The foregoing voyages and tra- worth our observation -, and I may ven- 
vels are confined within the limits of Eu- ture to add, that their polity and religion 
rope ; what follow begin with the learned are no where more juftly related, 
archbifhop UJher's geographical and hifto- 

rical difquifition touching the Afia proper- X. The navigations, peregrinations, 

ly fo called ; the Lydian Afia (which is the and voyages, made into Turkey by Nicholas 

Afia fo often mentioned in the new tefta- Nicholay Daulpbinois, lord of Arfuile, cham- 

ment) the proconsular Afia, and the Afian berlain and geographer in ordinary to the 

diocefe : to which the editor has fubjoined king of France •, with divers true and me- 

the modern ftate of Afia, in which the rea- morable hiftories of thofe times, divided 

derwill be entertained with a fliort account into four books, and tranfiated out of the 

of its .temperature, extent, and religions French by T. JVaJhington the younger, 
profeffed therein ; its feas, rivers, monarchs, The firfi book contains an account of 

and divifion, both on the continent and the lord Aramonl's ambaffage from the 

in the iflands. king of France to the great Turk, and of 

the feveral iflands, ports, cities and places 

VIII. A general account of the Turkijh on the continent in his voyage to the 
empire was thought neceflary to come in Port ; and the other three defcribe the 
this order, forafmuch as fuch a defcrip- countries, dates, cities, natives, &c. of the 
tion of its extent and bounds, feas, rivers, whole Turkijh empire, both in regard to 
origin, genius, temper, habits, cuftoms, their antient and modern ftate. 
religion, polity, forces by fea and land, 

and trade, may ferve to illuftrate feveral XI. The preacher's travels ; wherein 

pafTagesof thofe voyages and travels which is fet down a true journal to the confines 

follow, and were made in and through of the Eafl-Indies, through the great coun- 

iuch countries and ftates as are under the tries of Syria, Mefopotamia, Armenia, Me- 

government of the great Turk, or bigot- dia, Hyrcania, and Parthia, with the au- 

ted to the fuperflition of the Alcoran. thor's return by the way of Perfia, Sujiana^ 

Ajfyria, Chaldaa, and Arabia. 

IX. This is the much efteemed voyage This excellent piece was penned by mr. 
of mr. Henry Blount, which has been fo John Cartwright, who had been educated 
well received abroad, that Both the Dutch in Magdalen college, Oxon ; and, as it ap- 
and French have tranfiated and publifhed pears from feveral other pieces of his, 
it in their own tongues. As for the au- mentioned by Anthony Wood, a gentleman 
thor, he was efteemed by thofe that knew of no mean erudition. But, as to this book 
him (as authors agree) a gentleman of a before us, take the author's own character 
very clear judgment, great experience, of it, There is no great matter of learn- 
much contemplation, of great forefight, ing or ingenious invention in it, for it is 
and of admiral converfation : a character only a Ample relation of a fimple truth, 
that will be found no ways ftrained, when wherein is principally fhewn how all hu- 
you have read this his voyage into the man affairs, and the greateft cities of re- 
Levant, wherein, taking his rout by the nown have had their periods in their great- 
way of Venice, and travelling through the eft perfections; to which though they 
Turkijh empire and Egypt to Grand Cairo, have afcended gradalim, yet they have fuc- 
he not only defcribes the many curiofities ceffively fallen into a retrograde of declina- 
in Dahnatia, Sclavonia, Bofnia, Hungary, tion, till fwaliowed up in the loweft de- 
Macedonia, T'hejfaly, Thrace, Rhodes, and gree which mifery can allot. For, in this 
Egypt, which he frequently imbellifhes fmall difcourfe, we (hall fee how unavoid- 
with ancient hiftory : But the prudent able deftruction doth always attend on the 
methods he took to obtain the trueft and fucceflion of greatnefs, and advancement 
moft ufeful part of knowledge in thofe on the pofterity of mifery ; as aifo the fack- 
parts, for the good of his country, and the ing of many cities, the depopulating of 
impartiality with which he delivers each the greateft countries, the depofing of 
particular, muft deferve the greateft com- mighty princes, and high defcended fa- 
mendations, and render it moft agreeable milics of their lives, together with their 
to the reader. — His account of the march crowns and kingdoms; and that in fo 



fhort a time, as never the like was exe- and veracity •, and are recorded not td 
cuted in the antient world. Again, the have delivered every thing that was told 
author fays, That he was engaged to them for a truth, but examined every par- 
write this journal for two reafons ; Firft, ticular with judgment and reafon. 
becaufe he had not feen any full defcrip- This book is compofed of four letters, 
tion of thofe parts, which he hopes is per- viz. two from Conftantinople s one from 
formed in this treatife by himfelf, foraf- Aleppo, and one from Jerufalem. 
much as he had fpent much time in thofe The firft letter was written from Cow- 
countries, and, for his better information, ftantinople, the metropolis of all Thracia, 
had contracted a familiar acquaintance wherein the author cerrifieth his friend of 
with many fultans and principal comman- , his voyage from England, and of fuch fa- 
ders in the kingdom of Perfia, as alfo with mous places, and memorable matters, as 
divers janizaries, who ferved in the wars he faw and obferved in the way thither, 
between the great Turk and the Perfian. The fecond was fent from the fame re- 
Secondly, becaufe he was fully perfuaded, nowned city, wherein he defcribeth Cm- 
that this relation would be very entertain- ftantinople, from its beginning •, (hewing the 
ing and delightful to the curious reader, firft building, deftruction, re-edifying, and 
which fo accurately defcribeth the forces government of the fame unto this prefent 
of the Perfian monarch, and in what day, and what antiquities are to be ken 
terms he now ftandeth with the great therein. 

Turk', what kingdoms he poffefTeth ; what The third was written from Aleppo in 

provinces are fubject to him ; his worfliip, Syria Comagena, wherein the author moft 

religion, and kind of government ; their judiciouQy and learnedly difcourfeth of his 

weapons, manner of fight, and form of voyage from Conftantinople thither ; and 

battle ; the revenues and expences of the defcribeth both generally the whole coun- 

crown ; and, in a word, a true defcription try of Syria, and particularly the city of 

of the feveral nations, fituations, cities, Aleppo, the chiefeft city of traffick therein; 

rivers, mountains, and provinces, he had and fheweth, that Aleppo is inhabited by 

feen and paffed by, and whatfoever elfe is people of fundry countries ; with the reli- 

necelTary to be known : in all which par- gion, government, manners, and .cuftoms 

ticulars he declares, that he binds himfelf of every nation there dwelling or fojourn- 

to what his eyes had feen, not reflecting ing, which is moft pleafant to read, for 

the judgment of the vuglar, but contenting the variety of matters therein contained, 

himfelf with the confcience of truth, be- The fourth and laft letter was written 

fides which, I proteft, fays he, I purpofe to from Jerufalem, wherein he relateth his 

write nothing. travel by land, together with four other 

To this are added, a true relation of fir Englijhmen, from the city o$ Aleppo in Syria 
Anthony Shirley's entertainment at the court Comagena, to Jerufalem, by the lea of Ga~ 
of Perfia ; and the grandeur in which his like or Tiberias, and lake of Gennefareth, 
brother mr. Robert Shirley lived, after his and fo thorough the whole land of Ca- 
departure from Chrijlendom : The defcrip- naan-, which way was never travelled by 
tion of Babylon and paradife, and of a port any Englifhman before. And this journey 
in the Perfian gulph, commodious for our may be called Jacob's journey ; becaufe all 
Eaft-India company : and a fhort fketch the whole way, which they travelled thi- 
ef grofs abfurdities found in the Turkifh ther, is the way which Jacob travelled from 
Alcoran. Bethel, or Beerjheba, to his uncle Labatfs 

houfe at Padan-Aram in Mefopotamia. 

XII. The ten years travels of four 

Englijhmen and a preacher, into Africa, XIII. A voyage to mount Libanus, 

Afia, Troy, Bythinia, fhracia, the Black Sea, wherein is an account of the cuftoms and 

Syria, Cilicia, Pifidia, Mefopotamia, Da- manners, 65V. of the Turks : alfo a de- 

mafcus, Canaan, Galilee, Samaria, Judaa, fcription of Candia, NicoJia, Tripoli, Alex* 

Paleftina, Jerufalem, Jericho, and to the andretta, &c. with curious remarks upon 

Red Sea, and divers other places ; very feveral paffages relating to the Turks and 

ufeful for travellers, and no lefs delightful Maronites, tranflated from the Italians. 

to all perfons who take pleafure to hear of This was undertaken and written by the 

the manners, government, religion, and reverend father Jerom Dandini, of the fo- 

cuftoms of foreign and heathen countries, ciety of Jefus, who was fent by the pope 

The names of thefe five travellers were to the patriarch of the Maronite ChriftianS 

William Biddulph, preacher to the com- living in mount Libanus, and contains a 

pany of Englifh merchants refiding in A- particular account of the Several accidents 

leppo; mr. Jeffery Kirbie, merchant; mr. that attended his travels, as well as a juft 

Edmond Abbot, merchant; mr. John Elkin, defcription of the moft remarkable places, 

gentleman ; and mr. Jafper Tyon, jewel- men, and things in his whole journey, and 

ler; men of learning, found judgment, ambafiage. But I judge that his account 

1 of 


of the Turkijh belief, the manner of his bute paid by them to the Turks, will be 

reception by the patriarch of the Maro* mod entertaining as well as intruding, 

nites; his defcription of mount Libanus, efpecially if there be diligent regard paid 

and of the Maronites, their religion, ex- to the remarks on each particular, with 

clefiaftic polity, profeffion of faith, cuftoms which this treatife and volume alfo con- 

and manner of living, learning, books, tri- eludes. 

VOL. II.. 


I. ^'" ■ '1 HIS volume is introduced with 
the hiftory of the court of the 
king of China, written origi- 
nally in French by the renown- 
ed feigneur Michael Baudier, of Languedoc, 
and ambafiador from France to that court ; 
who fays^ that he was drawn to this work 
by the rare and eminent qualities of the 
ipirits of China, who in the particular 
world, wherein they are inclofed, furnifh 
wife counfels, and true maxims to reform 
the diforders of other nations. For the wife 
and judicious reader may fee in this rela- 
tion of China, that virtue is the foundation 
of all the happinefs in this court ; that 
flattery never enters the royal gate, nor dif- 
fimulation holds the place of friend fhip, 
nor favour can rob virtue of her honours 
and rewards. Here learning is in high 
efteem, arms are properly encouraged, juf- 
tice is reverenced, and arts honoured. This 
was the defign of the author, and in the 
execution thereof he defcribes the feveral 
perfons and their ftations in and about the 
emperor's court, both as to their employ- 
ments, perfonages and habits, devotions, 
faith, and recreations : the forces of the 
realm, the emperor's revenue; his arms and 
titles, &c. Then follows 

II. An account of the empire of China: 
wherein is defcribed the country of China, 
with the provinces and ftates fubject to that 
extenfive empire. Alfo an account of its 
climate, product, navigation, cities, tem- 
ples, buildings, letters, figures, genius, ftu- 
dies, government, religion, rites and ce- 
remonies ; and of the complexion, appa- 
rel, and conditions of the people. To 
which is prefixed, A difcourfe of the na- 
vigation which the Portuguefe do make 
to the realms and provinces of the eaft 
parts of the world. This curious piece 
was originally written in Spanifh by Ber- 
nardine Efcalanta, in which the reader is 
prefented with a fhort account of the 
foundation of the kingdom of Portugal', 
the conqueft of Ceuta on the coaft of 
Barbary ; the difcovery of the coaft of 
Guiney •, the ambafiage of don Vafco de 


Gama from the king of Portugal to the 
king of Calecut ; the expedition of don Pedro 
-Alvarez Cabral, who firft difcovered the 
coaft of Brafil, got poffefiion of Malaca, 
and defcried the empire of China. Then 
our author proceeds with the defcription of 
China, as abovementioned, which we have 
illuftrated with many ufeful notes and large 
appendixes, confirming the truth of this 
relation, fupplying many omiffions, and 
continuing the hiftory down to the prefent 
times. Wherein, among other particulars, 
you fhall find a lift of the words that com- 
pofe the Chinefe tongue, which are no more 
than three-hundred and twenty-eight : And 
reflections on the idolatry of the Jefuits, 
and other affairs relating to the ftate of re- 
ligion in China. 

III. A defcription of Siam, tranflated 
from the Portuguefe original manufcript, 
by Pedro de Sa. Containing an account of 
its fituation, extent, foil, product, trade, 
cities and fortifications ; the genius of the 
natives, their apparel, diverfions, employ- 
ments, education, religion and cuftoms ; 
with a fhort defcription of the city of Ma- 
laca. To which is fubjoined 

IV. A full and true relation of the great 
and wonderful revolution that happened 
lately in the kingdom of Siam in the Eaft' 
Indies. Giving a particular account of the 
feizing and death of the late king, and of 
the fetting up of a new one ; as alfo of the 
putting to death of the king's only daugh- 
ter ; his adopted fon, who was a Chriftian ; 
his two brothers ; and of monfieur Con- 
Jlance, his great minifter of ftate, and fa- 
vourer of the French. And of the expul- 
sion of all the Jefuits, miflionary-priefts, 
officers and foldiers of the French nation 
out of that kingdom, who endeavoured to 
bring it under the French domination. Be- 
ing the fubftance of feveral letters writ in 
Otlober 1688, and February 1689, from 
Siam, and the coaft of Cormandel \ never 
before publifhed in any language, and now 
tranflated into Englifh. 

b V. Mr. 



V. Mr. Francis Bemier's voyage to Su- 
r0£, tranflated from the French. Of whom 
Monfieur de Monieux gives the following 
character : Monfieur Bernier, fays he, af- 
ter he had benefited himfelf, many years, 
under the famous Gajfendi, feen him expire 
in his arms, fucceeded him in his know- 
ledge, and inherited his opinions and dif- 
coveries, embarqued for Egypt, ftaid about 
a whole year at Cairo, and then paffed by 
fea to Surat, and after twelve years. abode 
at the court of the Great Mogul, and in- 
forming himfelf well of the government, 
policy ■, interefts, and manners of the peo- 
ple, does herein give an account of his 
observations and difcoveries •, and, as never 
a traveller went from home more capable 
to obferve, fo hone have ever written with 
more knowledge, candour, and integrity. 

i. It begins with an hiftorical relation 
of that famous revolution in the empire of 
the Great Mogul, under the government 
of Cbab-Jeban, accomplimed by his fon 
Aureng-zebe ; continued with the mod re- 
markable paffages for the five following 
years in that empire. In this part it is 
admirable to read of the depth of policy 
and craft by which Aureng-zebe, the third 
fon of Cbab-Jeban, fupplanted all his bro- 
thers, confined his father, and fettled himfelf 
on the throne ; his fingnlar prudence and in- 
defatigable pains in managing the govern- 
ment himfelf; and how he treated one 
who advifed him to take his eafe and plea- 
fure, and to leave the reins of government 
to another ; his behaviour to his imprifon- 
ed father, brethren, fitter, and his own 
fons •, his model for the fuitable education 
of a great prince •, and alfo the methods 
by which he recompenfed thofe that had 
faithfully ferved him in thefe revolutions; 
as well as the confummate adulation of di- 
vers nations, who .congratulated him on his 
acceffion to the crown by fuch indirect 

2. To this is added, his letter to the lord 
Colbert, then prime minifter of France, 
touching the extent of Indojlan ; the cir- 
culation of the gold and filver of the 
world, to difcharge itfelf there; as alfo, 
the riches, forces, and juftice of the fame, 
and the principal caufe of the decay of the 
flates of Afia. This letter begins with a 
particular account both of the former and 
prefent (late of the whole Peninfula of 
Indojlan', the occafion of its divifion into 
divers fovereignties, and the feveral arts 
ufed to maintain themfelves one again ft 
another, efpecially of the government and 
Hate of the kingdoms 6f ' Golconda and 
Vifapour ; then it fets forth the trade, 
which the Englijh, Portuguefe, and Butch 
carry on in and with that empire ; and 

the religion, forces, diverfions, qualities, 
offices and attendants of the great lords 
or Omnals of the nation, and of the ftables 
of horfes, elephants, camels, mules, &c. 
and of the feraglio, and the vaft revenues 
and expences of the Great Mogul ; with a 
folution of this important queftion, Whe- 
ther it be more expedient for the prince and 
people, that the prince be the fole proprietor 
cf all the lands of the country, over which he 
reigns, yea, or no ? 

3. Thirdly, he gives an exact defcription 
of Delhi and Agra, the capital cities of the 
empire of the Great Mogul ; with other 
particulars for the better underftanding 
the court and genius of the Mogols and 
Indians ; as alfo the doctrine and extra- 
vagant fuperftitions and cuftoms of the 
native Indians or Heathens of Indojlan ; 
particularly that dreadful abufe of provi- 
dence, and inhuman practice of wives 
burning themfelves with the relicks of 
their deceafed hufbands. 

4. The fourth part of this voyage con- 
tains an account of the emperor of Mogul's 
voyage to the kingdom of Kacbemire, in 
1644, commonly called by the Mogols, 
the paradife of the Indies. In this part, 
our author begins with (hewing the caufe 
and occafion of this voyage by Aureng-zebe ; 
then he gives a particular account of the 
flate and pofture of his army, and the 
equipage and ordinary provifions of the 
chief of his cavalry, and fome curious ob- 
fervations worthy the notice of all fuch, 
who travel the Indies. Jn this fpace, you 
meet with the extraordinary manner of the 
Great Mogul's hunting, and the danger 
they incur, who upon a royal march hap- 
pen to be incamped too near the women 
of the Seraglio. Here alfo are defPribed 
the city Labor, the capital of Penjeal, the 
extreme heats at Bember, and the famous 
kingdom of Kacbemire, with the prefent 
ftate of the neighbouring mountains ; and 
then concludes the whole with pertinent 
anfwers to thefe five queftions, Whether 
the Jews have been fettled there, time 
immemorial, and ufe the fame fcriptures 
of the old teftament as we do ? Whether 
there be ftated rains in the Indies, and the 
reafon thereof ? What means the regulari- 
ty of the current of the fea and winds in 
the Indies ? Whether the kingdom of Ben- 
gal be fo fertile, rich, and beautiful, as 
commonly reported in Europe ? What 
fhould caufe the increafe of the Nile? 

VI. Captain Robert Coverte's true and 
almofi: incredible report of an Englifhman y 
that (being caft away in the good fhip, 
called the Afcenfion, in Cambaya, the far- 
theft part of the Eajl-lndies) travelled by 
land, through many unknown kingdoms, 



and great cities ; with a particular de- fed to be written, and published by au- 
fcriprion of all thofe kingdoms, cities, and thority, in order to mitigate the juft re- 
people •, as alfo a relation of their com- fentment of the Englijh nation, for fa 
modifies and manner of traffick, and what great an infult and damage, which has 
feafons of the year they are mod in ufe, never been yet repaired. The author 
to which is now newly prefixed an account therefore pretends, that his friend, to whom 
of India proper. This voyage is remar- he addrefTes this epiftle, was very defirous 
kable for the fimplicity of its narration, to preferve a good correfpondence. betwixt 
as well as for the great providence of God thefe two nations; that himfelf Hath 
it difclofes in the wonderful prefervation fearched and enquired' after the rio-ht and 
of the author, and the great benefit the true beginnings, proceedings, and iflbes of 
trading part of the nation has received from the affairs, upon which this execution fol- 
his hardfhips, in the infancy of our deal- lowed ; wherein, fays he, I perfuade my- 
ings with that part of the world. Mf, I have attained good fuccefs, by fuch 

means I have ufed, and by my good ac- 

VII. News from the Eaft -Indies -, or a quaintance ; fo that at the Jaft I any come 
'voyage to Bengalis one of the greateft to the clear light of the, matter ; partly, 

kingdoms under the high and mighty by the letters that have been fent home, 
prince, Pedejha Shajfallem, ufually called to the company here, and have been de- 
the Great Mogul, with the ftate and mag- clared to the States-General ; as alfo, by a 
nifkence of the court of Malcandy, kept particular examination of the procefs 
by the Nabob, vice-roy under the faid made againft them in Amboyna before 
monarch : alfo their laws, deteftable reii- their execution, and fent over hither in 
gion, mad and foppifh rites and ceremo- writing. But this was fo far from ap- 
nies, wicked facrifices, and impious cuf- pearing to be a juft vindication of that 
toms ufed in thofe parts, written by mod perfidious action, that it was im- 
William Brulon, who was refident there, mediately confronted with the following- 
many years, and an eye and ear-witnefs unanfwerable reply, under the title of 
of thefe defcriptions. 

X. An anfwer unto the Dutch pamphlet 

VIII. A true relation of the unjuft, made in the defence of the unjuft and bar- 
cruel, and barbarous proceedings againft barous proceedings againft the Englijh, at 
the Englijh at Amboyna in the Eaft- Indies,. Amboyna'm the Eaft- Indies, by the Holland- 
by the Dutch governor and council fettled ers there. In which, I think, the author 
there, upon a forged pretence of a confpi- plainly fhews that the Dutch account is 
racy of the faid Englifhmen. In which is full offalfe and forged fufpicionsand fraught 
difcovered the real views of the Dutch by with ridiculous abfurdities, contrarieties, 
that maffacre to drive the Englijh, if pof- and impoifibilities. 

fible, quite out of the India commerce 

and trade. Here the reader fhall find a XI. Some years after, the Englijh Eaft- 
juft account of the Englijh and Dutch fet- Indiacompzny having in vain demanded and 
tlements then made, and the feveral trea- fought for relief and fatisfa&ion from the 
ties made between them for their mutual States-General, there was publifhed, by Au- 
fecurity againft the attacks of the Portu- thority, a tranflation of the Dutch Eaft- 
guefe and Spaniards, and more particular- India cpmpany's remonftrance prefented to 
ly, of the ftrength of the Dutch, at Am- the Lords-States-General of the united pro- 
boyna, and the manner how the Dutch be- vinces, touching the bloody proceedings 
gan this egregious piece of villainy, with againft the Englijh merchants executed at 
the feizure and examinations of the Englijh Amboyna, together with the ads of the pro- 
merchants, and Japonefe that were invol- cefs againfj the faid Englijh, and the reply 
ved in this bloody fcene. of the Englijh Eajt-India company to the 

faid remonftrance and defence ; left, as it 

IX. A true declaration of the news that is afferted in the preface thereto, the poor 
came out of the Eaft-Indies, with the pin- innocent Englijh, that had, in their life 
nace, called the Hare, which arrived in fuffered fo many and fo grievous tortures,' 
the Texel in June 1624, concerning a and afterwards a reproachful death, fiiould* 
confpiracy difcovered in the ifland of again after death, fuffer in their good name 
Amboyna, and the punifliment following alfo, which is or ought to be dearer than 
thereupon according to the courfe of ju- life itfelf ; left alfo the Englijh Eaft -Indict 
ftice, m March 1624; comprehended in company, that have likewife fufiered too 
a letter miffive, and fent from a friend in many indignities, and fuch damages from 
the Low-Countries, to a friend of note in the Dutch, mould feem to have made a 
England, for his information in the truth great out-cry without as juft a caufe In 
ot thofe pafiages. This account is fuppo- this you will find 

XII. An 


viii The C O NTE NTS. 

nued the fame for the fpace of forty and 

XH. An authentic copy of the con feffi- three years,' even to his dying day. By 

ons and fentences againft mr. Tower/on whofe encouragement, the kings of Portw 

and his accomplices, concerning the bloody gal found out with much patience and con- 

confpiracy, enterprifed againft the caftle of ftancy the laft way of the bringing the fpi- 

Amboyna: the which, by the manifeft eery into Europe, by the cape of Buona 

grace and providence of God, was difcover-' Speranca, or Good- Hope ; and, for almoft 

ed, the twenty-third day of February, in thefe two-hundred years pad, have become 

the year 1623. As alfo the refolutions of the chief lords of the riches of the Eajl. By 

the governor Van- Speult, and of the coun- emulation of which their good endeavours, 

cil taken in the bufinefs. Tranflated out the Antilles and the Weft-Indies began to 

of the copy, delivered to the Englijh be difcovered by the kings of Spain : the 

Eaft-India company, from the Dutch, infancies of both which moft important 

And enterprifes ; the progrefs of the fame from 

time to time, the difcoveries of iflands, 

XIII. A reply to the remonftrance of rivers, bays, and harbours, of many rich 
the Bewinthebbers or directors of the JVk- provinces, kingdoms, and countries ; the 
therlands Eaft-India company, lately ex- erecting of caftles in fundry convenient 
hibited to the Lords-States-General, in juf- iflands and places, with the drawing of 
tification of the proceedings of their offi- traffick unto the fame, where, when, by 
cers at Amboyna, againft the Englijh there, whom, and by whofe authority, is here 

fuccinctly and faithfully recorded. So that, 

XIV. The difcoveries of the world from if it pleafe your honour, at your convenient 
their firft original, unto the year of our leifure, to take a fea chart, or a map of 
Lord 1555. Briefly written in the Portu- the world, and carry your eye upon the 
gal tongue, by Antonio Galvano, governor coaft of Africa, from Cape de Non, . lying 
of Ternate, the chief ifland of the Molucca's, on the main in twenty-nine degrees of nor- 
Corrected, quoted, and now publifhed in therly latitude, and follow the fhore about 
Englijh, by Richard Hakluyt, fometime the cape of Buona Speranca, till you come 
ftudent of Chrift -Church in Oxford: Who, to the mouth of the Red Sea, and, pafling 
in commendation of this truly valuable thence along by the country of Arabia, 
piece, in his dedication to the right honour- crofs over to Indies, and, doubling cape 
able Sir Robert Cecil knight, principal Comory, compafs the gulph of Bengala, 
fecretary of ftate to Queen Elifabeth, and mooting by the city of Malacca, 
befpeaks him thus : ' I prefent unto through the ftreight of Cincapura, coaft 
* your honour a brief treatife, a work, all the fouth ofAfia, to the north-eaft part 
« which, though fmall in bulk, contain- of China, and comprehend in this view all 
« eth fo much rare and profitable matter, the iflands from the Azores and Madera, 
' as I know not where to feek the like, in the Weft to the Molucca's, the Phillip- 
« within fo narrow and ftrait a compafs.' pitta's and Japan, in the Eaft : you (hall 
For, herein is orderly declared, who were here, find by order, who were the firft dif- 
the firft difcoverers of the world, fince the coverers, conquerors, and planters in every 
time of the flood; by what ways, from place; as alfo the natures and commodities 
age to age, the fpicery, drugs, and riches, of the foils, together with the forces, qua- 
of the Eaft, were conveyed into the Weft ; lities, and conditions of the inhabitants, 
what were the caufes of the alterations of And, as this ancient piece comes fo well 
thefe courfes, as namely, the changes of recommended, I muft add that it deferves 

' empires and governments ; the ceafing of both our preservation and attention, not 
all traffick for many years, by the Goths only on account of the author, who was 
invafion of the Roman empire •, the rifing the famous Antonio Galvano, of an honour- 
up of the Mahometan fe& ; with their over- able family in Portugal ; whofe piety to-' 
running of Africa and Spain ; the renewing wards God, equity towards men, fidelity 
again, after many years difturbance, of to his prince, love to his country, fkill in 
the traffick and intercourfe of the Eaft-In- fea affairs, experience in hiftory, liberality 
dies ; firft, by the califs of the aforefaid towards his native country, vigilance, va- 
fect, and foon after by the Venetians, Ge- lour, wifdom and diligence, in reftoring 
noefe, and Florentines. Then followeth the and fettling the decayed ftate of the ifland 
taking of Ceuta in Barbary, by John, the of Molucca's, of which he was gqvernor 
firft king of Portugal, of that name, in between fix and feven years, record ins fin- 
the year of our lord 1415, Whofe third gular recommendation : but alfo it is no 
fan Don Henry, which he had by the vir- fmall addition to this work, that it was 
tuous lady Philippa, daughter of John of thought worthy of an Englijh drefs, and 
Gaunt, and fitter to Henry the Fourth, tranflated by the great mr. Hakluyt, who 
king of England, was the firft beginner was defcended from an ancient family, at 
of all the Portugal difcoveries, and conti- Tetton in Herefordjhire, and educated at 

1 Weftminfter 

The C NT E NT S. ix 

Weftminfter- fchool, from whence he was upon from the leaft imputation of jealoufy* 

elected a ftudent of Chrift-Church, in O.v- hatred, or revenge. 
ford> where he took his batchelor and ma- 
iler of arts degrees ; and at laft, entering XVII. A relation of the feven years 

into holy orders, he was firft made preben^ flavery under the Turks of Algier, fuffered 

dary of Briftol, and afterwards of Weft- by an Englijh captive merchant. Where - 

minfter, and rector of Witheringfet in Suf- in alfo is contained all the memorable paf* 

folk. As to his capacity in the Portuguefe fages, fights, and accidents, which hap^ 

tongue, befides this tranflation, which a- pened in that city, and at fea with their 
lone would be proof enough thereof, he iK mips and gallies, during that time: to- 

luftrated Peter Martyr Anglericus*s eight gether with a defcription of the fufferinc*s - 
decades de novo orbe, with curious notes, of the miferable qaptives under that mer* 
tranfta ted alfo from the Portuguefe, Virginia cilefs tyrant: whereunto is added, a de- 
richly valued by the defcription of the fcription of the town of Algier, with its 
main land of Florida, her next neighbour ; original, manner of government, increafe* 
and wrote notes of certain commodities in and prefent flourifhing ftate. By Francis 
good requeft in the Eaft- Indies* Moluccas'*, Knight. 
and China ; but what has moft defervedly 

perpetuated his name, is his great pains XVIII. A true journal of the Salleg 
and judgment in collecting Englijh voyages, fleet, with the proceedings of the voyage, 
navigations, trafficks, and difcoveries. publifhed by John Dunton, London, ma- 

riner, mafter of the admiral called the Lec- 

XV. A voyage made by certain Dutch pard. 
mips into the Eajl-Indies, with their ad- The commiflion of this fleet was to de* 
ventures and fuccefs : together with a de- ftroy the Sallee rovers, and difable thofe 
fcription of the countries, towns and inha- Turks from following their piratical' prac^i- 
bitants of the fame ; who fet forth on the ces, or to oblige them to certain terms of 
2d of April 1595, and returned on the an advantageous peace. The author had 
14th of Augiift 1597. Tranflated from been a captive, and his only fon, about 
the Dutch copy, and illuftrated with the ten years of age, was ftill a prifoner in 
fea-journal or navigation of the Hollanders Algier: but the father redeemed himfelf 
into Java, &c. This was publifhed the in this extraordinary manner; being fent 
19th of Oclober 1597, by Bernard Langhe- out mafter and pilot in a Sallee man of 
nez, and is different from that publifhed war, with twenty-one Moors, and five 
under the like title by Purchas and Harris Flemifh renegadoes, to feek for their prey 
in their abridgments, and was the firft on the coaft of England, he brought them 
Eaft-lndia voyage made by the Dutch, and under the guns of Husk Caftle in the Jfle of 

is now illuftrated with many and ufeful Wight, by which means they were obliged 

notes. to furrender themfelves. 

' XVI. The world encompaffed by fir XIX. An account of the captivity of 

'Ftahds Drake, offered now at laft to pub- Thomas Phelps at Machine fs in Barbary, 

lick view, both for the honour of the and 'of his ftrange efcape, in company of 

actor, but efpecially for the ftirring up of Edmund Baxter, and others •, as alfo of the 

heroick fpirits, to benefit their country, burning two of the greateft pirate mips 

and eternife their names by like noble at- belonging to that kingdom in the river of 

tempts : collected out of the notes of mr. Mamora, upon the thirteenth day of June 

Francis Fletcher, preacher in this employ- 1685. 
ment,and compared with divers other notes 

of others that went in the fame voyage. XX. A true relation of the inhuman 

This account of this remarkabje voyage and unparalleled actions and barbarous 

is different from that publifhed under the murders of Negroes or Moors, committed 

like title in other collections, and, as you on three EngUJhmen in old Calabar in Gui- 

will find by my notes thereto, will ferve ney ; and of the wonderful deliverance of 

to correct feveral bad infinuations to the a fourth perfon, after he had undergone 

difcredit of that great and ever memorable horrid cruelties and fufferings ; with a 

commander : in particular, fir Francis has fhort and true account of the cuftoms, 

been accufed of a moft unjuft action in manners, and growth of the country, 

putting John Doughty to death, through which is very pleafant. 
pique, or under the direction of fome 

counter, whom Doughty is faid to have XXI. A report of the kingdom of 

affronted : but mr. Fletcher has in this nar- Congo, a region in Africa, and of the 

ration cleared that point quite up, and countries that border round about the 

refcued the admiral's proceedings there- fame. Wherein is alfo (hewed, I. That 
V O L. II. c the 



the torrid and frigid zones are not only and weapons, and the taking of the royal 
habitable, but inhabited, and very tem- city. The fixth informs us of the ex- 
perate, contrary to the opinion of the pulflon of the Giach'i -, and the feveral 
old ph'ilofophers. II. That the black co- ambaffages between the king of Congo, and 
lour, which is in the fkin of the Ethiopi- the kings of Portugal and Spain ; as alio, 
am and Negroes, &c. proceedeth not from the vow and ambafiage of Odoardo Lopez, 
the fun. III. That the river Nile fpring- from the king of Portugal, to the- Pope, 
eth not out of the mountains of the Moon, and king of Spain. The f event h gives 
as hath been formerly believed •, together an account of the court of the king of 
with the true caufe of the rifing and in- Congo ; of the apparel of the people, and 
creafe thereof. IV. And a defcription of of the king's table ; and of the cuftoms, 
divers plants, fifties, and beads, that are laws, diverfions, and knowledge in phy- 
to be found in thole countries •, extracted fie and chirurgery, in that kingdom, 
from the writings and difcourfes of Odo- Chapter the eighth proceeds in the de- 
ardo Lopez, a. Portuguefe. This piece has fcription of the countries, that are beyond 
been abftracted by Purchase but, that a- the kingdom of Congo, towards the cape 
brido-er having omitted many material of Good Hope, and of the river Nile % and 
particulars, a fault which all abftrafts for of the Red-Sea -, as the kingdom of Sofala; 
the molt part are guilty of, we have the empire of Monomotapa, that abounds 
thought it necefiary, in juftice both to the with mines of gold, and is moft famous 
public and the author Philippo Pigafelia, for its army of Amazons-, the kingdoms of 
to °"ive you the report at large. Angofcia, Mozambique, Quiloa, Madagaf- 

It is divided into two books, and each car, Mombaza, Melinde, and Moenemugi, 
book into feveral chapters. The firfi or empire of Prefier John, in the ninth 
chapter of the firft book contains .Edward and tenth chapters, which conclude 'this 
'Lopez's journey by fea from Lisbon to the excellent report, which fo concifely in- 
kingdom of Congo. The fecond defcribes forms us of divers countries and people 
the temperature of the kingdom of Congo ; inhabiting Africa, whofe names had fcarce- 
with feveral obfervations on the complexi- ]y been mentioned in England before •, as, 
ons and features of the natives ; and on the namely, the kingdom of Congo, with all 
winds, rains, and fnows of that country. The the provinces thereof j the kingdom of 
third ihews the caufe of the complexion, or Angola, the kingdom of Lbango, the 
why fome bodies are black, and others bom kingdom of the Anzichi, the kingdom of 
there are white, or tawny like a wild olive. Matama, the kingdom of Buttua, the 
In the fourth chapter, you have the circuit kingdom of Sofala, the kingdom of Mo- 
of the kingdom of Congo, as alfo the bor- zambiche, the kingdom of ^uiloa, the 
ders and confines thereof, which argument kingdom of Mombaza, the kingdom of 
is continued in the fifth, fixth, feventh, and Melinde, with the three great empires of 
eighth chapters. The ninth -chapter di- Monomctapa, of Moenemugi, and of Pro- 
vides the kingdom of Congo into fix pro- Gianni. He tells you the feveral rites 
vinces, and defcribes the province of and cuftoms, the climates and tempera- 
Bamba, with many curiofities concerning tures, the commodities and traffics of all 
the nature, &c. of the elephant, lion, and thefe kingdoms. He tells you the fundry 
tyger, &c. The tenth treateth of the kinds of cattle, fifties, and fowls, ftrange 
province of Songo, Zaire or Loango. The beafts, and monftrous ferpents, that are 
eleventh defcribes the province of Sundi, to be found therein •, for, Africa was 
and the twelfth, thirteenth and fourteenth always noted to be a fruitful mother of 
contain the feveral accounts' of the three f U ch fearful and terrible creatures. He 
other provinces of Pango, Batta, and tells you of great lakes, that deferve the 
Pemba. name of feas •, and, huge mountains of 

The fecond book, with the fituation divers forts, as, for example, mountains 
and defcription of the royal city of the fcorched witn heat ; mountains of fnow, 
kingdom of Congo, and the adjacent proceeding from cold j mountains of the 
country. Its fecond and third chapters, fun ; mountains of the moon ; mountains 
fets forth the firft converfion of this of chryftal •, mountains of iron ; mourf- 
kingdom ; the obftacles it met with from tains offilver; and, mountains of gold, 
the devil •, and the manner the Portuguefe And, laftly, he tells you the original 
obtained this traffic. The fourth relates fpring of the Nile, and the true caufe of 
the firft peopling of the ifland of St. the yearly increafe thereof. And, in fine, 
Thomas ; the extirpation of the royal li- this treatife comprehends, not only the 
neage of Congo, and the baniftiment of nature and difpofition of the Mochi-Con- 
the Portuguefe from thence. The fifth ghi, who are the natural inhabitants and 
contains the incurfion of the Giachi into people of Congo, together with all the 
the kingdom of Congo; their condition commodities and traffic of the country, 



very entertaining and profitable ; but alfo flefti, fifh, and fowl, oranges and lemons , 
the religion which they profeffed, and, fugar, ambergris, gold, tortoife-fhells, 
by what means, it pleafed God to draw drugs, and many other commodities, fit 
them from Paganifm, to the worfhip of for trade and commerce, to be had and 
the true God. gotten there, at cheaper rates than in In- 
dia, or elfewhere. Alfo* the trading 
XXII. A relation of a voyage made from port to port all India and Afia over, 
in the years 1695, 1696, 1697, on the and the great profit gained thereby; the 
coafts of Africa, by a fquadron of French chief place in the world to inrich men by 
men of war, under the command of trade, 'to and from India, Perfia, Mo- 
monfieur de Gennes. This relation was cho, Achin, China, and other rich eaftern 
penned by the fieur Froger, voluntier- kingdoms ; it being the fitteft place for a 
engineer, on board the Engli/h Falcon, magazine, or ftore-houfe, for trade, be- 
whofe fkill, in hiftory and mathematics, tween Europe and Afia, far exceeding all 
may plead largely for his capacity to col- other plantations in America, or 1\k- 
lec~t and publifh what he has here deliver- where. Likewife, the excellent means 
ed; efpecially, as he declares, that he loft and accommodation to fit the. planters 
no opportunity to obtain the beft means of there, with all things needful and fuper- 
information of thefe particulars : " lam fluous for back and belly, out of India 
" not, fays he, to omit, that, the long a- near adjacent, at one fourth part of the 
" bode 1 have made in divers parts, giv- price, and cheaper, than it will coft in 
ing me a real tafte of the pleafure there England ; viz. fat bullocks, fheep, goats, 
is in feeing foreign countries, I have, fwine, poultry, rice, wheat, barley, &c. 
with all imaginable exa&nefs, enquired exceeding cheap; for, the value of twelve- 
into the commerce of the place, the pence, or one milling Englifh, ' will pur- 
particular interefts of each colony, the chafe or buy, of the natives, as much as 
ftrength,. fituation, and advantages of five, fix, or feven pounds, or more, in 
the ports ; the manners, cuftoms, and England, in this famous ifland, at their 
religion of the people ;- and, laftly, the firft arrival, which no other country hath 
nature of thole- fruits, plants, birds, afforded. By Richard Boothby, merchant, 
fifties, and the animals that feemed to Befides, if we defcend to particulars, a- 
have any thing extraordinary in, or pe- mong other curiofities, K you will read of 
" culiarto them." the famous hogs of Melinda, in whofe 

maws there breeds a ftone, which ferves 

XXIII. Voyages to the Canary iflands, as an antidote againft poifon ; and of the 

Cape-Verd, Senegal, and Gambia, by fieur wonderful Mirobalane, which, only held 

le Maire. In which the curious reader in the hand, cures the bloody flux, or a 

may read the beft accounts of the Canary, fever ; and of other parts of ufeful know- 

or Fortunate iflands, Cape-Verd, the ifle ledge. 
of Goree, St. Lewis's ifland, the river and 

kingdom of Senegal, the kingdom of the XXV. A fhort difcovery of the coaft 

Barbins, with extraordinary remarks on and continent of America, from the equi- 

the diverfions, religion, manners, cuftoms, noftial northward ; and of the adjacent 

habits, natives, product, beafts, &c. of ifles. By William Caftle, minifter of the 

each place ; and relations of the iflands, gofpel at Courtenhall in Northamptonshire. 

and adjacent places of the rivers Brefali- Whereunto is added, the author's petiti- 

na, Gambia, Zamenec, St. Domingo, and on to the parliament, for the propagation 

Geve. of the gofpel in America. Attefted by 

many eminent Englijh and Scotti/h divines. 
^ XXIV. A brief difcovery or defcrip- And an ordnance of parliament for that 
tion of the moft famous ifland of Mada- purpofe, and for the better government 
gafcar, or St. Laurence, in Afia, near unto of the Englijh plantations there. Toge- 
the Eaft-Indies. With a relation of the ther with fir Benjamin Rudyer's fpeech in 
healthfulnefs, pleafure, fertility, and parliament, January 21, 1644, concern- 
wealth of that country ; comparable to, ing America. 

if not tranfcending all the eaftern parts This piece is introduced with feveral 

of the world ; a very earthly paradife ; a arguments, to prove the great confe- 

moft fitting and delicate place, to fettle quence of plantations, fettled on fuch a 

an Englifh colony and plantation there, difcovery by the Englijh, would be to the 

rather than in any other part of the nation in general ; together with a fhort 

known world. Alfo, the condition of defcription of America, and the defign of 

the natives, their inhabiting, their affa- this work. Then the author, intending 

bility, habit, weapons, and manner of to give a concife account of the feveral 

living; the plenty, andcheapnefsof food, countries and iflands, within the compafs 





• t 



The CON T E N T S. 

of his premifed argument, begins with a 
defcription of Newfoundland \ and then in 
courfe of Nova Francia, or New-France, 
New- England, New- Netherlands, Virginia, 
Florida, Cuba, Hifpaniola, Porto- Rico, 
Bermudas, Caribbee iflands, Terra-Firma, 
Panama, and New-Galetia. To which is 
now added, a fcheme of all the Englifh 
dominions on the continent of north Ame- 
rica, from north-eaft to fouth-weft, with 
the Indian nations bordering upon them ; 
and of fome American iflands under the 
Briti/h government, which will alfo ferve 
to mew the ftate of Chriftianity, and 
what progrefs of the gofpel might be 
made, by orthodox and zealous miflioners 
in thole parts. 

XXVI. King Charles the Firft's com- 
miflion for the well-governing of our 
people inhabiting in Newfoundland, or 
trafficking in bays, creeks, or frelh rivers, 

XXVII. Ebenezer, or, a monument of 
thankfulnefs ; being a true account of a 
late miraculous prefervation of nine men in 
a fmall boat, which was inclofed within 
iflands of ice, about feventy leagues from 
land, and continued in diftrefs twenty- 
eight days. Drawn up by Allen Geare^ 
who was a principal fharer, both in the 
mifery and mercy, and attefted by mr. 
Jofeph Hurlock, furgeon, now living in 
Colemanjlreet, London. 

To this is added, confiderations on the 
Newfoundland trade. 

XXVIII. Nova Francia: or the defcrip- 
tion of that part of New France, which is 
one continent with Virginia, defcribed in 
the three late voyages and plantations made 
by monfieur de Monts, monfieur du Pont- 
Grave, and monfieur de Poutrincourt, into 
the countries called by the Frenchmen, ha 
Cadia, lying to the fouth-weft of cape 
Breton, together with an excellent feveral 
treaty of all the commodities of the faid 
countries, and manners of the natural inha- 
bitants of the fame. 

The ftile of this defcription wants the 
politenefs of modern diction ; but its great 
variety of circumftances cannot chule both 
to be jnftrucling and entertaining : for here 
you find the French king's patent for the 
inhabiting of the countries of ha Cadia, 
Canada, and other places in New France-, 
the caufes of the ice banks in Newfound- 
land -, defcription of St. John's river and 
the ifle of St. Croix ; obfervations on the 
country difeafes, and winds met v/ith in 
that voyage : an account of the great bank 
of Morues or Cods, of the fifhing of New- 
foundland fifh ; of birds and of the caufes 
of frequent and long mills in the weftem 
ocean : a defcription of Port-Royal -, the 
exercifes and manner of living there, and 
a conjecture touching the head and fpring 
of the great river of Canada : the inftitu- 
tion of the order of Bons Temps ; and why 
rain is frequent between the Tropics : a 
a rain- bow appearing in the water ; and 
remarks on the great affection of the fa- 
vages towards their children ; on their re- 
ligion, phyfic and furgery, foothfayers, 
and invocation of the devil -, their language 
and ufe of letters ; cloathing, form, co- 
lour, ftature, and activity *, their paintings, 
marks, incifions, and ornaments of their 
bodies -, cuftoms, diet, fobriety, dances, 
fongs, exercifes both of men and women ; 
behaviour,virtues and vices ; hunting, hawk- 
ing, fifhing ; quality of the foil ; the end 
and manner of their making war ; and the 
manner of burials among thofe people. 

XXIX. A defcription of Surinam up- 
on the continent of Guiney, in America. 
This is a fhort but pleafing account of a 
moll delightful country, written by mr. - 
George Warren, who refided there three 
years. It is a brave country, fays he, 
and it may be truly faid to a mind un- 
tainted with ambition, no place is more ac- 
commodated, whether we regard health, a 
luxuriant foil, or kind women. And I have 
made it no defign of mine, either to hide 
the inconveniencies of the country, or to 
extol the happinefs thereof beyond truth. 


; . 



Introdu&ory Difcourfe, 



tfaiat is 9^'W "^ ^ ^ collections of this kind, tues, vices, learning, genius, and fchools. 
ivantingin H heretofore publiihed, being all, 4. Their cuftoms, marriages, and fune- 
ct^erCol- 11 or moft of them blamed for the rals. 5. Their language. 6. Their cj- 
le£hons. J^ want of fome geographical ob- vil government. 7. Their religion and ec- 
fervations, which fuch a work neceflarily clefiaftical polity. 8. Their towns and 
fuppofes to be of ufe to the reader ; I, to places of moft note. 9. Their moft re- 
avoid the like charge of omitting any markable hiftories: 10. Their famous 
thing that may be thought ufeful or enter- men, artifts, and inventions, &V. and, as 
taining, fhall beg leave to prefix the fol- a certain author obferves u.ftly, " Without 
lowing inftructions concerning geography. thefe illuftrations, geography would be 
Geogra- Geography, tho* it literally implies " only a mere fkeleton, or at beft a body, 
j>hy,what. no more than a defcription of the whole " on which nothing is vifible, but a dry 
earth, as far as it is known to us, is gene- u fkin compofed of finews and bones." 
rally intermixed with the political and na'- The figure of the earth has been the -ph fi- 
turalhijiory of countries, which is more in- iubjecT: of much controverfy, as well among gure of 
itructing and diverting to the reader than the modern as ancient geographers : but it che eartll « 
f K f\ meer g eo S ra P n y- Confequently its object is generally thought to be round-, becaufe, 
ts ° je ' are the things which are principally con- if its figure was cubical or prifmatical, or any 
fidered in every country, viz. 1. The ele- other than round, heat and light, fummer 
vation of the pole, the diftance of the and day could not fucceed cold and dark- 
place from the equator and the pole, nefs, winter and night, fo regularly and fo 

2. The obliquity of the diurnal motion gradually as they do; neither could we enjoy 
of the ftars over the horizon of the place, the winds. Befides, the fhadow of the earth 

3. The quantity of the longeft andfhorteft appears round in an eclipfe of the moon : 
Day. 4. The climate and zone. 5. Heat, Thofe who travel by fea, at firft lofe the 
cold, and the feafons of the year; alfo fight of the loweft, and then of the higheft 
rain, fnow, winds, and other meteors, things on (hore, till at laft they fee nothing 
6. The rifing, appearance, and continue- but fky and fea : And fuch as travel from 
anceof the ftars over the horizon. 7. The eaft to north difcover always before them 
ftars pafling through the vertical point of fome new ftars in the fky, whilft the ftars 
the place. Thefe are termed the celejlial behind them fet, and are, as it were, loft 
properties. And the following are the by them, untill they go back ; for then 
terrejirial ; viz. 1 . The limits. 2 . Figure, they begin gradually to fee again thofe ftars, 
3. Magnitude. 4. Mountains. 5. Wa- which they had as gradually before loft the 
ters, viz. kivers, fountains, and bays, fight of. But, be this as it will, it doei 
6. Woods and defarts. 7. Fruitfulnefs not fo much concern us" at prefent, as to 
and barrennefs, and the forts of fruit, inquire into the fituation, motion, fub- 
8. Minerals. 9. Animals. 10. The fiance and conftitution, dimenfions and 
longitude, of the place.^ To which are bignefs, and rheafurement of the earth, 
added, the human qualities of every coun- Of which in order : 

try and place; viz. 1 . The ftature, fhape, The terraqueous globe, according toThefku- 

complexion, length of life, origin and diet Ptolemy, and hrs difciples, is placed in the ation of 

of the inhabitants. 2. Their commerce, center of the world, in the middle of the theearth 

trades, and commodities. 3. Their vir- ftars and planets, in- the manner following, toTu/w 
Vol. I. B v j z . '*"*' 



ii An Introductory Difcourfe> 

viz. the Earth, the Moon, Mercury, Venus, 6. Nor would there be equinoxes. 7. Nor 
the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, the fixed when the moon rifes in an eclipfe, would 
Accord- Stars: But they that follow Copernicus, and the fun fet, &c. 8. Nor would an equal 
ing to Co- the ancient Pythagoreans, place the Sun in number of miles in the earth anfwer to 
pemicus J^ middle of the world, as the heart, and every degree of the heaven. 
? l& thC next t0 mm tne or ^ of Mercury, then Venus, To thefe arguments, the Copernicans an-Copemi- 
riatuf' the Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, the fwer thus: The firft and fecond are eafily»»' s *n- 
fixed Stars, and teach that rt is carried refuted, becaufe the motion of heavy things fvver * 
round the fun in one year. is not to the center of the world, but to 
Copemi- The Copemican hypothefis is grounded bodies of the fame nature; as is proved by 
cuis rea- on fafe reafons: The Sun is not only the the parts of the moon, fun and loadftone. 
fons ' fountain of light, to illuminate the Earth, The third is falfe, both in the major and 
the Moon, Venus, &c. But it is the focus minor •, for the center is a noble place, and 
of that heat, which giveth life to the ve- the earth not ignoble. The reft of the 
getive part of the creation, and nourifheth arguments are eafily confuted; at leaft if 
and fuftaineth the univerfe. this be pre-fuppofed, that tho' the diftance 
Again ; It is more reafonable to fuppofe of the earth from the fun or center be very 
the earth turns round the fun, than the fun great, yet if compared to the "diftance of 
round the earth ; becaufe the earth and the the fixed ftars from the fun, it is fo fmall, 
other planets receive light from the fun,but that it bears no proportion : And this by 
the fun receives nothing from it. Befides, fome is reckoned the great poftulatum in 
Suppofing the fun in the center, we are the Copemican aftronomy. All which will 
fflrnimed with a reafon how the earth and be better underftood in our inquiry coh- 
the reft of the planets are carried round him ; cerning the motion of the earth, 
for the fun being a vaft body and of great It is the received opinion of thofe that The mo- 
power and ftrength, puts the other orbs follow Ptolemy and Ariftotle, that the hea- "on of the 
in motion. - vens and the ftars are moved, and that the ^ Ie l° n ' 

They alfo argue, that if we place the earth ftands immoveable ; yet the Pythago- 

earth betwixt Mars and Venus, and the Sun reans of old, and the modern philofopher 

in the center, the motions of each of the Copernicus,y/ith other eminent aftronomers, 

planets commodioufly anfwer their di- maintain the contrary. Nor has any pro- 

ftance * from the center, and not other- perty of the earth been more warmly dif- 

wife. And puted than this. But I fhall not tire the 

Finally they infift that notwithftanding reader with the many arguments on both 

the diftance is varied, not only from the fides the queftion ; becaufe they may be all 

motion of the planets, but from the motion underftood by fumming up what Ptolemy 

of the earth, by their hypothefis ; yet that and his followers have advanced in their 

it is the beft method to explain the vari- own defence ; and then fubjoining the Py- 

ation of the diftances of the planets by. thagoreans Anfwer thus : 
Ptotemfs The Ariftotelians, and thofe who follow The contenders for the motion of theArgu- 

reafons, Pt l em y, offer the following arguments to fun and the liability of the earth in the men ' s ? 1 - 

prove the earth to be in the center: 1. Heavy center of the univerfe, argue ; gain lt ' 

things are carried to the center of the 1 . That the weight of the earth makes 

world ; but the earth is the heavieft body : it unfit for motion, 
therefore it is in the center. 2. Heavy 2. That the parts of the earth are na- 

things would defcend from the earth to- turally carried in a ftrait motion towards 

wards the center of the world, except the the center; therefore a circular motion is 

center were in the earth. 3. The center is contrary to its nature, 
the ignobleft place ; but the earth is the 3 . If the earth were moved, a ftone let 

moft ignoble place of the univerfe; there- fall from the top of a tower could not fall 

fore it is the center. 4. If the earth were at the foot of it. 

without the center of the world, and of 4. A bullet ftiot towards the weft at any 
the motions of the ftars, then the ftars and mark, or a bird flying weft ward to any 
conftellations would, at fome feafons and place, they could not hit it, if the mark 
days of the year, appear greater than at or place were moved with the earth to- 
others. 5. Neither would one half of the wards the eaft ; or at leaft they would reach 
heaven be always confpicuous ; fo that when it fooner than if the bullet were fhot to- 
Taurus rifes, Scorpius mould fet, &c, wards the eaft. 

5. Neither 

* Aftronomers reckon three degrees of diftance, viz. the leaft, the mean, and the greateft. The mean 
diftance of the earth, from the other planets, according to moft aftronomers, is thus: From the Moon, 60 
of its femi-diameters. From Mercury, no. From Venus, 700. From the Sun, 1150. From Mars f 
about 5000. From Jupiter, about 11000. From Saturn, 18000. But the diftance of M*rr, Jupittr, 
Saturn, and the fixed Stars, is very uncertain, becaufe of the want of the parallaxis. 

concerning Geography. iii 

5. Neither towers nor other buildings fpect to ourfelves ; and this change of fitu- 
could ftand, but mull be overturned by ation may both be obferved and have a 
fuch a motion ; and all men would be trou- being, whether we move with the earth, 
bled with a vertigo. or whether the ftars move, and we conti- 

6. Becaufe we fee plainly, fay they, that nue fix'd, or whether both we and the ftars 
the ftars change their places ; but we do do fo. 

not perceive that the earth does fo. Seventhly, they anfwer, That both the 

7. Becaufe the earth is in the center of major and the minor of the argument are 
the world, and the center is not moved. falfe, or at leaft doubtful. 

8. Becaufe the Scriptures aflert the fta- Eighthly they anfwer, 1. That the Scrip- 
bility of the earth. ture fpeaks in natural things according to 

Anfwer U To thefe arguments, the Copernicans an- appearance, and the capacity of the vul- 

fwer thus : gar : For inftance ; the moon as well as the 

Firfl, they deny the whole earth to be fun is called a great light, becaufe it was 

heavy; for gravity or weight is the ten- created to give light to the night; tho' the 

dency of the parts to the whole of the moon cannot be called great, if compared 

fame nature, and fuch a gravity is difco- to the ftars ; nor has it any light of its own, 

vered in the parts of the fun and moon ; or does illuminate the earth every ni<*ht. 

yet neither of them is faid to be heavy. So the Scripture fays, the fun <*oes from 

Secondly, they anfwer, That this ftrait the one end of the earth to the other, and 

motion is of tta parts of the earth, and returns again; whereas in truth there is 

not of the whole'; and that the circular no fuch end. So in the book of Job, a 

motion of the one does not hinder the rec- plain and fquare figure is afcribed to the 

tilineal motion of the other; which is plain earth, with pillars to fupport it ; yet we 

from the parts of the fun and moon. are certain that this muft not be underftood 

"Thirdly, they give three anfwers : 1 .That according to the letter of thofe Scriptures ; 
fuch heavy things are not primarily carried but with allowance to the foible of human 
to the center, but to the earth itfelf, and nature, which is apt to judge of all things 
therefore by the fhorteft line to its furface. according to their appearance; and to whofe 
The fhorteft is that which anfwers to the capacity God has vouchfafed to exprefshim- 
tower ; as iron tends not to the center of felf many times in fuch terms, by which 
the loadftone, but to the loadftone itfelf. he knew they were beft able to conceive his 
2. The whole air adheres to the earth, and will and Divine intention. So that if there 
is moved with it; therefore fuch heavy be found any defecl in the inftrument of 
things thrown down, do, together with the conveyance, it is not to be imputed to any 
earth, acquire its circular motion, and are ignorance or error in God, but to the weak- 
moved, as it were, in a veffel. 3. Gaf- nefs and incapacity of men to receive the 
fendus has demonftrated, by frequent ex- knowledge of God's word by any other 
periments, That if any thing be thrown way. But 

from a moving body, the thing thrown is It may be afked, How doth this motion Of the 

moved with the fame motion as the proceed? To which I anfwer, The motion different 

moving body; for inftance; a ftone thrown of the earth is different according to t he motionsof 
from the top of a maft of a fhip under difference of the places: For, the nearer theearth 
fail, falls down at the foot of the maft; any place is to the equator, with fo much 
and a bullet being fhot up perpendicularly the greater fwiftnefs it is moved; and the 
irom the foot of the maft, falls down a- nearer the pole, with fo much lefs fwift- 
gain perpendicularly: So that this objection nefs : Becaufe in 24 hours every place of 
has nothing in it. the world is turned round by the fpace of 

To the fourth objection they give the the whole circumference, viz. 360 degrees, 
fame anfwer as to the third. The fpace moved in 1 hour is found thus ; 

Fifthly they fay, There is no room for if we divide 360 by 24, the quotient will 
it, becaufe the motion of the earth is equal, be 15 degrees, the number by which a 
and it dafhes againft no other body ; and place lying in or out of the equator is 
buildings being heavy bodies, of the like turned round in 1 hour: And if the place 
nature with the earth, are moved with it, lie in the equator, they make 225 German 
as in a fhip; for if a fhip be moved (lowly miles; from whence, in 4 minutes, it is 
or fwiftly, if the motion be equal in calm turned round one degree, that is, 15 Ger- 
water without waves, we find that erefted man, or 16 Englifh miles ; and in one mi- 
bodies are not overturned by the motion ; nute, 31 German* or 5 Englifh miles, 
nor will a cup full of liquor on board any But places lying out of the equator, to- 
fhip fpill one drop. wards either of the poles, are in an hour's 

Sixthly, they anfwer, That the change time turned round fo many degrees, but 
of place m the ftars is not perceived, but fuch as are much lefs 3 for the proportion 
only the change of their fituation, with re- is the fame betwixt the fwiftnefs of the 


iv An Introductory Difcourje, 

motion, and the diftance of two places, as The dimenfions and bignejs of the earth Of the 

it is betwixt the fines of the arches by which hath exercifed the wits of the mod learned earth's di T 

thofe places are diftant from the pole : For men in all ages ; amongft whom I could ^ J°"* 

inftanee; the diftance of Amjlerdam from enumerate Anaximander, Eratojihenes, Ari- n ds. 

the equator, or the elevation of the pole, ftotle, Hipparchus, Pofidonius, Ptolemy, and 

is 52 degrees 23 minutes, therefore its di- Maimon, an Arabian king, who all differed 

ftance from the pole is 37 degrees 37 mi- in their computation in this matter ; and, 

nutes, whofe fine is 61037. Let us take tho' the moderns do not entirely agree 

another place in the equator,whofe diftance about the fame, I Ihall give you the opi- 

from the pole is 90 degrees, its fine is nions or calculations of thofe authors, who 

1 00000. But a place under the equator is have wrote upon this fubject with the moil 

in 4 minutes turned round 1 5 German miles, approbation : viz. Mr. Keil, in his exa- 

and in an hour 225. Therefore by the mination of Dr. Bur 'net's Theory, makes 

golden rule 5 the furface of the earth to be 17098 10 12 

Italian miles. The circumference of the 

As 1 00000 to 61037, fo 15 to 9 miles. eartn > according to the French meafure, 

Or thus: So is 225 to 137 miles. 123249600 Paris feet, or 2464914 Englijb 

miles. The mean femi-diamecer of the 

Therefore Amjierdam is turned round every earth is 196 1 5800 Paris feet, or 2933 

hour 137 German miles, and 9 miles in miles, of 5000 feet to a mile: but the 

every 4 minutes of time. And thus we earth is higher at the equator than at the 

may account for its motion in all other poles by 85200 feet, or 17 miles; fothat 

places. So that the radius of the earth may be taken in a 

Of the In the next place we fhall inquire con- round number as 200000000 feet. And the 

Parts thatcerning the fubjlance and confiitution of the folid content of the globe of the whole 

th mP0l h eart h* The m °ft approved opinion on earth is 30000.000000.000000,000000. 

* this fubject is, That the fublunary world cubick feet. But Mr. Senex in his mtro- 

is a compound of fire, air, water, earth. duction to geography fays, that according 

And the moft general divifion thereof is to the French meafures of M' Defer, which 

into dry, liquid, and atmofphere. In which are 36356814 French leagues, each league 

divifion earth is a term ufed for every thing of 2000 toifes of the chatelet of Paris, 

that is dry, and confifts of the following the dimenfions of the earth, reduced into 

parts; as, 1. Sand, loam, clay, and mi- Englijh miles, 4 are thus: A degree 69-^ En-> 

neral earths, chalk, cinnaber, ochre, Ter- glijh miles, the circumference of the earth 

ra-Lemnia, brought from the ifle of Lem- 2489811; the diameter 7925^ ; the Jemi- 

nos, called likewife Terra-Sigillata, earth diameter ^6il;t\\tfurfaceio^i 944743343 

of Samos, Armenia, and many other dif- Englijh miles fquare ; and the folidity 

ferent fpecies of earth. 2* Stones, of 7267,44272,66200,1370 Englijh cubic 

which there is great variety. 3. Metals* miles, that is, fo many fquare folid maffes 

as gold, filver, copper, tin* lead, mercury of a mile in length, breadth and thicknefs 

or quick -filver, or metalick ores ; fuch as each. 

of gold, filver, &c. 4. Sulphur* falts, In the measurement of the earth, as in Of the va- 

nitre, allom, bitumen, vitriol, antimony, our language we commonly reduce every rious / orts 

5. Herbs and animals. country by a fcale of miles, it will be pro- mi!es » 

To the water are referred * 1. Seas and per here to give you an account what fort f urement3 

the ocean. 2. Rivers and frefli water, of meafure a mile is. The Englijh have of the 

3. Lakes and marfhes. 4. Mineral waters, two forts of miles, computed and meafured : eartil - 

as baths, &c. Of the firft fort 50, and of the laft fort ^^ 

The atmojphere is that thin and fubtil or 60 make a degree. 'Tis a common opi- 

body, which encompaffes the earth towards nion, that 5 of our Englijh feet make a 

the heavens, and comprehends the air, geometrical pace, 1000 fuch paces make an 

clouds, rains, &c. Philofophers differ in Italian mile, and 60 of thofe miles, in any 

their opinion as to the height of the at- great circle upon the fpherical furface of 

mofphere : Kepler makes it 8 miles ; and the earth or fea, make a degree : So that 

Ricciolus makes it probable, that it is at a degree of the heavens contains upon the 

leaft 50 miles high. The late honourable furface of the earth, according to this ac- 

Mr. Boyle makes the common height of count, 60 Italian miles, 20 French oi J Dutch 

the atmofphere, when the mercury in the leagues, 15 German - miles, iyk Spanijh 

barofcope is at 30 inches, to be 7 miles ; leagues, and $6i Englijh ftatute miles. 
and other philofophers advance alfo their But, according to feveral experiments 

particular and different opinions and con- made, the quantity of a degree is varioufly 

jeetures upon this fubject ; which, I fup- accounted for, thus ; by Albazard, an Ara- 

pofe can't be difcovered to any certainty bian, 333333 Arabian feet in 1 degree,' 

by the moft learned in the laws of nature. which reduced to our Englijh meafure is 


concerning Geography. V 

•567283 feet, or 70 miles, and *|«» parts from the equator; or, properly fpeaking,The Iati- 
of a foot. By Ptolemy , 360000 Rheinland an arch of the meridian from the zenith of tude ot a 
feet, which reduced to our Englijh feet is, a place to the equator; or, which is the pl ? ce ' 
371900, or 70 miles gfi. By Wilkbror- fame, it is the elevation of the pole above W *' 
dus Snellius, anno 161 3, 342000 Rhein- the horizon of any place. They who are 
land feet; in Englijh 353306 feet, or 6y under the equator, have no latitude ; for 
miles. Norwood, by his experiment be- none of the poles are elevated above their 
twixt York and London, finds one degree horizon : But when we go from the equa- 
upon the earth to contain 367200 feet, tor towards any of the poles, one of the 
which makes 69^ Englijh miles. And poles afcends above the horizon, and the 
again, M r Picart, a. Frenchman, makes it other defcends. The latitudes of places 
about y^ Italian miles, and is the neareft are reckoned from the equator to the poles; 
meafure yet found by thefe experiments to tho* in every point of the meridian, and 
anfwer to a degree of the heavens, accord- in every point of the equator, different 
ing to the received opinion of geographers, degrees of latitudes and longitudes may be 
Yet notwithstanding this multiplicity of reckoned : Yet geographers, to avoid con- 
calculations it is commonly affirmed, that a fufion, have reckoned 90 degrees from the 
degree of latitude or longitude on the equator to the north pole ; and from the 
equator contains no more than 60 common north pole to the equator, in the fame he^ 
Italian, Englijh, and Turkijh miles: 20 mifphere, 90 degrees, which make 180. 
ordinary (or of an hour's journey) leagues And the fame way they reckon 1 80 de- 
in France : 1 y\ Spanijh or Butch leagues grees for the fouthern hemifphere, which 
or miles; 15 German and Polijh miles; make up 360, the number of degrees every 
12 common Danijh, Swedijh, and Swifs circle contains. But the degrees of longi- 
leagues; 10 Hungarian miles; 80 voerfts tude are reckoned from the firft meridian 
of Mufcovy or Rujfia, each containing 750 from weft to eaft, quite round the globe • 
paces ; 20 Per/tan, Arabian, and Egyptian and the reckoning ends at the firft meri- 
parafanguas ; 25 Indian coffes, or 121 gofs; dian where it began, at 360 degrees. The 
250 Chinefe lys,* or 25 Chine fe pus ;f 400 degrees of longitude are reckoned upon the 
Japan inks, or 30 Japan miles ; 480 Greek equator ; tho' they might alfo be reck- 
ftadia of 1 25 paces each ; 2 American jour- oned on the parallel circles of latitude, 
nies and diets of 15000 paces each ; 3 Afri- The Longitude of a place is an arch of The Ion- 
can and Arabian ftations of 20000 paces each, the equator betwixt one place and another g itu <k of 
Thefe are the common meafures, which are or the diftance of one place from another' a place » 
now in ufe throughout the known world. But, from weft to eaft. The places more eaft- what * 
before I conclude this feclion of meafures, ward have noon fooner than the places more 
I fhall add fomething of latitude and Ion- to the weft, becaufe they have different 
gitude, and of the meridian and equator. longitudes. A place 1 5 degrees more to 
Of longi- a s the earth is a globe, in a ftricl: fenfe, the eaft than another, will have noon one 
latitude. lt can neitner have longitude nor latitude ; hour fooner than another place. One de- 
yet geographers, for very good reafons, gree of longitude under the equator is 
have introduced the doctrine of longitude reckoned about 60 Italian miles ; but the 
and latitude : And the ufefulnefs of know- further you go from the equator, either 
ing the longitude and latitude of a place, northward or fouthward, a degree of Ion- 
is great ; for when we know that, we gitude contains fewer miles : For inftance, 
know the fituation of it by feaor land.§ under the equator, one degree of longi- 
The ancient geographers knew more of tude contains 25 French leagues ; but at 
the world from weft to eaft, than they did Paris, one degree of longitude contains 
from fouth to north; therefore they had only 16 French leagues. Under the poles 
more degrees of longitude than latitude, they have no longitude, becaufe all the 
In Ptolemy's, time, there were only 80 de- meridians or circles of longitude meet there 
grees of latitude, taking in all then known in a point. We refer to the following 
on both fides the equator ; whereas they table, to fhew the number of miles a de^ 
had 180 degrees of longitude. gree of longitude contains, with regard to 
The Latitude of a place is its diftance the different latitudes of places 
Vol. I. C j 

* A Ly is the fpace as far as a man, crying aloud in a plain, may be heard in a calm day ; and is fup- 
pofed to be 300 paces. 

f A Pu contains 10 Lys. And befides thefe, the Chinefe reckon by Ucbans; one of which contains 
10 Pus. 

$ For which reafon the greateft part of the trading people in Europe, as the Englijh, French, and Dutch, 
have offered a reward of 50000 florins to thofe who fhall find it out. 


An IntroduBoYy Difcourfe, 

STABLE of the Quantity of one Degree in every Parallel 

| Perches 

Holland | German \ Jtatian 

j /« cw 

Miles and I Miles 

and 1 Mile. 

■ and 

1 Degree. 

Perches. | Minutes. | Minutes. 

Latitude 28 500 



O 60 
























5 2 





























[ 4 
















l 4 












1 1 







5 2 


















2 7653 



















2 5 






2 55 


















1 1 













x 7 

1 1 07 
















4 b 








4 2 



2 S 















2 7 

2 5394 


J 394 








1 164 


















S 1 

















5 2 



! 5 























2 3°57 






3 2 





1 1 















1 149 









1 1 








J 9 




21 180 


















1 001 





45 \ 





3 6 ' 

f 2 


| Perches 


German I Ital 


| in one 


s and 

Miles and Miles 


j Decree. 


Minutes, j Minutes. 



'979 8 i'3 






'9437 j 1 3 





19070 jiz 







18698 ji 2 



5 C 











5 1 


I I 







17546 n 







I I 



























2 o 






















1 1 79 

































2 7 



















1 1592 







6 7 






2 3 









3 2 


1 02 1 3 




































2 3 

l 7 





34 6 











! 5 









3 2 

641 1 


41 1 











1 2 

3 2 








1 1 




















3966 j 






20 I 








20 I 

































995 ° 

3 1 





497 © 









Where to But the queftion will be, where to fix the 
firft meridian ;* for the moft fkilful geo- 
graphers have differed in this alfo : Pto- 
lemy and the ancients placed it at the Ca- 
nary iflands ; fome Arabians place it at the 
ftreightsof Gibraltar \ fome moderns place 
it at the Tercera ; others at the iflands of 

Cape Verde, or at the Cape Verde itfelf ; 
while others, efpecially the Dutch, fix it at 
the pike of Teneriffe: The Spaniards carry 
it to Toledo ; the Portuguefe to Lijbon ; and 
with as much propriety the authors of the 
New General Atlas have taken the liberty 
to fix it at London ; yet in moft of the 


* The meridian is a great circle, which palling through the two poles dividelh the globe into two equal 
parts, called the eaftern and weftern hemifpheres. And derives its name from meridies or medius dies (i. e. 
mid-day) becaufe when the fun reflects dire&ly upon that circle, it is noon to allthofe places which are in that 
part of the circle whereupon the fun fhines, and mid-night to all thofe places of the inferior hemifphere 
which are fituate diametrically oppofite thereto. 

Concerning Ge ography. 


French and Ehglijh maps the firft meridian 
is placed at the ifland of Fero, which is the 
mod weftern of the Canary lflands. So 
that as it is placed in fo many different 
places, you mull remember to adjuft your 
computations found in different authors by 
this table, viz. The diftance of longitude 
from the pike of Tenerijfe is, 

deg. min. 
To Toledo 15 53 

Graciofa 10 16 
Tercera 9 00 

Fero 2 50 

Corvo 13 25 

St. Michael's 8 1 5 

London ab'. 18 00 
and fromFero loLondon 21 00 

Theequa- The Equator is the great circle upon the 
tor, what. globe,which is equally diftant from the two 
poles, and alfo divideth the earth into two 
equal parts, by fome called the Equinoctial 
Line ; becaufe the fun being perpendicular 
over this circle, the days and nights are 
equal in all the parts of the earth : and 
by others, efpecially fea-faring men, it is 
by way of excellency (tiled the Line, as be- 
ing the chief of all the circles or lines fup- 
pofed in the terreftrial globe. Its ufes are, 
1. To diftinguifh between the fouthem 
and northern hemifpheres. 2. It mews when 
the fun is on the equinoctial points, that 
he makes fpring or autumn to all the parts 
of the world, but at different times, as the 
fpring to the northern, when autumn in the 
fouthern hemifphere, and fo on the con- 
trary. 3. It alfo fhews on its circle the 
360 chief meridians or degrees of longitude, 
which is the only place where they are 
equal to the degrees of latitude, &c. 

Thus far we have confidered thofe ne- 
ceffary preliminaries which every reader of 
geographical hiftory ought to be acquaint- 
ed with, before he proceeds to view the 
globe, either as divided by the ocean., or 
into diftinct eftates or countries. 
The divi- The furface of the earth Handing out of 
fionof the the fea, is what I mall chiefly confine my- 
felf to, which by the interflux of the fea is 
divided into thefe four parts, viz. 

I. Into four great Continents, namely, 

IOn the north, by the 
northern, frozen, and 
Tartarian fea ; on the 
eaft by the Pac.fick 
and Indian lea ; on the 
fouth, by the &»tfft feat 
and on the weft, by the 
Atlantick ocean. 


rDavis's ftreights, on the 

- 3 \north j the Atlantick o- 

the eaft : the 


cean, on 

2. The New 

world, or A 

merica, fub- 

divided into ' "g ^Magellanick ftreights, on 

northern and\ o / the fouth •, and the Pa- 

fouthern, -> ^cifick fea, on the weft. 

3. The land about the north pole, or 
Greenland, which is encompaffed on all fides 
by the fea and ftreights. 

4. The fouth land, or land of Magellan^ 
not yet difcovered. 

II. The fecond divifion is peninfula's, 
or cherfonefi, which are parts of thefe con- 
tinents, and join'd to them by narrow necks 
of land : They are divided into round, ob- 
long, and into fuch as have an affinity with 

The round r Africa. 

ones,whofe \Peloponnefus, or the Morea ; 

latitude and J the Cherfonefus of Grecia. 

longitude ^Cherfonefus Taurica, or Tarta- 

are almoft / ria Precopenjis. 

equal, are ^Cambaia. 

are ma- 
ny in 


have an 
to pen- 

1. The Golden Cherfonefus, or 
Malacca, adjoining to India. 

2. Cimbrica, or Jutland, adjoin- 
ing to Holflein. 

3. Corea, adjoining to Tartary. 
4j 5. North and South America. 
6, 7, 8. California, Jucatan, the 

Cherfonefus of Thracia. 
g, 10. New France, Ionia, Cni- 
. denfis, MyndenJiSi 

Italy, Greece, Achaia, Spain, Afia 
Minor, Arabia, Norway, with 
Sweden and Lapland-, Beach i 
a country of Magellan ; New 
Guinea, Indoftan, Cochinchina, 
New England, Monomotapa, 
and Cambaia. 


III. The third divifion is ifiands, 
which there are, 




f Great Britain, Japan, I/land, 
< Canada, Sumatra, Madagafcar, 
(_ Borneo,NovaZembla,California. 



Sicily, Ireland, Hifpaniola, Cuba, 
Java Major, Celebes, Crete, Lu- 
conia, Sardinia, Frifeland, Terra 
Nova near New France, Min- 
danao, and Ceilon. 



An IntroduBory Dijcourje, 

5GH0I0, Amboina, Timor^ lie a- 
mong the Indian illands. 
Corfica, Majorca, Cyprus, Ne- 
1M,V *^ gropont,lk in theMediterranean. 

ones; jj)anijh Zealand, and Jamaica, 
C which iie in the bay of Mexico. 

f i. Thofe of mod note which lie 
alone, as Rhodes-, Malta, Lem- 
nos, St. Helens* St. Thomas's, 
Madeira, &c. 
:. Thofe which lie together in 
great numbers very near one 
another,v/z. the Canary iflands, 
the Caribbee iflands, the Hef- 
perides, thofe in the bay of 
Mexico, the Maldiva iflands, 
thofe about Madagafcar, the 
Molucca's, and ifles of Banda ; 
the Philippine iflands, thofe of 
Japan, the ifles of Theeves, 
thofe of the ALgecm fea, thofe 
about Great-Britain, and the 
iflands of Solomon. 


IV. The fourth divifion is ifihmi, or 
narrow necks of land, which are thofe be- 
twixt Egypt and Arabia, or betwixt Africa 
and Ajta ; the Corinthian ifihmus, betwixt 
Peloponnefus and Achaia ; the ifthmus of 
Panama, or Darien, in America, the longeft 
of them all ; that betwixt Jutland and Hol- 
fiein ; that betwixt Malacca and India, Sec. 

The God of nature having thus divided 
the vaft furface of the earth ; and with 
natural boundaries diftinguifh'd every part 
of the globe, and, as it were, allotted each 
part to particular ufes and governments, I 
fhall now fhew the climate of each country, 
and then the origin of mankind, and the 
manner how each of thefe divifions of the 
world were peopled. And 
Of the Firft, Of the * climates ; which are 
different reckoned from the equator to the poles. 
climates. Under the equator the day is always 1 2 
hours in length, and under the polar circle 
the day never exceeds 24 hours. Geogra- 
phers have made 24 climates betwixt the 
equator and each of the polar circles, be- 
caufe there are 24 half hours of difference 
betwixt the length of the day under the 
equator, and the longeft day under the 
polar circles : So that any place having 
its longeft day half an hour longer or fhorter 
than that of another place, is of a different 
climate. The firft climate begins at the 
equator : The fecond begins where the 

the longeft day is 1 2 hours and an half; 
and the third, where the longeft day is 
13 hours ; and fo on. 

The firft climate begins at the equator, 
and ends at 8 degrees 34 minutes of nor- 
thern latitude : The longeft day is i2i 
hours. It comprehends the Molucca, Mal- 
diva, and Sumatra ifles, in the Eaft-Indies. 

The fecond climate begins at 8 degrees 
3 4 minutes of northern latitude, and reaches 
to 16 degrees 43 minutes. Their longeft 
day is 13 hours. It comprehends Abyjfmia, 
Aden, Siam, Coromandel, and the ifle of 

The 3d climate reaches from 16 degrees 
43 minutes to 24 degrees 1 1 minutes. 
Their longeft day is 131 hours. It 
contains Mecca, Arabia Falix, Bengal* 
Mexico, and Tonquin. 

The 4th climate is betwixt 24 degrees 
1 1 minutes, and 30 degrees 47 minutes. 
Their longeft day is 14 hours. It paflfes 
over Ormus in Perjia, Agra belonging to 
the Great Mogul, Focheu in China, Alex- 
andria in Egypt, and the Canary iflands. 

The 5th climate is extended from 30 
degrees 47 minutes, to 36 degrees 30 mi- 
nutes. Their longeft day is 141. hours. 
It comprehends Babylon, Tunis in Barbary, 
Nicojfia in the ifle of Cyprus, Nankin in 
China, Rhodes, Ijpahan in Perjia, and 

The 6th climate begins at 36 degrees 
30 minutes, and ends at 41 degrees 22 mi- 
nutes. The longeft day is 1 5 hours. To 
this climate belong Lijbon in Portugal, Pa- 
lermo in Sicily, Madrid in Spain, and Me- 
chet in Portugal. 

The 7th climate is from 41 degrees 
22 minutes, to 45 degrees 29 minutes. 
Their longeft day is 1 51 hours. It com- 
prehends Marfeilles, Rome, Conftantinople* 
and Tanchut. 

The 8 th climate is from 45 degrees 29 
minutes, to 49 degrees 1 minute. The 
longeft day is 16 hours. Paris, Vienna, 
the Crim Tartars, and the Eaftern Tartars, 
are in this climate, 

The 9 th climate is from 49 degrees 1 
minute to 51 degrees 58 minutes. Their 
longeft day is 16*; hours. London, Prague 
in Bohemia, Cracow in Poland, Rouen* 
Amiens, Francfort, belong to this climate. 

The 10th climate is from 51 degrees 58 
minutes, to 54 degrees 29 minutes. 17 
hours is their longeft day. This climate 
contains York, Dublin, Amfterdam, War- 
faw a and New France. 


* A climate is a fpace of earth, contained between two parallels diftant from the equator towards either 
pole: Hence climates are fo called, becaufe of their declination from the equator; forafmuch as they are to 
be accounted as fo many fcales of afcents to and from the equator. Tho' fome have defined a climate from 
its ufe, which is chiefly to diflinguifli the longeft time of the artificial day ; becaufe at the point of every 
climate truly taken, the longeft day is varied half ao hour. 

concerning Geography, 


The nth climate is from 54 degrees 
29 minutes, to 56 degrees 37 minutes. 
Their longeft day is 174 hours. It con- 
tains Edinburgh^ Vilna in Lithuania, Smo- 
lenjko on the Boryfthenes in the weft oi Muf- 
covy, and the Tartars of Mordwa. 

The 1 2th climate begins at §6 degrees 
37 minutes, and reaches to 58 degrees 26 
minutes. Their longeft day is 18 hours. 
Aberdeen, Copenhagen, and Riga, are in 
this climate. 

The 13th climate is from 58 degrees 26 
minutes, to 59 degrees 59 minutes. Their 
longeft day is 18?; hours. Stockholm, and 
Revel in Livonia, are in this climate. 

The 14th climate is from 59 degrees 59 
minutes to 61 degrees 18 minutes. The 
longeft day is 19 hours. This climate 
paffes through the Orkney iflands of Scot- 
land, Anjloie in Norway, and Mufcovy. 

The 15th climate is from 61 degrees 18 
minutes, to 62 degrees 25 minutes. Their 
longeft day is 19A hours. Bergen in Nor- 
way, Nottemburg in Finland, and Ouftioug 
in Mufcovy, are in this climate. 

The 1 6th climate begins at 62 degrees 
25 minutes, and* ends at 63 degrees 23 
minutes. Their longeft day is 20 hours. 
Ferma-Welick, a town of Mufcovy, belongs 
to this climate. 

The 1 7th climate is from 63 degrees 23 
minutes, to 64 degrees 16 minutes. The 
longeft day is 204. hours. This cli- 
mate paffes through the country of Fin- 
land, belonging to the Swedes. 

The 1 8 th climate is from 64 degrees 16 
minutes, to 64 degrees $5 minutes. Their 
longeft day is 21 hours. Drontheim in 
Norway belongs to this climate. 

The 1 9th climate is from 64 degrees 55 
minutes, to 65 degrees 25 minutes. Their 
longeft day is 214 hours. Tobel in Siberia 
belongs to it. 

The 20th climate is from 65 degrees 25 
minutes, to 65 degrees 47 minutes. The 
longeft day is 22 hours. The north of 
Finland belongs to it. 

The 2 1 ft climate is from 65 degrees 47 
minutes, to 66 degrees 6 minutes. The 
longeft day is 221 hours. Torna in Bothnia, 
a confiderable harbour belonging to the 
Swedes, is in this climate. 

The 2 2d climate is from 66 degrees 6 
minutes, to 66 degrees 20 minutes. The 
longeft day is 23 hours. Caienbourg in 
Mufcovy belongs to this climate. 

The 23d climate is from 66 degrees 20 
minutes, to 66 degrees 28 minutes. The 
longeft day is 234 hours. Skalhot in IJland 
is in this climate. 

The 24th climate is from 66 degrees 28 
minutes, to 66 degrees 3 1 minutes. Their 
longeft day is 24 hours. This climate 
paffes through Hola, a fmall town of IJland. 

Vol. I. 

To know what climate any place is in* 
fee how many hours the longeft day of that 
place is more than 12, the number of half 
hours contained in the difference, is the 
number of climates that place is diftant 
from the equator; 

There are alfo 24 climates in the fouth- 
ern hemifphere : The ancients did not 
reckon fo many climates* becaufe they 
thought the places beyond their own num- 
ber of climates were quite defolate ; little 
of the world being then known. They 
had only 7 climates •, their ift climate paf- 
fed through Meroe, an ifland and city in 
the Nile in Africa ; the 2d climate went 
by Siene, a city of Egypt ; the 3d climate 
by Alexandria, a city of Egypt ; the 4th 
climate by the ifland Rhodes ; the 5th cli- 
mate by Rome ; the 6th climate by the 
Euxine fea •, and the 7th by the mouth of 
the Boryfthenes. Strabo adds two more : 
He tells us, the 8 th climate went through 
the Palus-Maotis ; but does not tell us 
where the 9th ended. 

Near the equator, the climates are very 
much larger than towards the polar cir- 
cles -, the firft climate is 8 degrees 34 mi- 
nutes broad ; the 24th climate is but 3 mi- 
nutes in breadth. To explain this inequa- 
lity, it muft be obferved, That in a right 
fphere, which is under the equator, the 
half of the tropic of Cancer, which is be- 
low the horizon, is divided into 48 equal 
parts ; each of thefe parts confift of 3 de- 
grees and 45 minutes, which make one 
quarter of an hour : The tropic of Cancer 
has one of thefe parts, which is neareft 
the horizon on the eaft fide, and another 
neareft the horizon on the weft fide. Thefe 
two parts together make up one half hour, 
which is the diftance of one climate from 

This being laid down, it is eafy to con- 
ceive, that the inequality of the extent of 
the climates proceeds from the more or 
lefs oblique interferon of the tropic by the 
horizon, according to the different eleva- 
tion of the pole. The ancients made no 
account of the climates on the fouth fide 
of the equator, becaufe they had no know- 
ledge of thofe places. 

There are 48 climates in all, viz. 24 
betwixt the polar circle and the equator, in 
the northern hemifphere; and as many 
betwixt the equator and the polar circle, in 
the fouthern hemifphere ; which are called 
climates of hours. The 1 2 climates be- 
twixt the polar circles and the poles, are 
called climates of months, becaufe the 
longeft day in the fecond climate is one 
full month longer than the longeft day of 
the firft climate. 

The firft climate begins at 66 degrees 

3 1 minutes northern latitude, and ends at 

D 69 degrees 

An Introductory Difcourfe, 

6q decrees 48 minutes. The longeft day The Period are thofe who dwell in the 

is one month, or 31 days, without night, fame parallel circle of latitude, but in op- 

This paffes through Lapland, belonging to polite points of the fame, viz. in oppofite 

Mufc&vy. meridians. Hence it is, That when the 

The 2d climate begins at 69 degrees 48 one, viz. thofe who are 180 degrees of 

minutes, and ends at 73 degrees 37 mi- longitude further eaft, have noon, the other 

nutes. They have day without night for 2 have midnight •, their days are of equal 

months, or 62 days. This climate paffes length, their feafons are the fame, becaufe 

through Greenland, a country fo cold, that the fame pole is equally elevated in both 

the &a is almoft conftantly frozen there, places : But in places that belong to the 

The 3d climate begins at 73 degrees 37 frigid zone, this difference of day and 

minutes, and ends at 78 degrees 30 mi- night is not obferved, becaufe the fun is 

nutes. They have a day of 3 months, or 24 hours or more above their horizon. 

93 days. This climate belongs to the The Antiaci are thofe who live under 

fouth part of Nova Zembla. the fame Meridian, but in oppofite paral- 

The 4th climate begins at 78 degrees 30 lei circles of latitude, and they are equally 

minutes, and ends at 84 degrees 5 minutes, diflant from the equator ; fo if one live in 

They have a day of 4 months continuance, a northern latitude, the other live in a 

without any night. This climate paffes fouthern, and have the fame elevation of 

through the north part of Nova Zembla. different poles, they have noon and mid- 

The 5th climate begins at 84 degrees 5 night at the fame time ; but it is not fo as 

minutes, and ends at 90. They have a to the rifing and fetting of the fun. The 

day of 5 months, or 155 days. feafons of the year are alfo oppofite-, for 

The 6th climate is at 90 degrees. The when it is winter in the one place, it is 

day there is of 6 whole months, i. e. 186 fummer in the other; and when the one 

days, or 4464 hours. And this brings me has the longeft days, the other has the 

neceffarily to treat of the inhabitants of the fhorteft. 

earth, fo far as they are to be diftinguifhed The Antipodes are the people who are 

by the pofition of the fphere, or by the diametrically oppofite one to another, at 

differences of their fun-Jhadows, when the the diilance of one half of the circumfe- 

By what fun is in its meridian : In which diftinc- rence of the earth : They have contrary 

names the t j on tne y reC eive the following names, Af- parallels and meridians. If the one place 

tamtof "'» Heterofcii, Perifcii, Amphijcii, Periaci, have fo much fouthern latitude, their An- 

thediffcr- Antiatci and Antipodes. tipodes have the fame northern latitude ; 

ent cli- The Afiii are thofe who live betwixt the their meridians are 1 80 degrees diflant. 

mates are e q Uator an d the tropics, who fome days in Hence it is, That when the one have night, 

^uifhed tne > Tear > w ^ en t ^ ie ^ un * s * n ^ e mer ^i an » tne ot ^ er h ave ^ a y » w ^ en f ^ e one h ave 

SJ1 e ' have no fhadow at all. Thofe under the fummer, the other have winter. Our 

equator, the two days of the equinoxes, Antipodes can fee no more of our ftars, than 
have no fhadow at noon, the beams of the we can of theirs ; and the ftars that never 
fun falling then perpendicular. Thofe fet to us, never rife to them, 
under the tropic of Cancer, when the fun The ancients could not believe the doc- 
is in the firft degree of that 'fign, have no trine of the Antipodes ; fo that whoever 
fhadow at noon : The tropic of Capricorn maintained that opinion in the firft times 
the like. At other times, under the tro- of chriftianity, were accounted hereticks. 
pic of Cancer, their fhadow at noon points Virgilius, bifhop of Saltzburg, in 745, upon 
to the north ; but, under that of Capricorn, the complaint of Boniface, archbifhop of 
towards the fouth •, and then they are Mentz, to the duke of Bohemia, and af- 
called Heterofcii. The fame in both the terwards to pope Zachary, was by him con- 
temperate zones. demned of herefy on that account ; as 

The Perifcii are thofe whofe fhadow, in Aventinus fays. Annal. Boicis, Lib. 3. 

24 hours, is carried round all the points The venerable Bede reckoned the opi- 

of the compafs. The inhabitants of the nion of the Antipodes a mere fable. Lac- 
frigid zones, the fun being fome time of tantius and Auguftine were of the fame 

the year all the 24 hours above their hori- mind ; and it is no wonder, fince they 

zon, are fo called. thought the earth was fliaped like a table. 

TheAmpbifcii have their fhadow at noon, Thofe who live under the equinoctial, 
fometimes towards the north, and fome- . have no people who are their Antiaci. 

times towards the fouth. The inhabitants Periaci and Antipodes under the equator 

of the torrid zone are therefore called by are the fame. All which will better ap- 

this name. pear from the infpection of the globe, a 

The people of the earth, with refpect draught of which is inferted at the top of 

to their fituation, are Period, Antiaci, and the page enfuing. 

Antipodes, Having 

concerning Geography. 


Merid ian 

Of the Having hitherto confined my pen to the 
origin of natural affections of the earth, I fhall now 
mankind. p roceec j to treat Q f tne c j v ^ or f J ts m _ 

habitants, both in regard of their original 
and difpofition. Now the original is the 
offspring whence all inhabitants took their 
beginning, from whence they afterwards 
became divided. But 

Concerning the original of people, firft, 
let it be obferved, that all the inhabitants 
of the earth have a three-fold original or 
beginning ; the firft was from the creation ; 
the fecond was immediately after the de- 
luge, or Noah's, flood -, and the third is 
\ the firft ftock or original of each feveral 
nation : Tho' at prefent I fhall only treat 
of the two former, leaving the laft till I 
come to give a particular account of thofe 
nations to be defcribed in the courfe of this 
work. And in this I fhall take care to 
advance nothing but upon the authority of 
good hiftorians, and moft judicious obfer- 

The firft inhabitants of the earth were 
planted in Paradife, and thence tranfmitted 
to the places near adjoining, as no body 
can doubt, who believes the Divine Au- 
thority of the word of God : Therefore 

For the confirmation of this point, we 
need no farther proof than the authority 
of God himfelf, fpeaking in his word, 
whereon all truth is grounded : But of the 
place of Paradife, where we place the firft 

habitation, fundry difputes have been 
amongft divines, iufficiently examined by 
a judicious and worthy writer * in his hif- *^Waher 
tory of the world. Which treatife, being Ralegh. 
too tedious to infert, we will contract as 
far as concerns our purpofe. Firft there- 
fore let us examine their opinion, which 
hold this hiftory of Paradife to be a mere 
allegory: Of this opinion were Origen, 
Philo Judaus, Fran. Georgius, with many 
others •, who, by the four rivers of Para- 
dife, would have us underftand the four 
cardinal virtues ; as by the tree of knowledge % 
wifdom: To which opinion alfo, St. 
Ambrofe feems to adhere, who would have, 
that by Paradife fhould be meant the foul 
or mind, by Adam the underftanding, by 
Eve the fenfe, by the ferpent delectation, 
and by the trees, the virtues of the 
mind. But againft this opinion many rea- 
fons may be drawn, to prove there was a 
true local Paradife eaftward ; firft out of the 
text itfelf, which falth,For out of the ground 
made the Lord God to grow every tree plea- 
fant to the fight, and good for meats; by 
which it feems, that God firft created man 
out of the garden, as it were in the world 
at large, and then put him in this garden ; 
the end whereof is exprefied to drefs and 
manure it : Paradife being a garden filled 
with plants and trees, pleafant to behold, 
and good for meat ; which proveth that 
Paradife was a ten eft rial garden. Secondly, 


xii An Introductory Difcourfe, 

to exprefs it more plainly, he averreth that Mofes fays, a river went from Eden, and 
it was water'd with a river fpringing out of from thence was parted into two heads. 
a region called Eden, being a country near This river, according to the belt ac- 
unto Canaan in Mefopotamia, as Ezekiel counts, was a conjunction of Euphrates 
witnefTeth. Thirdly, Epiphanius and St. and Tigris, which meet in Apamia, ac- 
Hierome urge to this effect ; If Paradife cording to Ptolemy ; which, the learned Bo- 
were fuch an allegory, then were there no chart fays, is the place now by the Arabians 
rivers, no place out of which they fprung, called Alcatfar, about 45 miles from Bag- 
no Eve, no Adam, and fo the whole hif- dat ; and then they run together for a 
tory mould be turned into a mere fable, or great way. 'Tis probable, this united 
poetical fiction. Fourthly, it is proved by ftream ran through the country of Eden, 
a continuation of the fame ftory : i.Becaufe and that the garden lay on the eaft-fide 
God gave Adam free-will to eat of every of it, and its fouthern boundary at the 
tree of the garden (the aforefaid tree ex* parting again of the two rivers, 
cepted) ; befides, he left all the beafts of This river, Mofes fays, became into 4 
the earth to be named by him, which can- heads, which Sir Walter Ralegh under- 
hot be meant of imaginary trees and beafts ; ftands to be ftreams ; and thefe 4 ftreams 
for this were to make the whole creation were called Tigris and Euphrates before 
(enigmatical. 2. This name is often ufed they joined, and Pijhon and Gihon after- 
in Holy Scripture elfewhere, as in Ezek. wards. Pijhon was probably the weftern 
xxxi. 9. Gene /is xiii. 19, which would not river Pafitigris, the fame with Oroatis, 
have been fo, if the whole ftory had been according to Salmafius, Sir Walter Ralegh 
merely allegorical, and Paradife an Utopia % and Bochart. Mr. Carver obferves from 
fince the Scriptures, efpecially the hiftori- Xenophon, that this river was call'd fimply 
cal part of them, are written in a plain Phyfeus ; and Bochart fays, there was a 
ftile, fitting the capacity of vulgar auditors, place called Pafinwn lying near Euphrates : 
Lattly, of this Paradife planted in the eaft, In all which names, there are fome foot- 
we may find fome footfteps in prophane fteps of the name Phifon or Pifon. Mofes 
poets, as in Homer, Orpheus, Linus, Pin- informs us, in the 2d of Genefis, that this 
darus, Hefiod, who often fpeak of Alcinous River encompafs'd the whole land of Ha- 
garden, and the Elifian fields-, all which vilah : And, in the 10th of Genefis y he 
derived their firft invention from this de- mentions two Havilah'' s, one defcended 
fcription of Paradife, recorded by Mofes in from Joktan, ver. 29. but this cannot be 
Holy Scripture; whereof the heathens them- the Havilah here mentioned, becaufe his 
felves had fome obfcure traditions. pofterity were planted eaftward ; but the 

But to pafs over all the authorities,which other Havilah, mentioned ver. 7. is faid 

the poets in particular, and fome of the to be defcended from Cufh, and gave rife 

heathen philofophers can furnifh us with to a more weftern people, feated on that 

to enforce it, I fhall rather chufe to illuf- part of Arabia Felix which borders on this 

trate this argument from Mofes himfelf, ftream; for we read, Gen.xxv. 18. that 

from whofe writings, it muft be confeffed, the Ifhmaelites, who were certainly inhabi- 

they borrowed thofe hints of a Paradife, tants of Arabia Deferta, are bounded by 

and the origin of man, which they have Shur towards Egypt, and by Havilah in 

recorded to pofterity in difguife. the way to Affyria : And after this, we 

Mofes's account of the fituation of Para- read, 1 Sam. xv. 7. that Saul found 

dife, the original feat and dwelling-place of Havilah in the fame Situation. The next 

our firft parents, is very particular. He tells ftream Mofes calls Gihon, of which name 

us,That it was in Eden eaftward, /. e. eaft* there are fcarce any footfteps left ; but by 

ward from Judea, or from the defart of the the country 'tis faid to encompafs, it muft 

Amorites, where he wrote his account. Some be the eaftern divifion of the river after its 

are of opinion, that the name Eden is de- parting at Eden. This country he calls 

rived from the pleafantnefs of the place. Ethiopia, or Cufh, by which we are not to 

We read of the country of Eden in feveral underftand that Ethiopia in Africa, but 

places of Scripture, as in 2 Kings xix. 12. Ethiopia in Afi 'a : For the ancients mention 

Ifa. xxxvii. 12. Ezek. xxvii. 23. and this two Ethiopia's, as Bochart informs us ; and 

lay eaftward of Judea. That it was part of Steph. Morinus, in his treatife of Paradife y 

the kingdom ot Affyria, feems plain from proves it to be the country of Sufiana, 

2 Kings xix. 12. and that kingdom con- which the Greeks call K'ura-ia, : and the 

tained anciently not only the country then Perfians at this time call it Chuzeflan, or 

called Afhur, but alfo Mefopotamia, Babylo- the country of Chus. 

nia, &c. And Dr. Patrick, Biftiop of Ely, The name of the 3d river, Mofes fays, 

in his Commentary on Genefis, alledges, is Hiddekel ; which in Dan. x. 4. is called 

That Paradife was fituated in part of the the great river,and therefore muft be Tigris. 

latter; tho' moft authors think it was in Rauwolf, in his travels, p. 11. c. 9. fays, 

Mefopotamia. that 

concerning Geography. 

* 1 * 


that in his time, the river Tigris was by 
the people of Caruch, on the confines of 
Media, called Hiddekel. Plin. lib. 6. c. 27. 
fays, that Tigris is fo called for its fwift- 
nefs -, but where it runs flower, 'tis called 
Diglito : and the Arabians call it Deglat, and 
Degela : All which are evident corruptions 
of the name Hiddekel, which the Targum 
of Onkelos and Jonathan render Biglat. 

The 4th river, Euphrates, is only men- 
tioned by Mofes, becaufe it was well 
known at the time when he wrote. The 
feat therefore of Paradife was thus : The 
rivers Euphrates and Tigris, i. e. Hiddekel, 
join fomewhere in ancient Babylonia, or, 
as fome call it, Mefopotamia, in one great 
ftream ♦, on the eaft fide of whofe banks 
lay the gai;den of Eden : at the fouth end 
of which the river parted again into two 
ft reams, then call'd Pijhon and Gihon, 
but in procefs of time Euphrates zndTygris, 
as before their conjunction; and this name 
we find given them both in Greek and 
Roman authors. 

There is little more of geography taken 
notice of before the deluge, but Cain's 
going out from the prefence of the Lord 
into the land of Nod, on the eaft of Eden ; 
his dwelling there, and building a city, 
which he called Enoch, after his fon's name. 
Nod, which is as much as to fay, the land 
of vagabonds, probably took its name 
from his wandering up and down in it. 
Junius thinks, the firft Nomades lived in 
this country, and perhaps took their 
rambling way of living from this firft va- 
gabond Cain •, and he fuppofes it lay near 
Sufiana or Chuzeftan. Neither is there any 
thing certain, in the hiftory of thofe be- 
fore the deluge, but what is to be found in 
the fix firft chapters of Genefts. This pe- 
riod of time is faid to have confifted of 
1656 years, which is proved from the hi- 
ftory of Genefis, by taking the years which 
Adam and his defendants lived, before 
they had thofe children which make up 
the lift of the patriarchs till Noah, Gen. 
v. vi. and vii. viz. 

Adam had Seth at the age of- 

Seth was father at 

Enos at 

Cainan at 

Mahalaleel at 

Jared at ■ 

Enoch at 

Methufalah at 
Lamech at — — 



— 90 

— 70 


- 162 


- 187 


Noah's age at the time of the flood 600 

In all 1 6 $6 

Vol. I. 

We find alfo that the firft plantation of Of the firft 
inhabitants, immediately after the deluge PJ. ant:;tlon 
or Noah's flood, began in the eaft. A.s' Noa p s 
Adam the father of all nations before the flood. 
flood begat his offspring in the eaft, near 
Paradife 5 fo the fecond father of nations, 
Noah, in the eaft, firft began to repeople the 
world : Which befides the clearer tefti- 
mony of holy Scripture, may be demon- 
ftrated many ways. Firft, Becaufe it is 
moft certain, that the earth began firft to 
be peopled, near the place where the ark 
refted, which is the mountain Ararat. 
Whether this be a mountain of Armenia* 
as the common interpreters imagine, or the 
mountain Caucafus betwixt Scythia and 
India, as fome later writers with greater 
probabilities have gueffed, has been much 
difputed : yet all agree in this, that it 
was eaftward. Secondly, No fmall pro- 
bability is drawn from the civility, mag- 
nificence, and populofity of thefe eaftern na- 
tions before others : For it is certain, that 
many excellent arts have flourifhed among 
thofe eaftern people, before ever our weft- 
em climate dreamed of fuch matters : For, 
amongft many other arts and fciences, ar- 
tillery and printing was in life among the 
Chinefe and Eaft-Indians of ancient time, 
long before thefe inventions were known 
to us. To the life of guns and ordnance, 
many fuppofe Philoftratus to have alluded, 
fpeaking in the life of Apollonius Tyanaus* 
lib. 2. cap. 14. where he faith, that the 
people dwelling betwixt Hyphafts and 
Ganges, ufe not to go far to war, but drive 
away their enemies with thunder and light- 
ning fent down from Jupiter. By which 
means it is faid, that Hercules and Bacchus* 
joining their forces, were there defeated, 
and that Hercules there eaft away his golden 
Jhield. For the other invention of letters, 
howfoever it were by the Grecians afcribed 
to Cadmus, as the firft inventer (becaufe 
he was the man that firft difcovered it to 
the Grecians) it is moft certain, that it 
was as ancient as Seth. And that printing 
firft came to us from this eaftern part, ap- 
pears by John Guttenburgh, who brought 
it firft out of th&eaftern world; in which art 
Conradus being inftructed, brought the 
practice thereof to Rome, which afterward 
Gefnerus, a Frenchman, much improved : 
For tho' amongft the Europeans this inven- 
tion feemed but newly born, yet the Chi- 
nefe had it before either the Egyptians or 
Phoenicians: When the Grecians had nei- 
ther knowledge nor civility. Again, the 
magnificence of thofe nations, appears from 
the hiftory of Alexander the Great, who 
found more ftately buildings and cities in 
the little kingdom of Porus, which lay 
bounded on the Eaft-Indies, than in all his 
former travels j for, in Alexander's time, 
E learning 

xiv An Introductory Difcourfe, 

learning and civility were not fpread fo far mated men, formed out of clay, with a ce- 

weft as Rome : Neither did he efteem Italy lejiial foul. Bat above all, the argument 

otherwife than a barbarous and uncivilized drawn from the marks and footfteps of the 

place ; which made him turn his army ra- Hebrew and Chaldee tongues, which in no 

ther againft Babylon and the eaft, as a more mixture of tongues or procefs of time could 

worthy prize. A third reafon may be from ever be abolifhed, is worth our notice •, for 

'the extraordinary ftrength of thofe eaftern this being the firft of all other languages, wa.s 

people in moft ancient times. For it's re- preferved by Abraham and his pofterity, and 

ported by Diodorus Siculus, out of Cteftas, challengeth antiquity before ever the Latin 

that Semiramis the wife of Ninus, not ma- or Grecian tongues had any memory : In 

ny defcents from Noah, brought an army fo much that all the ancient nations of the 

to invade India, of three millions, befides world are found, in moft of their original 

horfes and waggoners ; neither had St aura- names of gods, peoples, princes and places, 

bates, her adverfary, fmaller multitudes to to make ufe of the Hebrew or Chaldee 

"encounter her: which extraordinary ftrength tongues, differing only in dialed, which 

and multitude of men could not poflibly without manifeft wrefting and abfurdity 

iffue out of any colony, fent thither from the cannot well be derived from other later 

weftern parts : And therefore it muft needs languages. 

follow, that they had their firft offspring The firft father of the people of Europe Who firft 

and original in thofe eaftern parts near In- was Japhet the fon of Noah, according toP^ed 

dia. Sundry other reafons might be al- the joint confent of Hebrews, Grecians, and uro P e - 

ledged, but thefe I fuppofe will fuffice to Latins: To which alludes the poet, where 

fortify this afTertion, That the firft plant a- he fays, Audax Iapeti genus. This name 

tion of nations began in the eaftern parts of nfii or Japhet in Hebrezv fignifieth as 

the earth. But much as enlargement or fpreading out , 

Where we mall place and define this whereas the Greek etymologifts ridiculoully 

eaftern part, feems a matter of greater dif- draw it from many other originals. Thus 

ficulty than the other. Sir Walter Ralegh alfo Tacitus, ignorant of the Hebrew,wou\d 

by the premifed arguments would feem to have the people of Paleftine to be called 

prove, that this firft plantation was as far Judai, quafi Idai, from the mountain Ida 

eaft as India, near which he would have the in Crete, from which he dreams they were 

ark to reft, to wit, on the mountain Cauca- derived j whereas the word in the Chaldee 

fus, lying betwixt India and Scythia j not- fignifies as much as praifers. In like man- 

withftanding I find that the moft ancient ner Ion or (according to Homer) Iaon, fup- 

writers have drawn the original of all na- pofed the firft author of the Iones, the Gre- 

tions, foon after the flood, from the Chal- cians derive from a flower •, whereas the 

deans, or at leaft amongft all made them word in Hebrew fignifies as much as a de- 

the firft : For confirmation of which opi- ceiver : whence Daniel prophefied of Alex- 

nion, they urge many ftrong arguments : ander the Great, that the King of \V, that 

In the firft place, they urge the teftimony is Joan or Javan, mould reign in AJJyria. 

of Mofes, in the xith chapter of Gene/is, Inftances in this kind are infinite, as of 

where fpeaking of the firft affembly of peo- Danaus, drawn from \1 Dan, which fignifies 

pie after the flood he relates, that they a judge, whence comes Dardanus, which 

came from the eaft into the plains of Shi- is the feat of judges; of Janus, from \>* Jajin, 

mar, in which place flood Babylon, the fignifying wine, in which fenfe he is by 

chief feat of the Chaldeans. To this they Halicarnaffaus called Oenotrius \ of Achah, 

add the teftimony of Metafthenes, Herodo- which fignifies Greece. So Cadmus, fup- 

ius, Ctefias, and Xenophon ; which have af- pofed to be the father of letters and learn- 

terwards been feconded by Diogenes Laer- ing, amongft the Grecians, fignifies, in 

tius, Philo, Porphyry in a certain epiftle to the original, an eaftern man or an ancient 

Boethius, Clemens Alexandrinus in Stromatis, man. Whence the Egyptian prieft with 

Eufebius de Evangelica Demonftratione,Theo- good reafon objected to Solon, " That the 

doretus lib. i. de Gracarum affetfionum cu- Grecians feemed children, becaufe they 

ratione, Rabbi Moyfes Maimonis filius (lib.$, had nothing ancient amongft them." But 

cap. 30. Perplexorum); with almoft all the to better purpofe a Chriftian objected to the 

interpreters of iheHebrews: All which with Grecians, " That Mofes the lawgiver was 

uniform confent have affirmed, that chili- ancienter than all the Grecian gods." 

ty, arts and fciences, derived their firft de- Other reafons are taken from the religion 

fcent from the Chaldeans. Hence they of the Hebrews, out of which feem to be 

Feign, that Prometheus a Chaldean (for that derived all the famous religions of the 

he recalled men from a wild life to a more earth : For not to mention the Chriftian, 

civil converfation, and taught the regu- Jewijh and Mahometan religions, it is 

lar motion of the ftars and planets, before manifeft that, in the heathenijh fuperftitions 

unknown) ftole fire from heaven^ and ani- themfelves, many footfteps have been dis- 

.concerning Geography. xv 

covered of the Hebrew antiquity and dif- Many reafons, befides the difproving of 

cipline •, which will appear by divers in- this former opinion, may be alledged to 

{lances. prove the eaftern part of the world to have 

Thele arguments I confefs feem very been firft peopled ; amongft which I will 

ftrong, but yet not of fufficient ftrength only felect this one, grounded on the 

to enforce credulity without other warrant : text of Holy Scripture. It is warranted 

To fay peremptorily that, by the confent out of the text, 1. That when the waters 

of ancient writers, the Chaldeans are ac- began to decreafe upon the face of the 

knowledged the moft ancient people, is earth, and the ark began to reft upon the 

more than I dare venture; neither is this mountain Ararat, Noah fentout a dove to 

opinion fo ftrongly fortified with fuch ar- make trial, who returned with an olive- 

gu men ts, as cannot be anfwered : For their branch in her mouth. 2. That near the 

firft argument drawn from the teftimony place he iflued out of the ark with all his 

of Holy Scriptures, in Genefis xi. feems to family, he planted a vineyard, and was 

ftand on our fide, altogether againft them •, drunk with the juice of the grape, not 

for, whereas it is faid, that they came from knowing the ftrength thereof; whence, by 

the eaft into the plain of Shinaar, it is all probable conjecture, muft be collected, 

manifeft that the eaft was firft peopled ; or that the regions near the place where the 

elfe how fhould this people come from the ark firft refted, by the benefit of nature, 

eaft into thefe plains of Shinaar, to erect afforded both vines and olives : For we 

the tower of Babel? Secondly, whereas cannot imagine the filly dove, at the time of 

they urge arts, civility, magnificence of the the flood, to have flown very far over the 

Chaldeans, we fhall find it rather to agree face of the waters to obtain this olive 

to the people which dwelt farther eaft, as branch, nor Noah after the flood to have 

is witneffed by the former inftances. And gone very far to feek out a convenient place 

if any object, that at this day is found the for his vineyard : Whence it is moft likely 

contrary, for as much as we find the Indian that the ark refted in fuch a place, whofe 

to be a barbarous, blind, and ignorant na- near adjoining regions are inriched with 

tion, in refpect of the Afiaticks and Euro- fuch commodities. But this cannot be ve- 

peans, we anfwer two ways : 1 . That we rifled of Armenia, wherein are found nei- 

find not by experience the Eaft-Indians to ther vines nor olives •, whereas fome places 

be fo altogether void of civility, but that eaftward, whereon the ark according to this 

we may obferve not only amongft them the other opinion was fuppofed to reft, afford 

footfteps, but alfo the practice of many both wine and oil in great plenty, 
ingenious arts, fage government, policy, The waters being aflwaged, and the 

and magnificence ; as amongft the Chinefe, earth become dry, we are not to doubt that 

and the large territory of the Great Mogul. Noah's family feated themfelves in the 

1. It is not hard to imagine, that in fo neighbouring country, where they judged 

large a tract of time, the beft fettled com- it moft for their conveniency, and fpread 

monwealths fhould be brought to nought ; as their pofterity increafed, till they came 

arts, civility, magnificence, be forgotten ; to replenifh the whole earth, as Mofes in- 

and the rareft inventions be eaft into obli- forms us, Genefis ix. 19. and 'tis more than 

vion, efpecially by thofe two enemies of probable, that from Ararat they moved 

civility, war and luxury •, both which, firft towards the fouth, peopling by degrees 

having the reins in their own hands, are AJJyria, Babylon, Syria, Egypt and Ethiopia. 

quickly able to abolifh all wholefome dif- And 

cipline, both in laws and religion. 3. Their The moft probable conjecture concern- Boebarfs 

argument drawn from the footfteps of ing the difperfion after the attempt to build opinion of 

languages, in my fhallow conceit, proves the tower of Babel, is that advanced by the Babel 

nothing elfe but that civil laws, arts, and Bochart, who having premifed, That it is^ fu fe n 

learning, was derived to the Grecians from his opinion, that the confufion of tongues pernon." 

the Chaldeans, or the nations near adjoin- was not fo great on that occafion, as to 

ing, which formerly received it from them, fuppofe every one, concerned in this at- 

But how far learning might propagate itfelf tempt, fpoke a different language, and 

the other way towards the eaft, is not a that none of them could underftand ano- 

matter fo clear. The prefervation of the ther ; but only that every family had a 

language (for aught I fee) might grow diftinct language ; neither, fays he, is there 

from the continuance of the religion, more any foundation to determine the number 

firmly rooted, and for a long time conti- of languages then to be divided into 70 

nued in Abraham's pofterity, whofe abode or 72, or any other particular number : 

was fettled thereabouts ; whereas the other, But, as he obferves, it was fufficient for 

Far divorced, as well from their firft fpring, the Divine purpofe, fo to confufe the 

as the monumental feals of their religion, workmen, as to oblige them to give over 

quickly turned religion into pagan, idolatry: their work ; for when they could pot un- 

xvi An Introdu&ory Dtfcourfe, 

derftand one another, and when one afked fentiments about the world in general. For, 
for brick, the other brought mortar, it Agathemerus and others thought there was 
mult needs create contention and mutual not above a fourth part of it habitable •, as 
averfion, whofe natural confequence muft we find in his geography. 5 Molt of them 
be a feparation and difperfion. And then, agreed, that the temperate zones were only 
confuting the opinion of fome ancient fa- habitable ; and of this opinion was Strabo. c 
thers, who pretend, that they divided the They were not ignorant, that the world 
world among them by lot, in the town of was inhabited as far fouth as the tropic 
Rhinocolura ; and rather fuppofing that the of Cancer ; but how far it was habitable 
fame fpirit, which had fet them at vari- northward, they were altogether uncertain i 
ance in their tongues, did by a fecret im- becaufe neither the Greeks nor Romans had 
pulfe drive them afunder into the remoteft gone far that way. Sallufi, in his Jugur- 
parts of the world ; (becaufe, fays he, no- thine <war d fays, that beyond Numidia, the 
thing is more unlikely than that, after they Getuli dwelt, fome in cottages, and others 
were become barbarians to one another in wander'd up and down : next to them 
language, they could agree to meet toge- are the Ethiopians, and beyond Ethiopia 
ther in one place, to divide the world ami- are the places which are fcorched with the 
cably among them by lot ; befides, the heat of the fun. Thus it appears, he 
town Rhinocolura, according to Diodorus, * thought Ethiopia to be on this fide the 
was not built by Artifanes, king of Ethiopia torrid zone ; but Ptolemy e places the Ethi- 
and Egypt, till many ages after this dif- opians for the moil part in the torrid zone, 
perfion •,) he defcribes the boundaries and not only as far as the equator, but 
of the difperfion thus : On the north, fome of them beyond it ; tho' by what 
Thracia, where Thiras fixed ; and Cauca- authority, we are not certain. 
fus, where Magog fettled : On the fouth, They were yet more in the dark as to 
Libya, where Phut planted himfelf; the northern parts; which is plain from 
Ethiopia, whither Ludim went ; and Arabia this, that Strabo, Dionyfius Periegeta, Pom- 
the Spicey, where Jetlan and his children ponius Mela, Pliny, and Solinus, took the 
chofe their feats. On the weft, Gaul, where Cafpian fea to be a bay of the Scythian 
Rhodanim pofted himfelf; and Spain, the ocean; tho' they might have been, bet- 
habitation of Tharfis. On the eaft, Media, ter informed by Herodotus, f who fays, 
the country which Madai took for the place that it has no communication with any 
of his abode ; Per/is and Elymais, where other fea. Nor do they write with any 
Elam pitched his tents ; and Carmania, the greater certainty as to the places beyond 
country where Sabtheca dwelt. He diffents the Black Sea, or beyond Germany in Scan- 
from thofe, who, following Jofephus, al- dinavia. And what they write concerning 
ledge thofe colonies went as far as India, the further parts of Scythia is both doubt- 
He adds,That fincc many of Cham'?, pofte- ful and fabulous. And tho' it be pre- 
rity went into Africa, and many of Ja- fumed that Agathemerus and Ptolemy were 
phet's pofterity into Europe, it wa/ pecu- better informed, they did not know all 
liar to the pofterity of Sem, that ( *Lney did Scythia ; for Great Tartary, or the fouthem 
not go out of Afia. Yet he does not think part of Scythia, is not yet fully difcovered 
that chis was done by joint confent, or by us Europeans. 

any fixed purpofe, but that each of them Alexander's, conquefts in the eaft being 

pofTeffed themfelves of fuch countries as the extent of their knowledge in that pare 

firft fell in their way. of the globe, it is no wonder that the an- 

This dif- As our inquiry concerning the world and cients differed in their accounts of the 

P erfion the peopling of it has been chiefly fup- world from one another fo much, as . 

by°the P orte d D 7 Scripture hiftory, we therefore Strabo teftifieth. 5 

heathens, ihall now proceed to confider how much Again, as to the weftern boundary, con- 

of it was taken notice of by the ancient taining Mauritania, Spain, Gaul, the Bri- 

heathen writers ; who, it is plain from their tifh ifles, the Atlantic and Britifh feas, they 

writings, both poets and hiftorians, knew have delivered plain and pretty clear ac- 

of the deluge and the difperfion afterwards, counts : But as to the countries that lie ei- 

tho' they have mix'd their accounts with ther north or fouth of thefe, they never 

fables and fictitious names: yet indeed wrote with any certainty. That their 

the authors of moft repute, and moft dili- miftakes may be more manifeft:, Brietus has 

The an- gent fearch in the ftudy of geography, fummed them up as follows : 

norant 1 of h ave only conveyed to us the imperfection The firft and moft grofs miftake was of Inwhat 

geogra-° ° f tneir knowledge, and their difcording thofe who placed the new world, the habi- ^ a ^ re 

phy. tation 

1 Lib. i. cap. 38. i> Lib. 1. cap. 6. c Lib. 1. p. 44. * Cap. 19. 

* Lib. 4. cap. 6. & 9. [ Lib. 1. cap. 203. 8 Lib. 2. St 15. 

concerning Geography. xvii 

tation of the Antichtones, or Antipodes , A ninth miftake was, that Tome of the 
below Africa : So Pomponius Mela, Ma- poets made the Ganges fall into the Mare 
crobius, Manilius, and moft of the anci- Eoum-, whereas it certainly falls into the 
ents. They made Taproban the beginning fouthern or Indian fea. All which, and 
of this new world, and fancied the Nile many more errors were difcovered, as co- 
had its fountains there •, which pafiing lonies removed into unknown countries ; 
through the ocean by fecret conduits, broke for it was not fo eafy for a~ multitude to 
out again in Africa. And agree in a lye, as fingle travellers, who, by 

Secondly, they run into the like miftake, thofe fables,think to acquire glory to them- 

who let the ocean in between the two tro- felves. Therefore Strabo is right when he 

pics, and filled it with monfters, which fays, thofe difcoveries were perfected by 

hindered any further navigation that way •, the conquefts of princes •, that the eaft was 

of which opinion were many of the an- made known by Alexander the Great, the 

cients. weft by the Romans, the north by Mithri- 

Their third miftake was, that they fe- dates Eupatcr, and the fouth by the kings 

parated the Arabian gulph from the ocean, of Alexandria. 

and made it a lake full of trees and wild The ancients, who fell into thofe mif- 

fhrubs j as Ddmqfihes does in Strabo. takes, drew the map of the world in an 

Their fourth error was, that they denied oval form ; the length of which lay from 

the Mediterranean fea to have any commu- eaft to weft, the Mare Eoum being the 

nication with the ocean towards Spain ; eaftern, the Atlantic the weftern, the 

and alledged, that what is now called the Mare Cronium the northern, and the moun- 

Mouth of the Streights, was a canal dug tains of the moon the fouthern boundary ; 

by human induftry. Moft of them were and betwixt Africa and the Antich tones, 

of the like opinion as to the Black Sea, as they brought the ocean into the torrid zone, 

we find in Strabo. h But thofe fictions, to- for the boundary betwixt themfelves and 

gether with the fables, that Italy and Sicily, the fouthern people, or Antipodes, as we 

and France and England, were formerly one find by Macrobius.^ This is the oldeft 

continent, are eafily refuted by the courfe map of the world now extant. l And tho' 

of the rivers, which fall into thofe friths it is true, that Ptolemy corrected many 

on both fides ; of which, Cluverius dif- miftakes of thofe before him, yet he fell 

courfes at large, in his defcription of Sicily, into other very great ones, which they had 

Their fifth and moft abfurd error was, avoided, 
that they joined the Mediterranean fea with His fir ft error is, m that he reprefents 
the Perjian gulph : So Diotimus, in Strabo, \ Africa as a country that was not to be failed 
who pretended, that when he went am- about, tho' fome of his predecefibrs had 
baffador from Athens, he failed up the juftly reprefented it otherwife. Befides, 
Cydnus, a river in Cilicia, and by that whereas he ought to have drawn it de- 
means falling into Coafpe, a river of Per/is, creafing, in form of a wedge, he enlarges 
failed down the faid river to Sufa. it on the fouth fide ; and towards the equa- 

Theirfixth error was,that they joined the tor, he ftrangely alters the form of it, and 

north fea with the Cafpian fea, by a narrow omits fome of the greateft rivers -, tho' he 

canal or river ; which miftake they were ought to have been better informed of 

led into by one Patrocles, an admiral of thofe parts, which were fo near his own 

the Macedonian fleet ; for before his time, country. 

Ariftotle and Herodotus divided the Cafpian His fecond error is, that whereas he 

from the other feas : But after that fabu- ought to have extended Albion or Scotland 

lous author faid, he failed from the Cafpian towards the north, he brings it eaft to- 

fea into the northern ocean, all the geo- wards Germany ; and affigns the fame ele- 

graphers, till Ptolemy's time, fell into that vation of the pole to Ireland, as he does 

error. to Scotland. 

Their feventh miftake was, that they His third error is, that inftead of placing 

• made Scandia and Fennuigia two iflands, the Cherfonefus Cimbrica, now Jutland, 

both divided from Europe, the former weftward, he makes its fituation lie eaft, 

more to the weft, and the latter more to and too much contracts the Sinus Venedicus, 

the eaft, according to Pliny. now the gulph of Dantzick. 

Their eighth error was, that they brought His fourth miftake is, that he repre- 

the river Tanais from the remoteft places fents Scandia, now Sweden and Norway, a 

of the north, as Strabo, Pliny, and almoft very large peninfula, as a fmall iQand -, to 

all of them do. which he joins three leffer ones on the eaft, 

Vol. I. F quite 

Lib. i . ; Lib. i . k Lib. I . in Somnio Scipionis. l See this map in Brietius, de 

prima orbis notitia, par. i. lib. 5. cap. 2. m This appears from the map compofed from Ptolemy's obler- 
yations, by Agathiiamon of Alexandria* 


An Introductory Dijcourje, 

quite contrary to the true fituation of the 

His fifth miftake is, that he thinks, the 
northern parts of Europe and AJia termi- 
nate in the Terris Incognitis, or unknown 
countries ; though many of the ancients 
owned there was a fea on the northern 
parts of both, as in truth there is. 

His fixth miftake is, in placing China 
fouth from Indid, and bringing it beyond 
the equator, he does,bya very grofs miftake, 
thereby join Africa and Afia ; whereas China 
lies north from India. This occafioned 
fome people, out of refpect to the name 
of this great author, to ftrike this miftake 
out of his geography. ■ 

His feventh miftake is, that he extends 
Taproban too much, whether we take it to 
be Ceilon or Sumatra ; and the lefTer iflands 
he places about it, neither agree in fitua- 
tion nor number with the late difcoveries 
made by the Portuguefe and Butch. 

His eighth miftake is, in reprefenting 
the fouthern tracts and coafts of the In- 
dians quite otherwife than they are. He 
divides India on this' fide the Ganges into 
two promontories, tho* there is but one 
]arge one> called cape Commorin-, and this 
place was then well known to the Remans, 
who had traded thither ever fince the reign 
of Claudius Cafar. 

Neither are thefeallthe mi flakes of this 
great geographer among the ancients : For, 
his map of the world has 180 degrees of 
longitude, about 60 of north, and fome- 
what more than 10 of fouth latitude. 

Others of the ancients divided the world 
in fix different manners. 

The firft we find in Strabo, where Era- 
tofihenes confutes thofe who divided the 
whole world into Greeks and Barbarians ; 
and therefore advifed Alexander to ufe the 
Greeks as his friends, and the Barbarians 
as his enemies. But whether the Greeks 
accounted the Romans barbarians, is not 
clear; yet Plutarch, in the life of T. Fla- 
minius, feems to be for the negative. 

The fecond di virion is that of Ephorus, 
in Strabo, who divides the world into four 
people, viz. the Indians, Ethiopians, Celtic, 
and Scythians. Scymnus, who formerly 
went under the name of Mdrcianus Hera- 
cleota, was of the fame opinion. 

The third is that of thofe who divided it 
only into two, calling the northern part 
Europe, and the fouthern AJia. This we 
find in Varro, ° who commends Eratofihe- 
nes, as the author of it. Ifocrates, in his 
panegyrick, hints this to have been the opi- 
nion of the Per/ians-, and the fame is 
mentioned by Silius Italicus, Lucan, Au- 
gufiin, Orofius, &c. But thefe again were 

divided in their opinion ; fome of them 
joined Africa to AJia, as we find in Pliny. * 
And Silius cxprelfes it thus : 

Mjliv'o Libya torretur fnbdita Cancro, 
Aut ingens AJia lotus, aut pars tertia rerum. 

Libi iii. 

Others again joined Africa to Europe, as 
we find in Saluft. de bello Jugurthino, which 
Lucan exprefTes thus : 

Tertia pars rerum Libya, ft credere fama 
Cuncla velis, at Ji ventos ccelumque fequaris 
Pars erit Europa. Pharfal. ix. 

A fourth divifion was into AJia, Europe^ 
Africa, and Egypt, which is mentioned by 
Ortelius and Clwverius; but they do not 
give their authors. It may alfo be in- 
ferred from Pliny, ^ who divides Egypt from 
AJia, by the eaftern mouth of the Nile, 
called then OJtium Peluftacum, and now 
Carabes; and from Africa, by the OJliurA 
Canopicum, the weftern mouth of the Nile, 
how called Bochor : And the reafon why 
they call fo fmall a country a fourth part 
of the world, feems to be, that there were 
then more towns in it than in all the reft,as 
Eufebius teftifies. Pliny fays, it had 20000 
towns in the reign of Amafis\ and Diodo- 
rus Siculus fays, there were 3000 remaining 
when he wrote. 

The fifth divifion was likewife into four 
parts; but they made Grecia one inftead of 
Egypt. This we find by Herodotus in Mel- 
pomone, where he divides Crete, which is a 
part of Greece, from Europe ; and Ariftotle 
more plainly, in his Republick, r divides the 
Greeks from the Europeans and AJiaticks. 

The fixth and moft common divifion, 
which was generally received by all, was 
into Europe, AJia, and Africa. Europe they 
reprefented lying weft and north; and 
fometimes they divided it from AJia, by 
the river Tanais -, and at other times, en- 
larging its boundaries, they parted them 
by the river Carambyce, now called Oby, 
and by Conjl antinople . 

To AJia was afcribed the eaftern part of 
the world, extending far north and fouth, 
and equal almoft to bothAfrica and Europe 
in breadth. 

Africa was divided from Europe by the 
Mediterranean ; from Afia, by the Arabian 
ifthmus, according to the learned ; but by 
the river Nile according to the vulgar. 

Whether America was known to the an- 
cients under the name of Atlas's ifland, or 
an ifland in the Atlantic, mail be confidered 
when we come to treat of America. 


f Lib. 7. cap. 3. 

Lib. 1. de Re Ruftica. t Lib. 3. cap. 1. 

1 Lib. 

5. cap. 9. 

r Lib. 7. 

Concerning Navigation. 


The navi- The navigation of the ancients is no lefs gators ; for injojhua's time, chap. xi. it is 

gacion of imperfect and erroneous than their geo- called the Great Sidon ; and this is reck- 

graphy, becaufe they had no knowledge of on'd to be the 2500th year after the crea- 

the compafs, and therefore durft not ven- tion. 'Tis alfo mention'd to be famous for 

ture far to fea : nor is it certain when men trade in Ifaiah andEzekiel, and was fo confi- 

firft began to fail in the Atlantic ocean, derable,tha.tArtaxerxesOchus,kmg of Perfia, 

which borders upon Europe, Africa, and about the year of the world 3590, could 

America. Indeed the Scriptures mention not take it with a mighty land army, 300 

the failing to Ophir by Solomon, Hiram and gallies, and 500 Ihips of burden, 'till they 

Jehofaphat. St. Jerom alfo and Strabo re- were betrayed by Tennis, the chief man of 

cord voyages from Egypt into India ; and their republick, and Mentor their general, 

Pliny $ defcribes the courfe to be taken in as we are informed by Diodorus Skulus. 

fuch a voyage: But I can't but fuppofe, fyrus came next to it in reputation, and is 

as good criticks 1 have done before me, that fuppofed to have been built by the firft in- 

the voyage to Ophir in Solomons time was habitants, to fecure themfelves from the 

only made by coafting : nor can this opi- Ifraelites, under the conduct of Jojhua i 

nion be fo much asdoubted,ifwe placeOp^ir there having been firft a town of that name 

in the Golden Cherfonefus, or faproban : on the continent ; but the people thought 

Nor could the voyage from Egypt to India, they would be more fecure by removing to 

mention'd by St Jerom and Strabo, be per- the neighbouring ifland : 'tis called by the 

formed otherwife, if there were any fuch name of the Strong City, Jojhua xix. and 

thing. Bochart n takes notice of two Ophirs, by Ifaiah, chap, xxiii. a Crown of Glory, 

one in Arabia, the other in India. He whofe merchants were princes, and her 

takes the former to be that mentioned by traffickers the honourable of the earth. 

Job, becaufe in his time, which was much The power of that city muft needs have 

about that of the Patriarch Jacob, India been very great, fince they gave Alexander 

was not known to the people of Judea, or a repulfe, and held out {even months fiege 

at leail they had no commerce with it. before he could take it. Both thofe cities 

He is likewife of opinion, that the 3000 flourilh'd again afterwards by their navi- 

Talents of the gold of Ophir, given by gation, 'till they fell under arbitrary go- 

David towards the building of the temple, vernment. Bochart, in his Canaan, "gives 

came from Arabia, where there was great an account of a multitude of colonies plan ted 

plenty of excellent gold, as is plain from by the Phoenicians in Europe, and of their 

•Strabo, Diodorus, and others. He owns navigation as far as the Cqffiterides, now 

however, that Ophir, to which Solomon and call'd the Scilly iflands ; or, as fome fup- 

Hiram fent mips, was That in the Indies, pofe, the county of Cornwall, where he 

becaufe there were three years fpent in the and other authors fay they traded for tin. 

voyage ; whereas Arabia was near him, and Pliny 7 fays, that in his time, the Ro- 

the journey muft have been performed by mans fail'd round Spain and France ; and 

land : nor was there any ivory there, be- that in Auguflus's time they fail'd as far 

caufe no elephants. He is not pofitive in north as the promontory of the Cimbri y 

what part of India this Ophir was •, but, now called Stagen, in North Jutland, about 

after having given the different opinions nine miles weft from Norway : And Vel- 

of the learned about it, he thinks it mod leius z fays, that in Tiberius's time they 

probable to be Taproban, which he elfe- fail'd as far north as the Scythian country, 

where proves to be Ceilon ; where it is very now T'artary -, but this latter is very impro- 

well known there is plenty of gold, ivory, bable, and may as juftly be exploded as the 

jewels, abundance of peacocks, and apes, voyage of Hanno the Carthaginian, and that 

which are mentioned to be brought from of Eudoxus, who is faid to have failed from 

Ophir by Solomon** fhips. the Red Sea round Africa, to have doubled 

The Phoenicians are reckoned by the an- the Cape of Good Hope, and afterwards 

cients to be the firft people who under- arrived at Cadiz. Nor can we give any 

ftood navigation ; and of them, the Tyri- credit to the ftory, That the king of the 

ens are faid to be the firft who taught the Swevi fent fome Indians (who were drove 

art of failing, according to that of Tibullus, afhore on the coaft of Germany by ftorm) 

to Quintus Metellus Celer, the Roman con- 

Prima Ratem Ventis credere dotla Tyrus. ful ; tho' all thefe things be afferted by 

Cornelius Nepos: fince the Englifh and Butch, 

Sidon, however, is with good reafon tho' incomparably beyond the Romans, or 

thought to have produced the firft navi- any of the ancients, in navigation, have 


s Lib. 6. cap. 23. t See Reijkius, in his notes on Clwverius, lib. 1. cap. 13, u Lib. 2. cap. 27. 

x Lib. 1. cap. 2. y Lib. 11. cap. 69. 2 Lib. 2. 

xx An Introductory Difcourfe, 

never yet been able to find out a pafTage But it is moft probable, that Tyre, being 

to the Indies by the north eaft ; fo that in elder times a city as eminent for its 

'tis next to impoffible the Indians could in wealth and traffick, as it was for its ltrength 

thofe days find a pafTage that way from and magnificence, and enjoying with its- 

their own country to the north of Germany bordering neighbours, the Phoenicians, a. 

on the Baltick, which was the feat of the large extenfive fea-coaft, and many capa- 

ancient Stvevi. cious havens, which had an afpect on the 

In this uncertainty therefore of the ori- Mediterranean fea, found out at firft the in- 

ginal and method of navigation among the ftitution of fhipping. From the Phoenicians 

ancients, it being almoft impoffible for e- and Tyrians, it was conducted down to the 

very common reader to arrive at any com- Egyptians, by whofe induftry and ingenu- 

petent fatisfaction about fo ufeful a piece of ity, much was annexed to the advantage 

knowledge, I mail endeavour to contract and perfection of it : For whereas eh* firft 

the feveral divided difcourfes on this fub- veffels were framed out of the trunk of 

ject, and reduce their fcatter'd notions into fome large tree, made hollow by art, or 

one heap, and I hope intelligible fhape elfe of divers boards, compacted into the 

and order ; firft giving you a probable hi- fafhion of a boat, and covered with the 

ftorical account of the firft invention of fkins of beafts, the Phoenicians moulded 

navigation, and of the additional improve- them into a more elegant and convenient 

ments of it •, with the probable caufes of form, and fecured them with greater addi- 

the variation Of the compafs, and the va- tionsofftrength, whilft the Egyptians added 

nation of that variation. to the former ftructure, the fupplement of 

An hifto- Firft, it is indifputably true from the decks. 

rical ac- aut hority of the facred records, the ftruc- From the Egyptians this art was tranf- 

the "inven- ture °f tne ar ^ owe< ^ anc * entitled its ori- ported to the Grecians ; for when Banaus, 

tion of ginal contexture to the induftrious precau- king of Egypt, to decline the fury ot his 

naviga- t i n of Noah, who, by the immediate de- brother Ramefes, made his approaches to 

tion ' fignation of God himfelf, brought that Greece, he firft inftrncted its inhabitants to 

wooden ifland into fhape and order, to re- fail in cover'd vefTeis, call'd naves, who 

fcue fome part of mankind from the an- before perfected their voyages over thofe 

gry baptifm of a publick deluge. narrow feas, on beams and rafters fattened 

And it is probable, that the pofterity of together, to whom they gave the appel- 

Noah, having plantations which were con- lation of rates. Amongft the Grecians,thofc 

tiguous to mount Ararat, where the ark of Crete had the higheft repute for the 

retted, and there viewing its fkeleton, manage of navigation,which caufeth Strabo 

might, according to that original, form and to afcribe the invention of mips to Minos. 
build fuch fhips, and other veffels (the In times fubfequent to thefe, the Car~ 

art of navigation being not yet arrived to thaginians, extracted from Tyre, grew moft 

its folftice) as might make rivers and more confiderable in fhipping, by che fupply of 

fpacious waters obvious to a pafTage, and which, they often difordered and ditfreffed 

maintain fuch a necefTary intercourfe, as the affairs of the Romans : But the fury of 

might improve a commerce between na- a tempeft, having feparated a quinqueremis y 

tion and nation. or galley of five banks of oars, from the 

The heathen records, and monuments of refidue of the Carthaginian navy, caft it 

pagan antiquity, which were ignorant of on the coaft of Italy •, by a curious infpec- 

the ftructure of the ark,* according to the tion into which, the Romans obtained the 

variety of tradition, affign the invention of art of fhipping ; and, not long after, at- 

navigation to feveral perfons. Diodorus chieved the dominion of the fea. 
Siculus attributes it to Neptune, who from That the Phoenicians and Greeks rranf- 

thence contracted the appellation of god mitted the knowledge of navigation to 

of the fea. Strabo, to Minos king of Crete. Spain and France, is without controverfy, 

And laftly, Tibullus confecrates it to the fince Gades, in the firft, was a colony of 

fame and memory of the city of Tyre. the Phoenicians, and Marfei/Ies, in the Jaft, 

Minos indeed expelled malefactors out of a plantatibn of the Phocians. As for Bel- 

the iflands, and in moft of them planted gium and Britain, they were, in ages ot an 

colonies of his own •, by whicrrrneans, they elder infcription, very barren and indigent 

who inhabited the fea-coafts,becoming more in fhipping; ioxCafar, when he made his 

addicted to riches, grew more conftant to eruption on the laft, found the circumam- 

their dwellings : of whom, fome, grown bient feas fo ill furnifhed, that he was 

now rich, circumfcribed and encompafTed forced, with the induftrious affiftance of 

their cities with walls, and others by the in- his foldiery, to build and equip a navy of 

-fluence of Minos built a navy, and by an fix hundred and thirty-two veffels, to 

active and noble diligence fo fecured com- tranfport his army into Albion. 
merce, that they rendered navigation free. 


concerning Navigation 



The Phoenicians having, as is above re- 
cited, invented open veffels, and the 
Egyptians, fhips with decks, the laft of thefe 
inforced the art of navigation, by adding 
to it the invention of gallies, with two 
banks of oars upon a fide ; which fort of 
veffels, in procefs of time, did fwell into 
that voluminous bulk, that Ptolemy Philo- 
pater is faid to have framed a galley of 
fifty banks. Ships of burthen, ftiled 
cirara, intitle their invention to the Cy- 
priots; cock-boats or fkifts (fcapha) owe 
their firft ftructure to the Illyrians or 
Liburnians ; brigantines (celoces) confefs 
theirs to have been the artifice of the Rho- 
dians-, frigates, or light barks (lembi) 
acknowledge their original unto the induf- 
try of the Cyrenians -, the phafelus and 
pamphyli, mips inftructed for war, were 
• the invention of the Pamphylians, and the 
inhabitants of Phafelis, a town of Lycia 
in Afta Minor -, veffels for tranfporting 
of horfe, ftiled hippagines, are indebted, 
for their firft inftitution, to the Salaminians-, 
grappling- hooks, for theirs, to Anacharfts -, 
anchors confefs their firft knowledge to 
have been from the Tufcans ; the rudder- 
helm, and art of fleering, is afcribed to 
^typhis, principal pilot in Jafon's eminent 
fhip, called the Argo, who, having ob- 
ferved that a kite, when me divided the 
air, fleered her whole body and flight with 
her tail, perfected that in the defigns of 
art, which he had difcovered to have been 
effected by inftinct in the works of nature. 

If we pleafe to trace out the firft in- 
venters of tackle, we mail difcover, that 
the primitive inftitution of the oar is at- 
tributed to the Boeotians , and the original 
difcovery and ufe of malts and fails enno- 
ble the memory of Daedalus, and his fon 
Icarus-, the laft of which, confiding too 
much in the dexterity of this invention, 
giving too large and fpreading a fail to 
the bark he was engaged in, over-fet the 
velTel, and perifhed, and adopted the fea, 
in which he mifcarried, into his own name. 

But though the fupplement and addi- 
tion of decks of fhips intitles itfelf to 
the original artifice of the Egyptians, as is 
before recited •, yet had they others of a 
more narrow dimenfion, both for ufe and 
tranfportation ; for the Egyptians, anci- 
ently (fays Pliny) a ufed to make boats of 
reeds and bulrufhes ; which affertion he 
again juftifies in another place, Papyraceis 
navibus (fays he) armamentifque Nili navi- 
gamus -, and to thefe veffels Lucian alludes, \ 

— Sic cum tenet omnia Nilus, 

Conferitur bibuh Memphitica Cymba Papyro, 
Vol. I. 

Which fafliion of boat Mofes was engaged 
in, when Pharaoh's daughter refcued him 
from the danger of the river. The pro- 
phet Ifaiah records fuch utenfils in that 
periphrafis of Egypt, Woe to the land, fjja- 
dowing with wings, that fends ambaffadors 
by fea in bulrufhes. Strabo failed to Egypt 
in a fmall veffel made of wicker, as his 
own relation difcovers to us, in the feven- 
teenth of his geography. Juvenal alfo 
makes mention of earthen boats in Egypt, 
ufed and employed alfo there to fail with ; 
for, recording the deadly feud and fuper- 
ftitious conflicts, commenced between 
Ombos and Tentyra, in relation to their 
gods, he fpeaks thus, c 

Hac fevit Rabie imbelle £s? inutile vulgus, 
Parvula fitiilibus folitum dare vela phafelis, 
Et brevibus pitfa remis incumber e tefl<e. 

The Britons had anciently their naves viti- 
les, in Pliny's ftile ; the natives of Ireland 
call them corroghs, and fome corracles; 
they were little veffels covered with lea- 
ther, in their dimenfions fcarce exceeding 
the bulk of a bafket ; and thefe kind of 
boats, or bafkets, were ufed by Julius de- 
far, to tranfport his army over the river 
Sicoris againft Petreius, and other rivers 
elfewhere; and he had learned the making 
of them, it feems, from the Britons, when 
he was in this ifland, as himfelf attefts ; d 
and, in a fubfequent difcourfe, he defcribes 
them thus : Carina primum ac Jlatumina ex 
levi materia fiebantur, reliquum corpus na- 
vium viminibus contextum integebatur. They 
had the like veffels on the river Euphrates, 
to tranfport commodities to Babylon-, and 
their proportions were fo conformable to 
thefe Britifh ones (according to the pattern 
difcovered to us by Herodotus) that a man 
would judge, that either the Britons ex- 
tracted the defcription of thefe veffels from 
the Babylonians, or the Babylonians from 
them. For Herodotus, in Clio, that is, the 
firft book of his hiftory, affirms, that they 
had boats, made of ofier or willows, of an 
orbicular form, and in the faihion of a 
buckler, without prow or poop, and co- 
vered over on the outfide with the head of 
a bullock tanned. In thefe, befides their 
native commodities, they ufed to convey 
palm-wines in tuns, to be fold or vended 
at Babylon -, two men, with an oar a-piece 
in their hands, conducting and managing 
the veffel. 

Thefe veffels were fo portable, that the 

owners were accuftomed to tranfport them 

on their backs to and from the water ; the 

G mafter 

a Lib. 13. Nat. HiJ}. b Lib. 4. Pbarf. c Sat. 1 5, 

helhci'viU: cujus gtneris, fays he, cum fuperioribus ufus Britannia iocuerat. 

'Lib. 1. it 

xxii An Introductory Difcourfe, 

mafter would carry his boat by land, and inflated upon it until this day. But to the 
the boat would waft the mailer on the wa- firft it is anfwered,that the verforiaof Plan* 
ter; as the Arabian fifherman ufes to do tus is no other than that piece of' tackle, 
with his tortoife-fhell, which is his fhallop which, in the modern dialect of our ma- 
by fea, and his houfe on land ; under riners, falls under the appellation of a bo- 
which he fleeps, and in which he fails. lin, by which they ufed to turn their fails, 
Proportionate in their dimenfion to and proportion them to the changeable vi- 
thefe are thofe which the Egyptians ufe at ciffitude of every wind. And ib much is 
this day upon the Nile, which they take manifeft from Plautus himfelf, in the co- 
upon their backs, when they approach the medy which he fliles Mercator, facing, 
cataracts and fteepercfalls of that river. hinc ventus nunc fecundus eft, cape modo ver- 
Boterius calls them naves plicatiles, and foriam ; fo called from verfo, to turn often ; 
which they employ in fome places of the or elfe it may borrow its extraction and na- 
Weft-Indies : For, in the Year 1509, we tivity from verfum, the firft lupine of verto; 
read, that there were brought to Roan whence velum vertere is a cuftomary term 
feven Indians confined to one fmall vef- amongft the Latins, ufed to exprefs the 
fel or boat, which was fo portable, that one fhifting of the fail, as the wind does 
man could raife it up with his hand, as vary. As for the loadftone, it was indeed 
the fame Boterius, in his relations, feems by the Greeks called lapis Heraclius, not 
to intimate. becaufe Hercules Tyrius, to whom the fea- 
In fome places of the Weft-Indies they faring Phoenicians, in ftorms and tempefts, 
fifth with faggots compofed of bulrufhes, in offered up their oraifons for protection, firft 
their dialect ftiled balfa's : Having fuf- traced out the virtue and energetical efflu- 
tained them upon their moulders to the viums of it, as fome contend ; but becaufe 
fea, they there caft them in ; and then it was difcovered near Her ac lea, a city of 
leap upon them,and afterwards row into the Lydia, called for the fame reafon, and 
main, with fmall reeds on either fide, upon the fame account, lapis Lydius alfo, 
themfelves Handing upright, like Tritons and, by the ancients, known only under 
or Neptunes j and in thefe balfa's they are the notion of a touch-ftone. Nor does the 
accuftomed to carry thofe cords and nets name of magnes, ufed under that appella- 
they employ in fifhing. The Indians like- tion promifcuoufly both by the Greeks and 
wife have long boats, called canoes, made Latins, owe its original etymology to any 
hollow, and artificially framed out of one other root or cradle, than that it was found 
tree. In Greenland the fifhermens boats near Magnefia, a. city of Lydia, of which He- 
are compofed into the fhape of weavers raclea, above-mentioned, was likewife a 
fhuttles, covered outwardly with fkins of part •, from whence it hath ever fince pur- 
ieals, and inwardly fafhioned and fortified chafed the conftant denomination of lapis 
with the bones of the fame fifhes ; which, magnes : fo Suidas afferts for the Greeks, and 
being fewed together with many doubles old Lucretius affirms the fame for the Latins, 
and futures, are fo fecure, that, in foul Having evinced, from thefe demonftra- 
and ftormy weather, they will fhut them- tions, the ignorance of antiquity, both in. 
felves up in the fame, being refcued, by the notional knowledge, and practical ap- 
the aid of thefe, from the fury and immi- plication of the compafs, it now remains 
nent prejudices of rocks, winds, and tern- my tafk to unwind, to whom, in times of 
pelts: Thefe are about twenty feet in a more recent infcription, this excellent in - 
length, and two feet and a half in their ftrument intitled its firft difcovery. And, 
breadth, and fo fwift, that no fhip is able if we will traverfe and perufe records of a 
to outvye them in fpeed •, and fo light of modern afpect, we fhall find, that the in- 
portage, that one man may fupport many ; vention of the pyxis nautica, or compafs, 
and they are furnifhed but with one oar. is generally afcribed to John Goia (or Flavio 
And, Goia, as others ftile him) of Amalphi in 
Of the in- Ifhall now inquire whether or notantiquity Campania, in the kingdom of Naples. But 
venUon of had any difcovery or notice of the compafs, all rare and curious artificers are, in their 
hers com- which, in this latter age, hath contributed firft productions, like the defigns of che- 
pafs, and fo much to the improvement of naviga- miftry, much in projection, but little in 
the pro^ tion ? Thofe, who do affert, that it had perfection •, for his difcovery reached but 
P^j 165 ^ fome imperfect glimmering, or rather fome to eight winds only, which made up his 
done. gloomy cognifance of it, do eftablifh their compafs, that is, the four, principal, and 
opinion on the authority of Plautus, where four collateral ; and left the improvement 
they find mention of the verforia : And, of this invention to be attempted by po- 
fecondly, becaufe the load-ftone, which fterity, which indeed did add fhape and 
fways and manages the compafs, was an- juft perfection to this ingenious defign : 
ciently, by the Greeks, ftiled magnes, and For, in fome few ages fubfequent to this, 
lapis Her melius-, both which names remain the people of Antwerp and Bruges com- 


concerning Navigation. 


pleated this invention, by annexing to 
the compafs twenty-four other fubordi- 
nate winds, or points. Before this inven- 
tion, pilots were directed in their right 
voyages by certain ftars, they took notice 
of, efpecially the Pleiades, or Charles's 
Wain, and the two ftars in the tail of the 
bear, called Helice and Cynofura, which 
are therefore called load-ftars, or leading- 
ftars. As. travellers, in the defarts of A- 
rabia, and thofe of Tartary, were always 
guided by fome fixed ftars, in the night- 
time, to fteer their courfes in thofe path- 
lefs, difordered, and inhofpitable ways ; 
fo feamen were directed by the like hea- 
venly guides, in the untraceable wilder- 
nefs of waters, before this excellent arti- 
fice was found out : but, if the fky hap- 
pened to be fullied with mifts, and the 
ftars to be muffled with clouds, then the 
moll experienced pilot was at a lofs, and 
was obliged, by dropping an anchor, pre- 
fently to take up his reft. 

But the ingenious Amalphitan hath fe- 
cured pofterity, by a noble remedy a- 
gainft this grand inconvenience, and dif- 
covered a method, by which men might 
fteer a certain and infallible courfe, in the 
moft gloomy nights, and moft tumultu- 
ous feas •, and this by the guide and con- 
duct of a little ftone, ftiled, from its ufe 
and influence, the load-ftone. This load- 
ftone is now our load-ftar, and the mari- 
ner's directory. 
The pro- This ftone treafures up two ftrange pro- 
perties of perries in its dufky entrails, the one of 
jbne° ad " attraction, the other of direction : this 
property of direction (which chiefly hath 
an afpect on our prefent bufinefs) is, that 
being fet in a diih, and left to float free- 
ly upon the water, it will, with one end, 
point directly to the north, and, with 
the other, to the fouth ; and will difpenfe 
this faculty, or property, to a needle, 
that is rubbed or touched with it. 

The pyxis nautica, or mariner's card, 
which carries a needle, touched with the 
load-ftone, in the middle of it, uith 
two-and-thirty rhombs or lines drawn 
round about it, according to the number 
of the cardinal and collateral winds, is no 
lefs ufeful by land, than it is by fea ; fo 
that they, who are engaged to travel 
through defarts, as the caravans do to 
Meccha and Medina, and other places, do 
now make good ufe of this artifice •, where- 
as, in former ages, a ftar was their beft pilot 
by night. For Ludovicus Bartema relates, 
that they, who travel over the Syrian and 
Arabian defarts, which are faced and co- 
vered with a film of light and fhifting 
fand, fo that no track can ever be dif- 
covered, do frame certain boxes of wood, 
which they place on camels backs ; and, 

fhutting themfelves up in the faid boxes, 
to refcue themfelves from the fand, by 
the help of the load-ftone, like the mari- 
ner's compafs, they fteer their courfe 
over the vaft, uncouth, and untraceable 

Some do intitle the invention of the 
compafs to the people of China. Doctor 
Gilbert, in his book de Magnete, afTerts, 
that Paulus Venetus tranfported it firft in- 
to Italy, in the year 1260, having learned 
it from the Chinefe : And Ludovicus Ver- 
tomannus affirms, that when he was in the 
Eafi-Indies, about the year 1500 (above 
two hundred and forty years fince) he faw 
the pilot of his itiip direct his courfe by 
a compafs, fafhioned and framed accord- 
ing to the figure and proportion of thofe 
we ufe at this inftant, when he was failing 
towards Java. If you will confult Pliny, 
he will tell you, that the inhabitants of 
Taprobana (now called Sumatra) becaufe 
they could not behold the pole-ftar to fail 
by, carried with them certain, birds to fea, 
which they did often let fly ; and, as thefe 
birds, by natural inftinct, applied their 
flight always to the land, fo the mariners 
directed their courfe after them. 

The mariner's compafs is not arrived 
yet to that perfection, but that it requires 
fome improvement and amendment ; for 
the magnetic needle does not exactly point 
to the north in ail meridians, but varies 
and diftorts itfelf fin fome places 2 .ore, 
in fome lefs) from the direct pofture, 
configuration, and afpect of the rorth 
and fouth, which multiplies and inforces 
the feaman's diffractions, and inwraps him 
oftentimes in difficult and dangerous errors. 

Van Helmont, an eminent Parace[fian of 
Flanders, profefles an expedite way to re- 
gulate this grand inconvenience, namely, 
how to make a needle that fhould never 
vary or alter from the right pqint, which 
may be performed by a vigorous^ imagina- 
tion, as he affirms, thus : If a man, in 
framing the needle, fhall ftand with his 
back placed to the north, and place one 
point of the needle (which he intends 
for the north) directly towards himfelf ; 
the needle, fo made, fhall always point 
regularly and infallibly toward the north., 
without variation. I wifli, that Tome 
perfon of an exalted imagination would 
compofe fome needles for experiment, af- 
ter Helmont's direction, fince it is an affair 
of noble and active concernment, to the 
publick intereft of every nation, to have 
this invention of the compafs either im- 
proved or rectified. But this artifice of 
Helmont is infirm and crazy in the whole 
frame and contexture of it, if the varia- 
tion of the. needle, from its meridional 
polarity, proceeds from the attractive vi- 

xxiv An Introductory Difcourfe, 

gour and magnetical alliciency of the the load-ftone, and make ah impreflion 

earth ; which, by irrefragable demonftra- on the needle. 

tions, may be evinced to be one continu- Now thofe firft, being of a congene- 
ed magnet. Now, a magnetical body is rous nature with the laft, but more nu- 
ftiled, not only, that which hath a merous and powerful, by this their mutual 
power attractive, but that which, being entwining and complication, drag away 
fituated in a convenient medium, by an the needle, as their captive, and fink it 
intrinfick natural propenfion, difpofes it- into the above recited polition. 
felf to one invariable and fixed refidence ; Secondly, From a wire or needle, which, 
fo that if it were violently removed, yet being denuded and devefted of that meri- 
would it not abandon its primitive points, dional projection, the magnetic impreflion 
nor fix in the eaft and weft, but return of the load-ftone had formerly inflated and 
unto its polar fituation again. And fuch imprinted upon it, by its great adverfary 
a magnetical vertue is diftufed through the the fire, by being fome time entered in the 
whole body of the earth, whereby, as un- earth, becomes new impregnated with the 
to its natural points, and proper terms, it vertue of that great and vigorous magnet, 
ftill makes its addreffes unto the poles ; and again contracts fuch a polarity, or me- 
being fo conftituted in its whole frame, ridional fituation, as though it had never 
order, and afpect, unto thefe points, that fuffered under the perfecution of its flaming 
thofe parts, which are now at the poles, enemy. Now whether thefe abovemen- 
would not naturally refide under the equa- tioned effluviums of the earth do fly by 
tor, nor Nova Zembla continue in the eftreated atoms, or winding particles, as 
place of Java or Borneo. Nor is the at- fome aflert, or glide by ftfeams attracted 
tractive vigour of this great body, the from either pole or hemifphere of the 
. earth, cloiftered up within its own inward earth, unto the equator, as others affirm ; 
cells and receflfes, or circumfcribed within it fignifies nothing to the diminution of 
the circumference of its own furface, but the magnetic vertue of the earth, but ra- 
.fhed at indeterminate diftances, through ther more diftinctly fets down the gefts and 
the air, water, and all other circumjacent progreflive motion of its attractive allici- 
bodies •, exciting and tranfplanting its ency and excitation, 
magnetical vertue into all bodies, either Thirdly, If a load-ftone be made red-hot, 
within its furface, or without it -, and ef- it lofeth the magnetical vigour it had De- 
fecting that in an abftrufe and indifcerna- fore in itfelf, and acquires another from 
ble way, that we vifibly behold performed the earth in its refrigeration •, for that part, 
by the load-ftone. For thefe effluviums which cooleth towards the earth, will ob- 
penetrate all bodies, and, being ever ready tain the refpect of the north, and attract 
in the medium, attack all objects propor- the fouthem point or cufpis of the needle: 
tionate, or capable of their vigorous and And the reafon hereof is, that, though the 
active excitation : And this is manifeft attractive vertue of the load-ftone be in 
from fteel wires thruft through little this fiery agony much impaired, exhaufted, 
fpheres, or globes of cork floating on the and diminifhed, yet it is not totally extin- 
water, or in naked needles gently dropped guifhed ; fo that when its fickly and impo- 
thereon ; for fo difpofed they will not reft, verifhed vigour is reinforced and recruited, 
until theyhave traced out the meridian, and, by a fupply or acceffion of effluviums, from 
as near as pofiibly they may, lie parallel to the earth, by an union or combination with 
the axis of the earth. Now this direction this new ftock of magnetical atoms, it does 
does not originally refult from themfelves, not only revive, but is improved to its for- 
but is derivative and contracted from the mer attraction and verticity. 
magnetical efflux of the earth. And thefe Fourthly, It is obferved, that both bricks 
demonftrations may be improved by the and iron contract a verticity, by long and 
obfervation of fome fubfequent experi- continued pofition (that is, not only being 
ments •, as, placed from north and fouth, and lying in 
Experi- Firft, From a needled fphere of cork, the meridian, but reflecting the zenith and 
ments of equally contiguous unto the furface of perpendicular) unto the center of the earth; 
the load- fa water . f or ^ jf fa neec u e be not feat- as is evident in bars of windows, cafements, 
ed in an exact equilibration, that end, hinges, and the like. The fame condition 
which is too light, if touched, becomes alfo do bricks contract, by being a long time 
even-, that needle alfo, which will but placed in one continued fituation in a wall; 
juft fwim under water, if forcibly touch- for, if the needle be prefented unto their 
ed, will fink deeper, and fome times unto lower extreams, it wheeleth about, and 
the bottom ; which proceeds from an uni- turns its fouthern point unto them. And 
on of thofe magnetical effluxions, which the reafon of this is, that that film or fcurf, 
eftreate from the earth, with thofe magne- in which they lay originally wrapped up, 
tick atoms which flow from the body of and which did obftruct the magnetical im- 


concerning Navigation. xxv 

preflions of the earth, being worn off by efflux of magnetical atoms is alfo greater, 

decurfion of time, and the perpetual af- therefore thofe needles do fuffer the greateft 

faults of the elements, the magnetical atoms variation, which are in countries, which 

of the earth do with more vigour invade do moll feel that magnetick imprefiion. 

them, and by frequent onfets, having im- And, therefore, hath Rome far lefs vari- 

planted their vertue in them, engage them ation than London. For, on the weft-fide 

to that verticity. of Rome, are feated the great continents 

Fifthly, Iron in a particular fympathy of France, Spain, and Germany, which 
moves to the load-ftone, but yet, if it ex- feem to retrench the exuberant effluviums, 
ceed a certain quantity, it abandons and and poife the vigour of the eaftern parts, 
quits thofe affections and interefts ; and But unto England there is almoft no earth 
like an affectionate citizen, or faithful pa- weft, for the whole extent of Afia and Eji- 
triot, moves to the earth, which is the re- rope lieth eaftward, and therefore, at Le- 
gion and country of its connaturals. don, it varies eleven degrees, that is, al- 

From what hath thus been remarkably moft one rhomb. Thus alfo, by reafon 
difcovered, it is eafy to unfold, from a of the great continent of Brafil, Peru, and 
foundation not only of probability, but al- Chili, the needle declines towards the land 
moft of neceflity, whence proceeds the twelve degrees : But at the Streights of 
caufe of the variation of the compafs, that Magellan, where the land is contracted into 
is, an arch of the horizon, intercepted be- a narrow volume, and the fea on the other 
tween the true and magnetical meridian, fide of a vaft diffufion and extent, it va- 
The true meridian is a greater circle, pafs- ries but five or fix. And fo like wife be- 
ing through the poles of the world, and caufe the Cape de las Aguellas hath fea on 
the zenith or vertex of any place, exactly both fides near it, and other land remote, 
dividing the eaft from the weft. Now on and as it were of an equal diftance from 
this line the needle exactly lieth not, but it, therefore at that point the needle con- 
diverts and varies its point, that is, the forms unto the true meridian, being not 
north point on this fide the equator, the diftracted with the attraction resulting from 
fouth on the other, fometimes unto the the vicinity of an adjacent continent. To 
eaft, fometimes unto the weft, and in this may be added, that this variation pro- 
fome places varies not at all. Now the ceedeth not only from fome eminent ter- 
caufe of this variation may be the ine- reftrial knobs or excrefcences, which ap- 
quality of the earth, varioufly difpofed, pear like fo many wens upon the face of 
and differently mixed with the fea ; with the world, as alfo many magnetical veins 
all the different emiflions of its ftrength of the earth (collaterally refpecting the 
and magnetical vigour, from the more needle) but the different accumulation of 
eminent and gibbous or knobby parts the earth, difpofed unto the poles, lying 
thereof -, for the needle naturally endeavours under the fea and waters ; which affect the 
to conform unto the meridian, but, being needle with greater or leffer variation, ac- 
diftracted, is driven and diftorted that way, cording to the vigour or impotency of thefe 
where the greater and more powerful parts fubterraneous lines, or the intire or broken 
of the earth are fituated. body of the magnetical fabrick under it. 

Now whereas on this fide the meridian, As it is obfervable, from feveral load-ftones, 

or the ifles of Azores, where by fome the placed at the bottom of any water •, for a 

firft meridian is placed, the needle varies load-ftone or needle, upon the furface, will 

eaftward, it may be occafioned by that vaft variouQy conform itfelf, according to the 

tract of earth, that is, of Europe, Afia, vigour or imbecillity of the load-ftones 

and Africa, feated towards the eaft, and under it. 

difpofing the needle that way j on the other Lafily, From what hath been premifed, 

fide fome parts of the Azores, or iflands a reafon may be alledged for the variation 

of St. Michael, which have a middle fitu- of the variation, and why, according to 

ation between thefe continents, and that obfervation, the variation of the needle 

vaft tract of America, almoft proportionate hath after fome years been found to vary, 

and anfwerable to thefe in its fpacious bulk either more, where it was difcovered to 

and dimenfion, it feems equally diftracted vary but little before, or but little, where 

by both, and diverting unto neither, doth formerly it had a greater deflexion or va- 

parallel and place itfelf upon the true me- riation. For this may proceed from the 

ridian : But, failing farther, it veers its mutation of the earth, as it is diflocated or 

lilly towards the weft, and regards that fupplanted by earth-quakes, wafted and 

quarter, wherein the land is nearer or grea- impaired by fulphureous or other fubter- 

ter ; and in the fame latitude, as it ap- raneous fires ; or elfe, as its magnetick 

proaches its fhore, augments its variation, vertue is arrefted in its emanation, by being 

Now becaufe where the greater continents aftonifhed and ftupified by mineral fpirits, 

are united and combined, the action and or thofe fumes and exhalations that have 
Vol. I. y any 

Xxvi An Introductory Difcourfe) 

any mercurial or arfenical atoms implanted as by a fecret compact made with man- 
in them • all which, by a reiterated im- kind in nature, doth infufe the civil power, 
predion may fo alter the conftitution of as it were the foul, into the body politic 
the ma^netical parts of the earth, either by (as well as natural) duly prepared, and as 
fubtraclion or addition, that in decurfion it were prefented to the Almighty for 
of time, they may vary the variation over that purpofe, by the people's prudent and 
the place. And thus I finifh my account regular election and determination. So 
to whom not only mips, but likewife the whether a kingdom be elective or hereditary, 
art of managing them, is properly to be every king, ye. is to acknowledge himfelf 
afcribed ; and confequently how mankind, to be fet on the throne of his kingdom, 
inhabiting the diftant parts of the globe, not by himfelf, or by his own power, but 
and divided from each other by great and by God: And thus it runs in the title of 
dangerous feas, are enabled to carry on a the greateft potentates; Georgius Dei 
mutual commerce, to the greater advantage gratia, &c. or, George^ the grace of 
of the human fpecies. I fhall therefore, God, of Great-Britain, &c. king,&?r. 
in the fequel of this introduction, give The firft perfon commiffioned and in- Who was 
you fome account of the government, com- veiled with authoritative power, fove- j** ^^ 
merce, and religions, which by this means reignty and dominion, b was our firft pa- gov 
have been eftablifhed, or at leaft rent Adam, to whom God, having crea- 
proved, throughout the known world. And ted him in his own image,and breathed the 
Ofthefe- Firft of government. Here I will pre- breath of life into his noftrils, faid* Be 
veral go- m jf e fomething concerning the origin of fruitful and multiply and replenijh the earthy 
vernments ru j e ^ g 0vernment amongft men,friewing and subdue it andhave dominion overit. c 
world! from whom it was originally derived ; what By which Divine commiflion and char- 
perfons were firft inverted with autho- ter of fupreme authority, the authoritative 
ritative power and dominion, and by power of executing judgment and juftice 
whom, where, and in whom the fame firft came down from heaven, and became 
power afterwards refted •, with the reafons a part of the other bleffings, which God 
and inducements that firft invited men to bellowed upon human nature, and Adam 
embody themfelves, and to enter into fo- became the monarch of the whole earth, 
cieties, and fubmit themfelves to rule and And as a badge of this fovereignty, be- 
government; and how.and when fuch focie- fore there were yet any increafe of human 
ties did commence. fpecies, God brought j all cattle, &c. to 
Of the The original giver of the authoritative Adam to be named by him; d which names 
origin of power of government was Almighty God. a fo given did not only evince their nature, 
govern- j n wn i c h light it is properly afferted, that but their fubjection alfo to man. e So the 
ment ' all regular and well fettled governments man, who was made lower than the angels, 
are of divine inftitution : for tho' the peo- was in this particular raifed above them, 
pie are the original of all civil power, in that all the creatures in the fublunary world 
regard to the form thereof, they cannot were decreed to be fubject to him, and to 
erect any form of government but with an attend his pleafure. And in further mani- 
immediate power to execute judgment and feftation of Adam's fuperiority, God tells 
juftice impartially, to punifh evil doers, Eve (after the tranfgreflion) that her 
and to protect and reward the innocent and defire alfo Jhould he subject to her hujband^ 
the virtuous; which is the end for which and that he fhould rule over her. { 
God did originally conftitute fuch a power Here then began the firft dominion and 
amongft men. So that the people having rule, which continued in Adam alone 
this laudable end in view, the power which (under God) for his time; for during his 
they give to their prince, governor or king, life, his children, and childrens children 
or by what name foever he is diftinguifhed in all their generations, were his fubjects, 
or dignified, will be truly divine, tho' as having no right to poffefs any thing but 
it be conveyed thro' the people, as the by grant, allotment, permiflion, or by 
means or inftrument in the hands of God. fucceflion from him. And 

For they by action cannot be faid to be Thus, Adam being laid in the duft, Of patri- 

any more the radical caufe of civil power, from whence he had been taken, God*^aJgo- 

than a patient is the caufe of his own cure, gave authority, power, and dominion 

or of the phyfician's prefcription, only be- over their children and offspring, to the 

caufe he has applied himfelf to him. God, patriarchs and chief fathers fuccefiively 


a See Daniel v. 21. Pro-v. viii. 15. Rom. xiii. I. Ttrtul. cont. Gent. Augufl. de Civit. Dei, lib. 1. c. 21. 
and Jo. xix. 9, 10, 1 1. b See Gen. i. ver 3 to 26. Sir Walter Ralegh's Hiftory of the World, 

cap. 11. fol. 9, 10. and cap. 5. fol. 18. Hey/in's Cofmography, 5th edit. fol. 3. Afanilius, lib. 4. c Gen. 

i. 28. d See Gen. ii. 19, 20. Jof. Antiq. lib. 1 . c. I . e See Bochart, Grotius, 

Rivet, Fagitts, &c. in loc. and WarburtonS Divine Legation of Mofes, vol. II. f Gen. iii. 16. 

concerning Government. 


before the flood, to rule and govern them, 
ordaining by the very law of nature, that 
their children and offspring, begotten and 
brought up by them refpectively, mould 
fear, reverence, honour and obey them : 
which power and authority before the 
flood refting in the patriarchs and chief 
fathers (becaufe it had a large extent, 
not only for their faid children and off- 
fpring in their tender age, but alfo for the 
well-ordering, ruling, and governing of 
them afterwards, when they came to 
man's eftate) and likewife, forafmuch as 
it was accountable to no fuperior autho- 
rity, or power on earth, it may be called 
a regal power, which thefe chief fathers 
exercifed within their proper jurifdictions : 
for, a king, in the firft ages of the world, 
was no more than a common father, either 
by natural right, as a parent, or afterwards 
by a legal right, as the eldeft defcendant 
of fuch a father : and thefe governors exe- 
cuted both the regal and facer dotal power in 
their own houfes, and had power, in 
their own families, in juft caufes, to blefs, 
curfe, caft out of doors, disinherit, and 
to punifh with death the difobedient. b 
From the Again, after the flood, Noah, who 
flood to ii vec j ^ 20 years after it, and faw his chil- 
fNim- drens children wonderfully multiplied, 
roi t, was, for that time, the patriarch, king, 

or chief governor over them, ruling and 
ordering by virtue of that fuperiority, 
power, and authority of the fword of 
juflice, which was given to him by Al- 
mighty God, and warranted by the laws 
of nature and reafon. The infringer of 
which laws of nature and reafon was that 
ambitious Nimrod, the fon of Cufh, and 
grandchild to Cham, the fon of Noah, 
who was the firft man that afiumed au- 
thority and empire or government not 
ftrengthened with the legality of elder- 
fhip, or paternity, and therefore con- 
demned as tyrannical : of which usurpa- 
tion, and the means leading thereto, we 
have an ingenious account in Bochart, 
who fays, " That in Arabia, and a- 
" bout Babylon, when men were but few, 
" and lived difperfedly in tents, they 
" were much infefted with wild beads, 
" that not only eat up grafs and corn, 
<c but cattle and men alfo ; which evil, 
" while Nimrod, who was a noted hunter, 
" pretended to redrefs, and under that 
" colour was permitted to gather the 
" prime of the youth in thofe parts to his 
" afiiftance, he no fooner found himfelf in 

" a capacity to over-awe the legal power, 
" under which they lived, but inftead of 
" hunting wild beafts, he, by the help 
" of his young followers, became a hunt- 
" er of men, feized upon the govern- 
" ment, and deftroyed as many as op- 
" pofed his endeavours to bring them in- 
,c to fubjection, and fo became the firlt 
" monarch of this kind." c 

This Nimrod, who, on account of 
his ufurping the government, and break- 
ing the rule of elderfhip and paternity, 
was named Amarus Dominator, and be- 
came a proverb for every haughty, cruel, 
and tyrannical ufurper in fucceeding ge- 
nerations, began his empire about the 
year 131, after the flood : and his king- 
dom, c or government, is the firft efta- 
blilhment of that kind mentioned in fcrip- 
ture. It was he alfo that employed 
500,000 men continually, for 30 years, to 
build the tower of Babel, in a plain in 
the land of Shinar, whofe bafis was nine 
miles in circumference, and its height 
50000 paces, or 25730 feet, d to be, as 
Dubartas fings, 

Afure afylum, and a fafe retreat, 
If th' ireful fiorm of yet more floods 
Jhould threat. 

But his infidelity and ambition prefently 
brought God's wrath upon him and his 
followers, who confounded their language, 
made them hated and hateful to each 
other, and fcattered them from thence over 
the face of the whole earth : e fo that 
from this event we may date the time 
when people began to incorporate them- 
felves into focieties, and fubmitted to 

From what has been faid it appears, that 
the firft kind of government was under 
fathers, in a family way ; and when ge- 
nerations of men increafed, the chief of a 
family took the reins of government upon 
him : f for, fo long as the world was thin- 
ly peopled, it knew no other dominion 
than paternity and elderfhip : Confequently, 
the fathers of nations were, then, as kings, 
and the elders of families, as princes: and 
from hence it came, that the word elder 
was always ufed both for the magiftrate, 
and for thofe of age and gravity, the fame ' 
bearing one signification almoft in all lan- 
guages. From thefe private ceconomies 
fprung up focieties, and the confufion of 
Babel being the caufe of their feparating 


b See Gen. \x. 25. xxi. 10. xl. 7. xxxviii. 24. 
Bocbart\ Geograph. Sacr. lib. i. cap. 11. and lib. 4. cap. 

Herbert and Ca/met's Dictionary. 

Sir Walter Ralegh" $ Hift. 1. 1. c. 9. feci. I. 

c See Chryfoftome*s Horn, in Gen. x. ic. 
14, 1 5. d See Sir Thomas 

f See 

See Jof. Antiq. lib; 1. cap. 4. .feci. 33. 

Stxviii An Introduttory Difcowje, 

from each others as many as fpake one vent want and famine. Fourthly, to ex- 
lano-ua^e affociated themfelves together, tend their limits, and make themfelves fa- 
ancf took no manner of thought concern- mous in the world. 
Ing thofe they could not underftand, as For the firft -, the ancient Trojans, after 
being of no ufe or advantage to them, the deftruction of 'Troy, to fecure them- 
So fpreading themfelves into feveral re- felves from the fury of the Greeks, fled into 
mote regions, in procefs of time, they Africa, and there erected the city and com- 
quite forgot the old ftock from whence monwealth of Carthage, within fourfcore 
they proceeded. Therefore, years before the foundation of Rome. Se- 
As people grew more numerotis,and na- condly, in the year of our Lord 435, when 
tural affection more remote ; obedience, Attila, king of the Buns, with fire and 
the fruit of natural reverence waxing cold, fword did wafte "Italy, many noble fa- 
and brotherly affection by degrees wither- milies, to fecure themfelves from his fury 
ing away* wifdom being fevered from and cruelty, forfook the main land, and 
power, and flrength from charity ; b as co- fled into many fmall iflands in the Adria- 
vetoufnefs begat oppreflion* and the more tick gulf, and having built there many 
powerful men encroached upon the weak, ftately houfes, joined them together by 
neceffity taught men that a general fub- ftone bridges and caufeways,and erected the 
mifTion to order and government, was the famous city and commonwealth of Venice* 
"only way to prevent confufion and tyran- that was at firft a f democracy, but is at 
ny ; for it was obferved, that the mighty prefent one of the beft ariftocratic govern- 
in courfe of time loft their former power, ments in Chrifiendom. Thirdly, the Welch* 
and were brought down or depofed by to fecure themfelves from the fury of the 
others more mighty than themfelves ; the Romans, that over-ran England, fled into 
feeble fell under the forceable •, and the little s Britany in Gaul, and there erected 
equal, from their equals, received equal many fair cities, and the dutchy and prin- 
harms ; fo that licentious diforder, which cipality of Britany. Fourthly, the Greeks* 
feems to promife liberty at its firft ufurpa- to fecure themfelves from the fury of the 
tion,proves no lefs dangerous, upon a more ^Perjians, fled into Sicily and into Gaul* 
mature experience and trial : and the ar- and there erected the famous common- 
guments propounded and maintained by wealths of Syracufe and Marfeilles. 
neceflity, and confirmed by reafon, per- For the fecond-, by the affociation of fa- 
fuaded all nations to fubmit to a magi- milies into the body politick of a com- 
ftrate in fome degree. For as a notfed monwealth, men live more comfortably, 
judge c of our own nation obferves, no na- than in a folitay life j for fociety and the 
tion of its own confent was incorporated familiar conversation with men of natural 
into a kingdom, but that thereby they and acquired parts, doth rejoice and re- 
might with more fafety, than before, main- vive the fpirits of men. Secondly, by this 
tain themfelves and enjoy their goods, free affociation men receive variety of accom- 
from fuch misfortunes and loffes, as they modations, from which the folitary life is 
flood in fear of; becaufe felf-prefervation deprived, or is inforced with labour and 
and an ardent defire of happinefs, are two charges to fetch from remote places, in 
poles on which all our natural and rational which cities and corporations do abound, 
defires and averfions move. Or, as it hath I mean by the multiplicity of artificers,fhop- 
been well obferved and confirmed with keepers, and the trading of whole-fale men, 
many and good examples, by an anony- and merchants, that bring all manner of 
mous politician, who fays, that the rea- rich commodities from foreign parts, by 
fons why families were induced to affociate whofe trading the citizens, the gentry, the 
themfelves into commonwealths and mo- commonalty grow rich, and the common- 
narchies, are numerous ; but that, to avoid wealth or monarchy doth flourifti ; for in 
being tedious, and for brevity fake, he cities that abound in trading, let them be 
will only treat of four of them •, of which never fo populous, there is never any want 
Why fa- the firft motive was to fecure themfelves of provifions •, becaufe where money is to 
£!Sl* f " fr° m tne violence of men. Secondly, to be had, the country people refort to vend 
live more comfortably. Thirdly* to pre- their commodities ; befides, if a dearth or 






b See Sir Walter Ralegh's Hill. lib. I. c. 9. §. 1. and Sir William Dugdak\ Origin. Jurid. cap. 1. fol. 1. 
c Sir John Forte/cue, Lord Chief Juftice, and Lord High Chancellor of England, under King Henry VI. ia 
his Difference between abfolute and limited monarchy. 

d See Livius in his 3d Decade; and Sir Walter Ralegh, lib. 3. 

* See the Italian Hiflory, and the Inventory of France. f See Contarini in his Commonweal. 

* See Speed's Hiftory. b See Plutarch in his Life of Ihemi/tocles. 

concerning Government. 


Famine happen in that country and na- 
tion, they are eafily fupplied with all ne- 
cefTaries, by the trade and induftry of 
their merchants, from beyond the feas. 
It is therefore to be obferved, that trade 
and merchandife doth above all other 
things uphold and inrich cities, common- 
wealths and monarchies ; for inftance, 
trade made * Tyre one of the richeft cities 
in the world ; and one hundred and feventy 
years fince, when Venice had the trade of 
filks, fpices, and cottons, and difperfed 
them into all parts of k Chriftendom, it was 
the moll famous, and the richeft city in 
Europe ; but now it is become poor, be- 
caufe it hath been deprived of this trade 
by the voyages made to the Eqft-Indies 
and Conftantinople, firft undertaken by the 
*Portuguefe, and then by the Dutch and 
Englifh. And in the reign of EdwardlV. 
Bruges was the glory of Flanders Joy its extra- 
ordinary trading ; and in the reign of Henry 
Vlll.Antwerp got the ftart of all the cities 
of the Netherlands, by its incredible trading. 
In the days of Queen Elizabeth the city of 
London, by its trading into all parts of the 
world, became one of the moft famous 
and richeft cities \x\Ghriftendom. And of later 
days,the incredible trading of™ Amjlerdam in 
Holland,hzih raifed that city,and the United 
Provinces,to that heighth of pride and pre- 
emption, that they have forgotten their 
former condition, which muft have been 
to remain under the Spanijh yoke, had they 
not been aided and relieved by Queen 
Elizabeth, and Lewis XIII. king of France, 
with brave foldiers and great fums of mo- 
ney. Princes and ftatefmen mould there- 
fore cherifh trading, for by the induftry of 
merchants, commonwealths and monar- 
chies abound in wealth and riches, where- 
as the decay of it makes them to be poor 
and defpifed of their neighbours. 

For the third •, the more Northern na- 
tions, that are more apt by the coldnefs of 
their climate to generation than the fouth- 
ern men, have been forced to difburthen 
themfelves of their multitudes, and, to pre- 
vent penury and famine, to fend their co- 
lonies abroad, by which many common- 
wealths and monarchies have been erected : 
For the n Goths over-ranSpain, and there e>- 
rected divers monarchies, which continued 
until they were driven out by the "Arabian 
Moors-, and the Lombards and Huns over- 
ran Italy, and there erected divers com- 
monwealths and monarchical principa- 

VOL. I. 

lities ; and the Franconians over-ran France^ 
and mixed with the p Gauls, drove 
out the Romans, and erected the French 
monarchy ; and the Saxons and the Danes 
over-ran England, and erected divers fmall 
monarchies, that continued until they 
were driven out by the Normans, who came 
alfo into France from the northern regions. 
But the q Tartars and the Scythians have 
over-ran almoft all Afia, and a great part 
of the Eaft-lndies \ for the monarchies of 
the Turks and Perjians now extant were e- 
rected by certain colonies that came out of 
Scythia ; two of the chiefeft families of 
them being called the r Zelzuceian family, 
and this over-ran Perfia and Armenia, and 
erected there a monarchy ; and the other, 
called the Ottoman family, did by degrees 
erect the Turkijh monarchy ; and the Tar- 
tars have erected, in the Eaft-lndies, the 
monarchy of the great Mogul, who is de- 
fcended from Tamerlane the Great ; and the 
Crim Tartar over-ran the large and rich 
kingdom of China, no longer fince than 
the year 1647 '■> an d of late years, England, 
to difburthen itfelf of its fupernumerous 
inhabitants, hath fent divers colonies into 
* America, and the iflands thereof. 

For the fourth ; the Greeks, to extend 
their limits, and to make themfelves fa- 
mous, fent divers colonies into Italy, that 
did erect commonwealths -, as among 
others, Tarentum, and Alba, and others in 
Morea, and along the coafts of Ionia -, fe- 
condly, the city and commonwealth of the 
Rhodians was erected by a colony of the 
Greeks, to enlarge their dominions •, third- 
ly, the Romans like wife to extend their li- 
mits lent colonies into all the cities of Italy, 
and into divers cities of France and Germany ; 
fourthly and laftly, the Affyrians, Perjians, 
Greeks and Romans, to make themfelves 
famous, and to enlarge their dominions, 
reduced many nations under their fub- 

From hence it will be eafy, for the moft 
ignorant reader, to infer the reafon of civil 
government in general, fo that I {hall now 
lhew you what different forts of govern- 
ments have, in procefs of time, been fet 
up in different nations and ag^s, accord- 
ing to the circumftances and inclinations 
of the people. 

The moft barbarous nations are always Of the 
difcovered to have fome kind of govern- different 
ment among themfelves, as the moft con- s 
temptible creatures are known to provide ^ent. 
I themfelves 

1 See the Prophet Ezekiel, and the Siege of Tyre in Sir Walter Ralegh. k See the Hillary of Venice. 

1 See Putkafe\ Travels. m See the Hiftory of the Netherlands. n See Sir Walter Ralegh, 

in his Treatife of the Arabian Monarchy. ° See the Spanijh Hiftory. P See the Inventory of 

Trance, and Sped. 1 See ibid. r See the Turkijh Hiftory, in the Life of Ottoman. 

s See Pnrkaje'% Travels. 


An Introductory Difcourfe, 

themfelves with food in fummer,againft the 
barren feafon of winter, prompted thereto 
by natural inftind ; and wherever we tra- 
vel, it is certain that all their forms, tho' 
differing fomething according to the genius 
and fuperior knowledge of fome people 
above other nations, may be properly re- 
duced into democracy, ariftocracy, and monar- 
chy. Befides thefe, there are mixed monar- 
chies, as the monarchy of England, which 
is monarchical, ariftocratical, and demo- 
cratical •, and others, which are only mo- 
narchical and ariftocratical, as all the 
elective kingdoms are. Again, there are 
fome commonwealths that are compofed 
of the ariftocratical and democratical, and 
fuch are the ftates of Holland. Others are 
pure and fimple, and not compofed, as di- 
vers commonwealths in Switzerland, and 
other parts that are fimple democracies ; 
and others that are pure ariftocracies, as 
Venice,xht empire of Germany, Genoa,Lucca> 
and Ragufa. 

Then obferve, that in all compofed go- 
vernments the fupreme power of the ftate 
is divided, and that this fupreme power 
doth confift in thefe four prerogatives : 
i . To repeal old laws, and to make and 
confirm new. 2. To conclude peace and 
proclaim war. 3. To nominate ail the chief 
officers of the ftate, whether ecclefiafti- 
cal, civil, or military. 4. To grant par- 
dons and remiffions to criminal offenders. 
Now if thefe prerogatives belong only to 
the prince, then it is an abfolute monar- 
chy j and if they be divided between the 
$rinc e and his nobles, then it is an eleclive 
monarchy •, and if they be divided between 
the prince, the nobles, and the commons, or 
the reprefentatives of them, then it is a 
compofed monarchy of three fimple go- 
vernments, and fuch a one is the kingdom 
of England. But if thefe prerogatives are 
only in the nobles, then it is a pure arifto- 
cracy, and fuch a one is Venice; but if. 
they be divided between the nobles and the 
commons, then it is a compofed common- 
wealth, part ariftocratical, and part demo- 
cratical, and fuch a one are the ftates of 
Holland -, but if they be only in the people, 
then it is a pure and fimple democracy, and 
fuch a one was the common-wealth of 
Rome, and of Athens. Having thus fhewn 
how the government of a ftate may be 
known by thofe that enjoy the prerogatives 
belonging to the fupreme power, I fhall 
now fpeak of thefe particulars in order. 
Of the an- Forafmuch as the democratic common- 
cient de- wealths now fubfifting, fuch as the Swit- 
moc ™ c y zers, are but very fmall and of little re- 
om ' pute, I apprehend 

the reader will be much 

better informed of the government in 
fuch a ftate, by a true defcription of the 
Roman commonwealth, which was the 
beft of that, kind that ever was in the 
world. It was compofed, 1. of a grave 
fenate, chofen from among the ancient, 
learned, and prudent men of their nation, 
originally confined to the rank of nobles j 
but becaufe this partiality was attended 
with great heart-burnings and diffentions, 
it was folemnly agreed, that the plebeians 
or commoners a fhould alfo be admitted into 
the fenate-houfe, as well as the nobles; 
provided they mould be found of approved 
wifdom, valour, and merit. The num- 
ber of thefe fenators was only one hundred 
at firft, but according as the commonwealth 
increafed, fo was their number multiplied 
to two hundred ; then to three hundred •, 
and in Cicero's days, there were four hun- 
dred, but never exceeded the number of 
fix hundred. 2. They had two confuls^ 
which were chofen every year ; the one to 
remain in the city, and the other to be 
general of their army in the field: but 
when their dominions were enlarged, both 
the confuls were generals of armies, and 
did call lots, into which province they 
fhould march : and for the government of 
the city, they created magiftrates that, 
were called praetors, and plebeian tribunes, 
to defend the liberties of the people. 3. In 
all exigencies and perilous occafions, in 
which the commonwealth was in danger, 
they made choice of a b dictator, out of 
their moft faithful and valorous command- 
ers, who had the fupreme power of the 
ftate in his hands ; and for that reafon, 
his commiflion was limited to a very fhort 
time ; for we read of fome that gave up 
their places within eight days, others in 
fifteen days, and fome within a month, 
two, or three ; and none but Sylla and 
Julius Cafar, that attempted to continue 
in the fame for certain years by violence 
and force. 4. They had their cenfors, 
whofe office was to purge the fenate,cafting 
out fuch fenators that were vicious, or had 
committed fome mifdemeanors ; they alfo 
cenfured all diforders in manners or appa- 
rel, and had the charge of the publick 
ftrudtures. 5. They had their proconfuls, 
which were lieutenant-generals of armies, 
and their quaftors, thut were their treafurers 
of provinces and armies : and for their 
idolatrous worfhip, they had their great 
pontiff, their augures, priefts, veflales, f- 
denates, and divers others. And 

Becaufe the fupreme power of the ftate 
was abfolutely in the greateft part of the 
people, for no new laws could be confirmed, 


a See Liv, iftDecad. lib. 1, 2, 3, 4, 

fc See Livius, in his id Decade, lib. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 

concerning Government. , xxxi 

nor old laws repealed, nor war proclaimed^ . upwards, to five thoufand perfons, but 
nor peace concluded, nor magiftrates or there never meet in the general council 
chief commanders nominated or chofen, chamber above fifteen hundred, the other 
nor criminal offenders pardoned, without being employed abroad for the fervice of 
the unanimous conient of the greateft part the commonwealth ; fome of them being 
of the people ; all the Romm citizens were chief commanders and officers of their ar- 
divided into five and thirty centuries, by mies; others, governors of cities and ftrong 
which means their votes were fuddenly holds ; others are publick magiftrates •, and 
collected : for when they were afTembled others are fent abroad as ambafladors to 
in the field of Mars, and that eighteen foreign princes and ftates. In the nobles 
centuries were of one mind, the other of this general council, is intrufted the 
were not called. The fenate had this power, fupreme power of the ftate •, for no new 
viz. to hear and give anfwer to foreign laws can be confirmed, nor old repealed, 
ambafladors, and to digeft all affairs of nor any chief magiftrates and command- 
ftate and of war, and to advife, confult, ers nominated or chofen, nor war pro- 
and refolve upon all things that were judged claimed, nor peace concluded, nor any 
fit to be propofed to the people ; and for taxes impofed, nor criminal offenders par- 
the nomination of their chief magiftrates doned, but by the unanimous confent of 
and commanders, they named half a dozen, the greateft part of this general council : 
and their names being read openly before and as to make a c compulfive and legal de- 
the people, they had the prerogative to cree, there mull be eight hundred of them 
chufe one of them, that was moft in their of one mind ; fo, in a full houfe, there 
efteem or favour. This government is muft be twelve or thirteen hundred gen- 
held to be, by the beft politicians,the worft tlemen. 

of the three-, becaufe it is fubject to become The chamber where this general coun- 

turbulent and feditious, and apt to create cil is kept, is built upon ftone arches, and 

popular commotions, and commonly of one of the moft fpacious and beautiful in 

fmall continuance : For in lefs than five Chriftendom ; for it can contain two thou- 

hundred years, a the Roman democracy fuf- fand perfons, and is divided into double 

fered twelve changes ; and had it not been long rows of feats, having a fpace between 

for their wife and grave fenate, it had not them for officers to pafs by, to collect their 

continued half fo long. votes, which is fuddenly done, by Lallot- 

Of the The ancient ariftocratic commonwealths ing, without n'oife or confufion. At the 

Venetian f t he Lacedemonians and Marfeillians upper end of the chamber there is a tri- 

ariftocra- were ^ according to the teftimony of Arif- bunal erected, and a chair of ftate for the 

totle, Tbucydides, Plutarch, and Cicero, the duke, and on the two fides of it afcending 

beft and moft famous that were in their feats for the fix and forty fenators. The 

days. But, at this prefent, Venice and Ra~ members of the houfe are fummoned once 

gufa are reputed the beft : I will then de- or twice a week, , as occafion requires, by 

fcribe the Venetian government, becaufe it the ringing of a bell, hanging in one of 

is the greater, and of larger extent than the towers of the palace of St. Mark, near 

the other, i. They have an elective duke, to the general council chamber. All the 

who is always chofen out of the fix ancient civil and military affairs are firft debated, 

fenators, that are of the privy-council, digefted, and refolved upon, by thefe three 

that make with the duke the council of councils of fix and forty fenators, and the 

feven. 2. They have another council, duke, which makes up the number of feven 

called the council of ten, compofed of the and forty perfons : the affairs of greateft 

moft ancient fenators after the above named, concernment are reported firft to the coun- 

3. They have another council, called the cil of ten, and then to the council of fe- 

council of thirty fenators, younger than ven, and the meaneft affairs to the council 

the former; fo when they elect a new b of thirty; and when all things have been 

duke, after the death of the old duke, he is debated, that which is held to be fit 

chofen out of the fix fenators of the privy- to be propofed, or doth require the affent 

council, and this place is fupplied out of of the general council, is engroffed, and 

thofe of the council of ten, and this place read openly, and their affirmative or nega- 

again is fupplied out of the council of tive votes required ; the duke d having no 

thirty, and this place is fupplied out of the other prerogative than a calling vote, 

general council, that is compofed of all Now if it be to make fome new law of 

noble Venetians : The whole number of confequence, or to proclaim war, or con- 

which doth amount, from twenty years elude peace, with foreign princes or ftates, 



* Liinus, ill Decad. 1. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. 8. b See Contarini, in his Commonwealth. 

c See J«bn Bvdin, m his Commonwealth. * See Guichardin, in his 2d, 4th, and 5 th books. 

&x&ii An IntroduBory Dijcourje i 

the three councils, above fpoken of, meet were abfolute princes, how many can be 
all together and do argue and debate the found that were juft, or did rule accord- 
cafe fome . of them making excellent ing to the law of the empire, and of na- 
fpeeches pro and contra, as there are di- ture ? Surely for one, ten mall be found, 
verfe inftances of it in Guichardin, and that did trample thofe laws under their 
then this great council is called the coun- feet •, nay, if we, examine the lives 
cil of Praty, and in the conclufion, two of the kings of Judah, it will be found* 
of the moft probable opinions are ingrofled, that the bed, and the moft religious of 
and in the general council read openly, and them, did tranfgrefs the law of God and 
they have the prerogative to make choice of nature, by human and natural infir- 
of which they pleafe : So that by their mities. And if we examine the reigns 
confultationSj and digefting, and exact ex- of the Spanifh, French, and Englijh kings, 
amination of things, the Venetians do fel- the number is very fmall that did obferve 
dom undertake any enterprife rafhly and the law of God, of nature, and of their 
unadvifedly. Now by thefe circumftances realm : nay, we mail find, that the belt 
and account, it is apparent, that the fu- of them have* by human infirmities, fal- 
preme power of the Venetian common- len into great fins, errors, and tranfgref- 
•wealth is only in the nobles hands, and fions. The beft of the Reman emperors 
that their Duke is but a titular Duke, and were Auguftus, 'Titus, Nerva, Trajan, Mark 
that their fenators have no power, but a Aurelius, Pertinax, the two Severus, Con- 
precedency of honour and dignity, above fiantine, and Tbeodoftus -, and amongft the 
the noble Venetians, that will admit of none Kings of Judah, b David, Solomon, A/a, 
let them be never fo rich, into their gene- Jehojhaphat, Hezekiah, and Jofiah. Among 
ral council, except they be defcended of the Spanifh kings, Alphonzo and Ferdinand. 
the ancient noble Venetian families ; fo Among the French, c Philip, Augujlus, Saint 
that the Venetian government is a pure and Lewis, Charles the fifth, and Lewis the 
fimple ariftocracy. This government is twelfth. Among the Englijh, Richard the 
held by the beft y politicians, to be more firft, Henry the feventh, Edward the fixth, 
noble, and to excell the former, becaufe it Queen Elizabeth, &c. and yet all thefe 
is not fo fubject to feditions, and popular had their failings and infirmities, as I 
commotions •, and befides, it is of longer could eafily make appear, were it my 
continuance, for the Lacedemonian com- intention to rip up the frailties of religious 
monwealth did continue above five hun- and virtuous princes. But what I fay, is 
dred years without change,and the Venetian to mew that princes are men, and are fub- 
commonwealth hath continued twelve jeftj as well as others, to pafiions and infir- 
hundred years, and never fuffered but three mities ; and therefore that a well compo- 
mutations. The only bane of the arifto- fed monarchy is to be preferred before an 
cracy is, when it becomes factious, for abfolute monarchy, and that good laws, 
then it becomes fuddenly arbitrary, as it made by the parliament of England, were, 
is judicioufl y noted by Sir % Walter Ralegh, and are wholfome reins to keep in the ir- 
Ofajuft But abfolute monarchy,in the opinion of regular pafiions and ambition of princes, 
and abfo- the beft politicians, is the beft of the three But to return where I left ; although an 
lute mo- f im pi e governments, provided the heart abfolute prince hath the fupreme power of 
narch y- f t j ie p r j nce De fanctified, and endowed government in his hands, and doth enjoy 
with fupernatural graces ; otherwife it is the four prerogatives/poken of before, yet 
apt to become arbitrary. I confefs it is is he bound to rule, as near as he can, ac- 
moft like unto the divine government, cording to the law of God, of nature, and 
becaufe there is but one God, diftinguifh- of his realm, and to ufe his fubjects, as the 
ed in three perfons, that doth rule and good father of a family doth his children 
govern heaven and earth ; and like the and fervants ; for if he opprefieth them 
family government, of whom the father with cuftoms, taxes, and contributions, or 
of the family is chief and fole lord : but doth not execute juftice and judgement 
God is the perfection itfelf, and is not, like impartially, but fuffereth injuftice, rapines, 
men, fubjeel; to pafiions and infirmity, and extortions to reign, he falsifies the 
and there is great difference between the oath taken at his coronation, and degene- 
ambition of the father of a private fa- rates from that truft repofed upon him, 
mily, and of an abfolute prince, that viz. to be the nurfing father, and the pro- 
hath under his command millions of men ; lector and defender of his people ; and fo 
befides, among the Roman a emperors that by degrees alienates the love and affection 


y Ariptle, Contarini, and Bodin. 2 Sir Walter Rahgb, lib. 3. chap. 9. p. 89. 

a See Suetonius, Herodian, and Dion, in the lives of the Roman emperors. b See ill and 2d books 

©f Kings. « See the hiftories of S]>ain, France, and England. 

concerning Government. xxxiii 

of his fubjects from him, which is the tber, the earl of Aftramara, out of am- 
fureft and ftrongeft guard of a prince. bition to reign alone, and alfo by a juft 
Of oil- Which way foever I caft mine eyes, judgment of God upon that tyrant, that 
garcby, or whether upon the Roman, Greeks Spanijh, had murdered his mother, his wife, and 
divided French, or Englijh hiftories, I find oli- his two younger brothers, and many great 
monarchv ' garcby to have been destructive to the noblemen of Spain. Eighthly? 1 Clotaire, the 
princes and kingdoms that have ufed firft of that name, king of France, divided 
or practifed the fame ; as may be proved his kingdom between his four fons, which 
by feveral in.ftances. Firft, d Romulus and was the caufe of bloody wars between 
Remus, brethren, divided the Roman thefe brethren, and the overthrow of them, 
monarchy between them, but Romulus, Ninthly, m Lewis, called le Debonaire, em- 
out of ambition to reign alone, flew peror and king of France, divided his do- 
his brother Remus, and the Roman fenate minions alfo between his three fons, which 
having chofen Tatius in his place, Romu- brought on great civil wars, and at laft 
lus flew him alfo for the fame caufe. Se- the utter overthrow of fome of them. 
condly, the e Decemviri, or government by Tenthly, and laftly, William the conqueror 
Ten, having ufurped the Roman govern- having divided Normandy from the crown, 
ment, divided the fame between them- and given the fame to Robert Courtois his 
felves, but by their tyranny, and the en- eldeft fon, Henry the firft, king of England, 
raged luft of Appius Claudius, one of the his younger brother, to obtain the fame, 
ten, the common people rofe up in made cruel war againft Robert, and at laft 
arms, imprifoned Claudius, and exiled the caft him into prifon, and put put his eyes : 
reft -, and he, to avoid the hands of juftice, for which inhumanity, God, by a juft 
poifoned himfelf, which brought on a retaliation, did avenge his blood upon 
change in the Roman commonwealth, the children of Henry, who were all of 
Thirdly, f Ca?far, CraJJus, md Pompey, having them, Maud excepted, caft away at fea. 
ufurped the fupreme power of the Roman By thefe inftances it may be obferved, that 
ftate,divided the fame between them,Craf- this kind of government is fatal and de- 
fus went into Armenia, Cajar into France, ftructive, becaufe of the natural ambition 
and Pompey remained in Italy ; CraJJus of men, to all thofe that practife the fame, 
being (lain by the Parthians, Cajar came Eleclive monarchy was in little ufe of the 
with his army into Italy, where overthrow- in ancient times, for Saul was the fafotUBivt 
ing Pompey in the plain of Pharfalia, he eleclive prince that we read of, and had monarc V' 
changed the Roman democracy into an not he been rejected of God, his fon Jona- 
imperious monarchy. Fourthly, after Cajar than had fucceeded him : the firft Roman 
was flain by % Brutus and Cajfius, Auguftus, kings were alfo elective kings, and n Darius, 
Lepidus, and Anthony, divided the empire fon of Hyftajpes, king of Perfia, was alfo 
between them, but in a fhort time after, elected by the feven princes of Perfia : or, 
Auguftus, ambitious to reign alone, over- as fome would have it, by the neighing of 
threw them both. Fifthly, Septimus Severus, his horfe. The elective kingdoms now are 
having divided the empire between his only Poland and Sweden ; tho' the empire 
two fons, h BaJJianus Caracalla, and Geta, of Germany is alfa, by its ancient inftitu- 
within two years BaJJianus flew his brother tion, elective. 

Geta in his mother's arms. Sixthly, old The fupreme power of the elective go- 
Andronicus, having divided the empire of vernment is divided between the prince 
Conftantinople between himfelf and his and the nobles •, becaufe it is a compofed 
young coufin Alexius, foon repented him monarchy, partly ariftocratical, and partly 
of his generofity, and caufed this harmlefs monarchical : the inconveniences of it are 
prince to be ftrangled, after he had moft thefe 5 1. The nobles lord it over the corn- 
cruelly murdered the emprefs his mother, mons, as the Danes did anciently here in 
and procured the lady l Mary, and Cajar England. 2. It is fubject, between the 
her hufband, daughter and fon-in-law to death of one prince, and the election of 
the former emperor, to be poifoned •, but another, to fall into a confufed anarchy, 
this cruel tyrant was, by a juft retaliation in which time many rapines, extortions, 
of God, hanged up by the heels, by and murders are committed. 3. It fo- 
IJaac Angelus, who fucceeded him in the ments great divifions, factions, and parties 
empire. Seventhly, Don Pedro k Crudello, in the ftate upon every new election, fome 
king of Spain, was flain by his own bro- nobles ftanding for this prince, and others 
Vol. I. K for 

d Liyius, in his i ft Decade, lib. 1. e Livius, in his ift Decade, lib. 3. f See Plutarch, 

in their Lives. s See Appian, in the Roman civil wars. h See Herodian, in their 

Lives. » See the Greek and Turkijh Hiftory, from p. 49, to p. 53. k See the Spanijh 

Hiitory, in his life. > See the Hiftory of France. m Sec Spetd, and Sir Walter 

Rakgh in his preface. ■ Herodotus, in his life. 

xxxiv An Introductory Difcourfe, 

for that ; from which arifeth oftentimes a tern of temperance and moderation to all 
bloody civil war. 4. It is of fmall continue- other princes ; and as it fell out with the 
ance ; becaufe the nobles at every election above-named Henry the third, king of 
incroach upon the regal power, and Poland, who was in his youth as hopeful, 
many times depofe their princes upon virtuous, and valiant a prince, as any was 
fmall occafions, as the Danes did a Chrifti- then in Chrijlendom, and yet towards the 
erne the fecond (who was forced to fly middle of his age, he became fo timorous 
with his wife and children into Zealand, to and effeminate, that he was like to be de- 
fave his life, and to prevent their fury,) prived of his life and crown by the ambi- 
and, in his ftead, chofe Frederick his un- tious duke of Guife. So that in the judge- 
cle, who, to obtain the crown, was forced ment of the beft e politicians, the fuccef- 
to yield to hard conditions: and fo was five monarchy doth far excell, in excellency 
Henry duke d^Anjou, when the Polanders and duration, that which is elective, 
made him their king; for they fo in- The imperious monarchy and the elective Of the 
croached UDon his royal authority, that feem to be two extremes ; for the prince in imperious 
as foon as his brother Charles the ninth was this hath too much power, and in the elect- monarch y' 
dead, he fled from them, defiring rather to ive too little ; for in the imperious monarchy, 
be king of France, than a titular king of the prince is fupreme lord, and the lives, 
Poland-, and fo they did towards Sigifmun- lands, and goods of his fubjects are abfo- 
dus, king of Sweden. And by thefe in- lutely at his difpofal. And therefore this 
croachments the elective monarchies do in government is neither warrantable by the 
a fhort time become ariftocracies. But law of God, nor of nature ; for it is a mere 
The favourers of elective monarchies arbitrary government. The imperious go- 
objedl thefe reafons in commendation vernments now in ufe are thefe, the Great 
of them : 1 . That they are free from the Mogul, the Crim 'Tartar, the Great Turk, 
minority of young princes, by whofe tu- the emprefs of Ruffia, and the Spanijh go- 
tors great inconveniencies happen to a vernment in the Wejl-Indies. 
ftate •, and produce the carriage of b Ri- I fhall only need to give you the follow- 
chard the third, againft his two hopeful ing inftance, to fhew the tyranny of .this 
nephews ; and the ambitious carriage of fort of government. Sir f Hierome Bofe, 
Katherine of Medicis, who was the caufe queen Elizabeth's ambaffador to Mufcovy, 
of the overthrow of her three fons, Fran- was royally entertained by the great duke, 
cis the fecond, Charles the ninth, and or czar, who invited him to a feaft, and, 
Henry the third, all three kings of France, after dinner, to ride a hunting with him ; 
one after another. 2. That the fucceflive when being come into a campaign country, 
monarchy is tied, whether their princes in the midft of which was a very fteep 
be capable or not to govern, to admit of rocky hill, and the duke and SirHierome dil- 
them as they be, and produce c Childerick courfing upon the obedience of fubjects 
the fourth, and Charles the fixth (the lu- towards their prince, the duke called one 
natic king of France) : but the elective of his greater! courtiers, and charged him 
monarchy hath this advantage, that they to ride up that hill, and to fet fpurs to his 
are free from the government of children horfe, and to gallop down again as hard as 
or of tutors, or from insufficient princes ; he could drive ; but in coming down, both 
becaufe they can make choice of princes the gentleman and his horfe broke their 
in the flower of their age, and of ap- necks. Then the duke, in a fmiling man- 
proved wifdom and valour. But to thefe ner, afked Sir Hierome Bofe, whether his 
reafons the favourers of the fucceflive mo- queen had any fubjects fo ready to obey her 
narchy reply ; that if the old princes be commands as he had ? He anfwered, that 
careful to appoint wife and faithful tutors he was perfuaded fhe had ; but that his 
to their children (as d Henry the fifth, king queen made confcience to give any fuch 
of England, and Lewis the thirteenth, commands to the meaneft of her fubjects. 
king of France, have done) the firft Now the reafons why the Politicians diflin- 
inconvenience may be prevented ; and for guifh the imperious monarchy from the 
the fecond, that they maybe deceived in arbitrary, are thefe following: 1. They 
their choice ; for it often falls out, that fay, that it is continued by cuftom, or 
hopeful princes in their youth become cruel eftablifhed by conqueft, and therefore no 
tyrants in their middle age, as did the em- tyranny : (juft as if they fhould fay, that 
peror Nero, who, in the firft three years evil is no evil, becaufe it is cuftomary in 
of his reign, might have ferved as a pat- thefe days.) But bad cuftoms mull be an- 


a See Sleidan, in his Commonwealth. b See Speed and Stow, in Richard's Life. 
c See the Hiftory of France. d See the Chronicles of England and France. 

c See Contarini and Bodin, in their Commonwealth, f See the Narrations of the Mu/covy 

concerning Government. xxxv 

nihilated by chriftian princes. 2. It is odious in this age, tho' anciently it was ra- 
lawful for the conqueror to eftablifh ther a term of honour than of ignominy, as 
what laws he pleafes over a conquered na- may appear by the letters of Plato, written 
tion. I anfwer, that it is not lawful to Diony/ius ; the fubfcription being thus, to 
for a chriftian prince to eftablifh an impe- Dionyftus the elder, tyrant ofSyracufe. Befides, 
rious government upon a conquered na- princes or rulers are not to be called ty- 
tion, whether they be pagans or chrifiians ; rants, except they have fold themfelves to 
nor for a heathen prince, except he will commit all manner of impiety and wick- 
trample under feet the law of nature ; for ednefs, as it is recorded of a Ahab king of 
1 Greeks and Romans, that were heathen, did lfrael ; for the belt and moft religious 
eftablifh their own laws among thofe na- princes have had their failings and infirmi- 
tions that were conquered by them •, ties : but when they contract a conftant ha- 
and u William the conqueror did of him- bit of fin, oppreffion, and cruelties, as theie 
felf, or by the counfel of his barons that following, then men may call a fpade a 
came over with him, annihilate within fpade, and a tyrant a tyrant. Among the 
few years the imperious government of the Roman emperors Caligula, Nero, Domitian, 
fword, that he had practifed in England in and Heliogahalus may be termed tyrants ; 
the beginning of his reign, and did eftab- and among the Greeks, Andronicus the eld- 
lifh the Norman laws ; and his fucceffors er •, among the Mufcovites, Evan Wafila- 
afterwards granted magna charta, and eftab- wick ; among the Spanijh, Don Pedro il 
lifhed a well compofed monarchy, far bet- Crudello, or Peter the Cruel; among the 
ter, and more moderate than the laws of Italians, Alexander Borgia-, among the 
Normandy. But Ferdinand of Arragon, French, Charles the ninth : and among the 
x Charles the fifth, and Philip the fecond Englijh, Richard the third. Now the dif- 
King of Spain, in whofe reign the Weft- ferences in the carriage of a juft prince 
Indies were difcovered by Chriftopher Co- and of a tyrant are, 1. The juft prince 
lumbus, and afterwards conquered by the conforms himfelf and all his actions to the 
Spaniards, did not deal fo with the poor law of God, of nature, and of his realm, 
Indians : for after they had flain nineteen but the tyrant regards them not, and with 
y millions, they impofed upon them this contempt tramples them under his feet, 
imperious government, to keep them un- and makes his irregular will the rule of 
der like flaves ; for their lives, lands, and his actions. 2. The juft prince cherifheth 
goods are all at the difpofal of the merci- piety, and promotes religion, making the 
lefs Spaniards, who, inftead of inducing thefe word of God, and his worfhip, his de- 
poor heathens by a courteous and humane light •, but the tyrant takes his delight in 
carriage to embrace the chriftian religion, profanenefs and impiety. 3. The juft 
make them abhor and deteft the fame prince takes pleafure to fee his fubjects 
by their avarice and barbarous cruelties, increafe in wealth, and live in profperity, 
And it is conceived by the moft judicious and procures their peace and welfare ; but 
divines, that this inhumanity and impiety the tyrant hath no other aim, but to in- 
of the Spani/h nation doth duly draw God's rich himfelf, to fatisfy his lufts, to enjoy 
judgments upon their heads, and will atlaft his pleafures, and to fleece his fubjects to 
be the caufe of making them the moft con- the very skin. 4. The juft prince pardon- 
temptible nation under the fun; for their fub- eth the injuries done to himfelf, and pu- 
jects have revolted in many places. i.They nifheth the wrongs done toothers; but 
began in the z Netherlands, fo that feven the tyrant connives at publick offences, 
of the beft provinces fhook off their yoke, and vindicates cruelly the offences done 
2. The whole kingdom of Portugal, and to himfelf, -nay, the very words of men, 
the Eajt- Indies, freed themfelves from their if he conceives they blemifh his fame or 
fubjection. 3. To which I might add the reputation. 5. The juft prince is the 
revolution of the kingdom of Naples, Si- champion and preferver of the honour of 
cily, and Lombardy. So that it may be virgins and chafte matrons •, but the ty- 
obferved, that a juft and moderate govern- rant is their ravifher, and triumphs in 
ment makes monarchies to flourifh, and their fhame and difhonour. 6. The juft 
that imperious courfes throw them to the prince takes in good part the admonitions . 
ground. of his faithful b fervants and counfellors ; 
ti- My next enquiry is into arbitrary mo- but the tyrant rejects their wholefome coun- 
narchJ 110 narc ^ : ^ l1t we ^ ou ^ be cautious how we fels, and oftentimes out of fpleen and rage 
call princes tyrants ; for it is a name very • difgraceth them, or puts them to death for 



1 See Livitts, Tkucydides, and Plutarch. u See Speed, in ffi/Uam the conqueror's life. 

x See Guichardin. y See the hiftory of the Weft-Indies. z See the hiftory of 

the Netherlands. » 2 Kings xxi. arc, 25. k See Bodies Commonwealth, lib. 2. 


An Introductory Difcourfe, 

Of the 


their Faithful admonitions. 7. The juft more nobility than the French, and their 
prince endeavoureth to fettle love, unity, valour and experience in arms have been, 
and concord between his fubjects ; but the in my opinion, with their Salick law, the 
tyrant fows the tears of divifion and two fecondary caufes of the duration of 
contention among them. 8. The juft their monarchy. 3. For its duration and 
prince defireth to converfe with wife, continuance ; it is without queftion the 
grave, and learned men j but the tyrant moft ancient monarchy in Chriftendom: for, 
will be familiar with none but with fyco- according to feme of their authors, d Pha- 
phants, panders, and ruffians. 9. The ramond their firft king was crowned in 
juft prince is like a nurfmg father to his the year of our Lord 395, and according 
fubjects, and they are as dear to him as to others, in the year 420 ; fo that it is, 
his own children •, but the tyrant flies their at the leaft, of thirteen hundred twenty- 
company, and hates, and fears them. 10. five years (landing ; and in this time never 
The juft prince doth not apprehend his had but three races of princes, and fixty 
own danger, and greatly fears the publick's, five kings, and the monarchical govern- 
and doth endeavour to prevent their mi- ment was never changed. It is true, that 
feries and calamities ; but the tyrant doth in the firft and fecond race it fell divers 
not regard the common dangers, but fhakes times into an oligarchy, or divided monar- 
as a leaf at his own. 1 1. The juft prince chy, but that did not change the govern- 
prefers none to places of profit, honour, ment, as Parfons the jefuit doth falfely 
and truft, but juft, wife, and valiant endeavour to maintain in his third fpeech ; 
men ; but the tyrant prefers to fuch places for one of the brethren, among which it 
thofe that comply with his humour, and was divided, did always re-unite the fame 
are the emiflaries to his lufts and arbitrary into one. 4. For its extent ; except the 
courfes. 12. And laftly, The juft prince kingdom of all the Rujfias, it is the largeft 
is familiar with his fubjects, and doth kingdom in Chriftendom : for Spain, Hun- 
invite himfelf to their houfes and feafts ; gary, and Poland come fhort of it : 
but the tyrant flies their converfation, and and Denmark, Sweden, and Bohemia, are 
conceives their houfes and banquets to be but petty kingdoms to it ; neither would 
fo many fnares to intrap him. To con- England, Scotland, and Ireland, if they 
elude, tyrants are feared, not beloved, and were all joined in one, make fo large a 
feldom die a natural death, and after this continent, as France is at this prefent. It 
life their memory is abhorred ; but the is true, that it hath had its increafe, 
memory of juft princes endureth for ever. full growth, and declinations, as other 
France was anciently a compofed mo- monarchies have had ; for in the firft race, 
narchy •, for their three eftates reprefent- it increafed from Pharamcnd to Clouis the 
ed the democratical, the ariftocratical, and great, and decayed by the flowth of their 
the monarchical governments ; but at princes, who were called for that caufe 
this prefent it is in a manner an abfolute Faineants, until Childerick the fourth ; and 
monarchy, for their princes have by degrees under Charles Mar tell, and Pepin, it began 
incroached upon their fubjects liberties, fo to flourifh again, and came to its full 
that the French at this day have but few growth' and largeft extent in the days of 
fragments left of their ancient privileges, Charles the great, emperor and king of 
and thofe are in the hands of the nobili- France, who had Germany, the Low-Coun- 

ty. This monarchy is fingular in thefe 
four things, 1. In its c Salick law. 2. In 
the number of its nobility. 3. In its du- 
ration. 4. In its extent. 1. For their 
Salick law ; it is as ancient as the monar- 

tries, part of Spain and Italy, and all 
France under his command. This king 
was the fecond of the e fecond race, and 
then it began to decline again, untill the 
death of Lewis the fifth, to whom fuc- 

chy it r elf, nay, according to fome of ceeded Hugh Capet, the firft king of the 

their authors, it is three defcents ancienter ; third and laft race -, and in the reign of 

for it was not made, as fome conceive by Philip the fecond, called Auguftus, the 

Philip de Valois, to exclude the king of Eng- tenth prince of the laft race, it was great- 

land, Edward the third, from his right to ly enlarged ; and then it came again to 

the crown of France -, for in the firft race a very low ebb in the days of king John> 

of the French kings there were three nota- and Charles the fixth (the lunatic) by the 

ble precedents to prove the contrary ; and valour of Edward the third, and Henry 

two in the laft race, before Edward the. the fifth, kings of England : but it flourifh - 

third was born. 2. For the number of its ed again in the latter end of the reign of 

nobility ; no kingdom in Chriftendom hath Charles the feventh, and in the reign of 


c See the Inventory of France, 
Inventory of France, 

See the Hi.ftory of Girard da Haylan. 

£ee the 

concerning Government. xxxvii 

Lewis the eleventh, Charles the eighth, four fons, and five daughters, Francis the 
Lewis the twelfth, Francis the firft ; and feeond, Charles the ninth, and Henry the 
then from Henry the feeond, to Henry the third, who were all kings of France one 
third, it fell by the civil wars into a mifer- after another, and left no legitimate iffue, 
able condition, but it was again reftored and Hercules duke d' Alan f on, that died be- 
to its former glory by Henry the fourth, fore his brother Henry the third ; Eliza- 
and Lewis the thirteenth and fourteenth ; beth, the eldeft daughter, was married to 
fo that it is at this prefent at a larger ex- Philip the feeond, king of Spain, who had 
tent than ever it was, fince the days of Charles prince of Spain, and Elizabeth 
Charles the great. Eugenia, archduchefs of Flanders j Claude 
I fhall now mew, i. How the Salick law, was married to the duke of Lorrain, and 
and the number and valour of the nobili- Margaret was married to Henry the fourth, 
ty, have been the fupporters of the of the houfe of Bourbon, king of Navarre, 
French monarchy. 2. Which of their who was afterwards king of France, as 
princes have moll incroached upon the next heir by the mafculine line ; fo that 
French liberties. 3. What fragments are the crown of France had then fallen, but 
yet left of the French privileges. for the Salick law, into the Spaniards hands, 
1 . It is well known to thofe that are verfed by the right of Ifabella Eugenia, or to the 
in the French hiftories, that without their duke of Lorrain, by the right of his wife 
Salick law, the kingdom of France had fallen Claude. 

divers times into the hands of ftrangers, and 2. For the incroachers of the French 
by that means the monarchy had undoubt- liberties ; Charles the feventh was the firfti 
edly fuffered change. I will only give the and that more by accident, than witting- 
reader two inftances for brevity-fake : ly : for during his reign, the three eftates 
1 . It had fallen into the hands of the Eng- of France could not be fummoned, be- 
UJh nation in Edward the third's days, by caufe of the cruel wars between the Eng- 
his mother Margaret, daughter to Philip UJh and the French, by whom all taxes 
the fourth, called Le Bel, who left three and contributions impofed upon the peo- 
fons, 1. Lewis the tenth, called Hutin, or pie, that were formerly of no compulfive 
Turbulent. 2. Philip the fifth, called the power without the affent and confirma- 
Long. 3. Charles the fourth, called Le tion of the three eftates, were then raifed 
Bel, a wife and prudent prince. Thefe by the king's edicts. And fo the French 
three brethren were all kings of France king thenceforward took upon him to im- 
one after another ; Lewis the eldeft left pofe taxes by his own authority : and here 
a daughter called Jane, who was excluded began the French edicts to take place, 
from the crown, and her uncle Philip And Lewis the eleventh, fon to the faid 
crowned by the general afTent of the three Charles, a moft fubtle prince, made great 
eftates of France ; and this Philip left ufe of this opportunity, and impofed what 
Four daughters, who were alfo deprived taxes he pleafed upon his fubjects, until 
of the crown, and their uncle Charles the the court of parliament of Paris did op- 
fourth chofen king according to the Salick pofe courageoufly his edicts ; and Charles 
law i this Charles left two daughters, and the eighth, his fon, followed his fteps ; 
his queen with child, whereupon the three which was connived at, becaufe of the 
eftates of France were fummoned to ap- great war he waged in the kingdom of 
point who mould be tutor, or regent, if Naples. But Lewis the twelfth, a wife 
the queen had a fon: the competitors and juft prince that fucceeded him, by the 
were Edward the third, king of England, right alfo of the Salick law, for he was 
right heir to the crown by his mother's but his coufin-german, did not follow the 
right, according to other nations, but de- fteps of the faid princes, but would im- 
barred from it by the Salick law; and pofe no extraordinary taxes upon his 
' Philip de Valois, coufin-german by the fubjects, without the affent of the 
mafculine line, for his father Charles, three eftates ; and that rarely, altho' 
earl of Valois, was brother to Philip le he maintained great wars in Italy all the 
Bel, and fon to Philip the third, called days of his life : by which moderation the 
the Hardy, or the Stout ; when by the kingdom of France flourifhed in his time, 
unanimous confent of the three eftates of This Lewis had alfo no male iffue by Anna 
France, Philip de Valois was appointed to duchefs of Bretaigne, but one daughter, 
be regent, if the queen had a fon, and to and knowing that fhe mould be excluded 
be king, if fhe had a daughter, according to the crown by the Salick law, and that his 
the fundamental laws of the kingdom, coufin Francis de Valois and duke d*An- 
2. Henry the feeond, king of France, left goulefme fhould fucceed him, he married 
Vol. I. L her 

f See Girard du Hay Ian, and the Inventory of France. 

xxxviii An Introdu&ory Difcourfe, 

her to the faid duke, by which marriage, but Charles Martell, then high conftable 

the large and rich duchy of Bretaigne of France, having fummoned all the French 

was annexed to the crown of France. This nobility to repair to his army, and recon- 

king, by means of the great wars he had ciled himfelf with Eudon, he overthrew 

with the emperor Charles the fifth, and the Saracens in a pitch'd battle, in which 

Henry the eighth, king of England, was Abderame their king was flain, and above 

inforced in fome fort to follow the three hundred thoufand men. 3. By 

ileps of Lewis the eleventh, yet with the valour alfo of the French nobility, 

more moderation •, but Henry the fecond, his Charles the feventh, king of France, ref- 

fon, by his prodigality, and free-hearted cued his kingdom out of the hands of the 

difpofition, did greatly increafe the bur- Englijh nation, in the days of Henry the 

den of his fubje&s, and fo did his three fixth, king of England, as foon as the va- 

fons, Francis the fecond, Charles the ninth, liant dukes of Bedford and Somerfet were 

and Henry the third, which Henry the dead. 4. Henry the fourth, king of 

fourth was alfo forced to continue, to pay France, recovered his kingdom out of the 

his debts ; and Lewis the thirteenth fol- hands of the Spaniards, and the Catholick 

lowed his fteps, becaufe of the continual leaguers, by the valour of his nobility, 

wars he had in Italy, Catalonia, Ger- and drove away the duke of Parma, with 

many, and Flanders -, and therefore it his great army, in greater hafte than he 

is no wonder, that the French peafants came in. And to fhew that the French 

are fo poor, and over-burdened with taxes, liberties that remain, and the power of 

For Lewis the eleventh, called the fox, that kingdom, confift at this day in the 

or great politician, did cunningly exempt all French nobility, I will relate a pafiage 

the French nobility, and laid all the bur- which happened in the latter end of the 

den upon the yeomanry -, for he knew that reign of Lewis the thirteenth. That king 

the nobility are the very pillars of a mo- having been perfuaded by his court projec- 

narchy, and that it was impofiible for him tors to impofe a tax of fmall concernment 

to become an abfolute prince, if he op- upon his nobility, they unanimoufly pro- 

prefs'd his nobility : for had he impofed tefted againft it, as being contrary to their 

fuch taxes upon the nobility, as he did up- ancient privileges ; and the Spaniards have- 

on the yeomanry, a general rebellion had ing notice of the difcontent that was then 

happened, by which he had been endan- between the king and his nobility, came 

gered to lofe his crown. And that is the with a great army into Picardy, and took 

reafon why the French nobility is yet at many ftrong holds from the French ; the 

this day as free as any nobility in Chriften- king moved with this attempt, marched 

dom : for they pay no taxes at all, and only with a foot army of twenty thoufand men, 

ierve the king, in his wars, with a man and two or three regiments of horfe that 

and two horfes for three months gratis, he kept under his own pay, and fummon- 

according to the firft inftitution of the mo- ed all his nobility to meet him at an ap- 

narchy. By which policy, and their Sa- pointed rendezvous, as they were obliged 

lick law, the French monarchy hath con- by their 4 charter ; but they abfolutely re- 

tinued, as I have faid before, longer than fufed to appear, becaufe the king went 

it had done, without thefe two maxims about to infringe their privileges : the 

of ftate ; for by their number and valour king at their anfwer was much incenfed ; 

they have divers times preferved the king- whereupon the old marfhal b De la Force 

dom from ruin, and utter defolation, as drew the king apart, and in an humble 

it appears by thefe inftances. 1.* Me- manner told him, that thofe who perfuaded 

roveus, their third king, by the valour of him to impofe the late tax upon his nobi- 

the French nobility, and the aid of Aetius, lity, were traitors to him and to the ftate, 

lieutenant of the emperor Valentinian the for it was the only way to undo him and 

third, and of Therry king of the Goths, his whole kingdom, by fomenting dif- 

overthrew Attila king of the Huns, who contents between him and his nobility, 

had enter'd France with an army of that had been from the beginning of the 

three hundred . thoufand men, and flew French monarchy to that day the fupport- 

in one day one hundred and fourfcore ers of it ; and therefore did humbly be- 

thoufand of his army. 2. Abderame king feech hismajefty that he would be pleafed to 

of the Saracens, having been invited into repeal this tax, and he would pawn his 

France by Eudon duke of Guienne, or Gaf- head, that before fifteen days his ma- 

coigne, came with an army confifting of jefty mould be attended with ten thoufand 

four hundred thoufand men, near the city gentlemen, well armed, and well horfed, 

of Tours t to fubdue the French nation ; to fight and repell the Spaniards. The 


a See the Inventory of France, in his life. * See the memorable paffages of the life of Lfwis the XHIth, 

concerning Government. xxxix 

king, as a wife prince, gave him thanks it, and of the fertility of the foil ; for the 
for his counfel, and embraced him, com- large and barren plains of Scythia and Tar- 
mending his loyalty, and caufed immedi- tary, nor the fleep and craggy mountains 
ately this edict to be repealed, and charged of Switzerland and Wales, were never con- 
that couriers mould be fent with all fpeed, quered by the Romans ; becaufe the penury 
into all his provinces, to acquaint all his of the inhabitants, and the barrennefs of 
nobility how he had been abufed by fyco- the foil, had not been able to countervail 
phants,who had perfuadedand misinformed the charges of the conqueft. But the rich 
him in this cafe ; and that he had now re- and fertile countries of Greece, Theffaly 
ftored and confirmed them again to their Armenia, Egypt, Syria, Judaa, Arabia 
ancient privileges. Upon this report, the Fcelix, Barbary, Numidia, Sicily, Spain, 
nobility from all parts repaired to his army, France, Germany, and England, have been 
fo that within a fortnight he had to attend the prey of divers nations. But becaufe 
him above twelve thoufand gentlemen, the conquefts of the Saxons and Danes were 
well armed, and well horfed ; by whofe full of changes, and their government ra- 
valour, and the aid of the foot foldiers, ther an oligarchy, than a well-compofed mo- 
he recovered fuddenly the holds the Spa- narchy ; I will pafs them over, and begin 
niards had taken, and drove their army at * William the conqueror, who began his 
into Flanders, where they were purfued by reign in the year of our Lord 1066; 
the French nobility to the gates of Brujfels. whereby it appears, that the Englifh mo- 
3. And laftly, concerning the few frag- narchy hath continued, without change, 
ments that the French have left of their fix hundred and feventy-eight years, 
ancient liberties. 1. The French nobility and from that time to this it hath been 
are free, as it hath been (hewed, although fucceflive and hereditary, the propinquity 
the yeomanry is kept under a hard fer- of blood having been oftentimes preferred 
vitude. 2. The commons have this li- to the lineal defcent, againft the cuftom of 
berty, that none of them can be preffed France, and other hereditary kingdoms ; 
to go to the king's wars againft their wills, for William Rufus, and Henry the firft, 
3. That all edidts concerning impofts and ufurped the lineal right of Robert Curtois ; 
taxes can have no compulfive power, except and Stephen incroached upon the lineal 
they are firft ratified and confirmed by right of the emprefs Maud, and Henry the 
the feven courts of parliament of France, fecond, her fon ; and John, upon the lineal 
which are thefe,Paris, Roan, Reignes, Bor- defcent of prince Arthur, duke oiBretaigne, 
deaux, Thouloufe, Grenoble, and Aix in Pro- and Henry the fourth, upon the lineal 
.vence; by which it appears, that the French right of Richard the fecond, grandchild 
monarchy is not yet altogether abfolute. to Edward the third, and fon to Edward 
But as concerning the four prerogatives be- the black prince ; and then it came again 
longing to the fupreme power, they are into the lineal defcent, in Edward the 
abfolutely in the king of France's own fourth, and was overthrown by Richard 
hands, for he and his privy-council the third, who deprived his two nephews 
proclaim war, and conclude peace; he both of their right and lives ; and then it 
nominates the chiefeft officers of the crown, came again into the lineal defcent by the 
whether they be ecclefiaftical, civil, or marriage of the lady Elizabeth, heir of 
military ; he abrogates old laws, and con- the houfeof Tork, with Henry the feventh, 
firms new ; only they are to be ratified by earl of Richmond, and heir of the houfe of 
the courts of parliament j and it is only Lancafter, and fo to this day hath confi- 
ne that can grant remifiions or pardons to nued in a juft lineal defcent; fo that the 
criminal offenders. And as for the three laft race of the b French kings is only 
eftates, or les grand jours, in which the threefcore and eighteen years more ancient 
greateft officers of the crown were anci- than the race of the kings of England, for 
ently convicted, condemned, and puniflied Hugh Capet, the firft king of the laft race 
for their mifdemeanors, they are at this of the kings of France, began his reign 
day hardly fummoned in a king's reign : in the year of our Lord 988, and William 
So dangerous it is for a nation to let itfelf the conqueror began to reign in England in 
be deprived of its ancient liberties and the year 1066. 

privileges. The Englijh monarchy was, in the days 

England, the greateft and the richeft of William the conqueror, under an impe- 

ifland in the ocean, was no fooner freed rious government, as it appears by the ac- 

monarc y f rom ^ R man y ke,but it was fuccefiively tions of his life, for he ruled by the power 

over-run by the Saxons, Danes, and Nor- of the fword ; and yet by the wifdom of 

mans ; an infallible fign of the richnefs of the archbifhop of Canterbury, c Stigand^ 


See Speed's Chronicle. * See the Inventory of France. c See Speed, p. 42 1 . 

x l An IntroduBory Difcourfe, 

and the noble courage of Egleftne, abbot of officers and fervants that had been faithful 
St.Auguftine, Kent was never conquered, to his father, and in the cafhiering of 
but came to a capitulation with king thofe that fomented the divifions between 
William, who came of his own accord, to- him and his father ; and as much piety, 
wards the latter end of his reign, to be by undertaking a voyage into the f holy 
more moderate: And his {ovWilliam Rufus, land, becaufe he had in his youth been dif- 
havins; fallen fick, promifed to reftore the obedient to his father. At his coronation he 
Eng UJh to their former liberties •, but being took an oath to maintain the clergy in their 
recovered, he returned to his imperious privileges, and his fubje&s in their anci- 
courfes. d ' Henry the firft, fucceeding him, ent liberties, and to abrogate bad laws, 
ruled with more wifdom and moderation ; and to eftablifh thofe that were good ; and 
and Stephen, the incroacher upon the right at his return from the holy land, he ob- 
of the emprefs Maud, was inforced to ca- tained a great victory over the French, at 
pitulate with his nobles and great prelates, the battle of Gyfors. He was the firft 
andj by an oath, to promife to reftore the that added to the Englijh arms this motto, 
Englijh to their ancient laws and liberties ; Dieu & mon droit ; and was (lain by a crofs- 
but for want of performing the fame, great bow archer before Chateau-Gaillard, in the 
contentions and civil broils arofe between province of Limoges, in France. King 
him and his nobles and prelates ♦, and the John, his brother, fucceeded him, for he 
emprefs Maud being invited over into Eng- died without iffue, who was inforced to 
land, her party grew fo ftrong, that Ste- capitulate with his barons and clergy, and 
phen was taken prifoner, but at laft re- to grant them a charter of their ancient 
leafed, for Robert, natural brother to the liberties •, his reign was troublefome and 
emprefs Maud-, and her fon Henry Fitz- full of civil contentions, by the imperious 
Emprefs being come into England, an carriage of Hubert archbifhop of Canter- 
agreement was procured by the nobles and bury, and other factious prelates, and fome 
prelates, that Stephen mould remain king difcontented barons, by whom he was in- 
for his life, and that Henry mould fucceed forced, to the difgrace of himfelf, and of 
to the crown. Henry the fecond, the firft the whole kingdom, to pay a yearly penfion 
of the Plantagenets, and fon of the em- to the s pope, as if Mngland had been a 
prefs Maud, and of Jeffery duke d'Anjou, fee of the Roman hierarchy ; which ear- 
by the marriage of Eleanor, duchefs of riage of his did fo incenfe the greateft 
Guienne and Aquitain, became a great and part of the nobility and clergy, that they 
potent prince, for he was not only king of craved aid out of France, and fo Lewis 
England, but alfo duke of Normandy, Gui- the Dolphin came over with a great army ; 
enne, Aquitain, Bretaigne,Anjou, Main, and but king John having been perfidioufly 
Tourain, and at laft lord of Ireland-, he poifoned by a fryer, Lewis and his French 
was the firft that eftablifhed a privy coun- army were difmiffed, and fent back 
cil of the wifeft peers and prelates of the into France. His fon, Henry the third, 
land ; and called a parliament at Clarendon fucceeded him, who was divers times in- 
in Wiltjhire, where the laws, called avita, forced to capitulate with his fubjects, and 
were confirmed ; and his fecond fon Henry obliged to ratify and confirm the charters 
having, by his father's procurement, been of their ancient privileges and liberties ; 
admitted by the clergy and nobility as by which means the imperious government 
heir apparent to the crown, and acknow- of England was changed to a well-compofed 
ledged as king of England ; this divifion monarchy of democracy, ariftocracy, and 
of the fupreme power between the father monarchy, and fo hath continued ever 
and the fon, was the caufe of the civil fince •, only fome princes have endeavoured, 
broils that followed, which were fomented in imitation of the French kings, to bring 
by the difcontented barons and the prelacy, the fame by degrees to an abfolute monar- 
and efpecially by the imperious carriage of chy. But as all compofed monarchies are 
Thomas Becket, archbifhop of Canterbury : like unto a mufical inftrument, that can 
But the younger Henry being deceafed be- afford no melody (although the artift that 
fore his father, Henry the fecond, a wife plays upon it be never fo fkilful in his art) 
and valorous prince, left the crown to Ri- except the firings of it be tuned alike, 
chard the firft, called cceur de lion, for his fo the government of England being corn- 
valour and undaunted courage ; who took pofed of democracy, ariftocracy, and mo- 
upon him the title and power of king of narchy, it is impoflible the inftrument of 
e England, before he was crowned, and the commonwealth fhould yield a fweet 
before he came over into England ; and harmony of peace, except every one of 
fhewed great wifdom in advancing all the thefe (between whom the fupreme power 


* See Speed, p. 443. ' Ibid. p. 468, 469. f Ibid. p. 144. « Ibid. p. 459. 

concerning Government. xli 

of the ftate is divided) enjoy their juft valour of Edward the firft, his fori, and 

prerogatives •, for if the ballance be not decayed again under his fon, n Edward 

kept in a juft counterpoife, and fall never the fecond, and was reftored in the days of 

fo little toward any of thefe three, there Edward the third ; for he was the firft of 

will enfue upon it a change in the govern- the Englijh kings that inriched his arms 

ment of the ftate, as hath been fhewn with the three French flower-de-lis ; and 

in the elective monarchy, which is apt to then it declined again in the days of Ri- 

fall into an ariftocracy, becaufe the nobles chard the fecond, and came to its greateft 

at every new ele&ion do anticipate upon extent and glory in the reign of Henry the 

the royal prerogatives; and as it hath been fifth, and by the civil wars of England 

ihewn, that Lewis the eleventh incroached came to its bweft ebb in the days of Henry 

purpofely upon the liberties and privileges the fixth, and then revived a little in the 

of the French yeomanry, to reduce the days of Edward the fourth, and was rent 

French nation under an abfolute monarchy; again afunder by the ambition of Richard 

and { Henry the feventh, out of a con- the third, and then reftored by the wifdom 

trary policy, began in his days to give pf Henry the feventh, and maintained by 

the balance to the Englijh commons, the valoyr of Henry the eighth ; again it 

for he brought his nobility low, and loft Calais and Guiennes, in queen Mary's 

raifed the commons ; fo that the Englijh days, and was reftored into a flourifhing 

monarchy inclines rather at this prefent to condition by the wifdom, policy, piety, 

fall into a democracy, than to an abfolute and the moderate government of ° queen 

monarchy, or to an ariftocracy ; becaufe Elizabeth, and increafed by the fuccefjion 

the greateft power of the kingdom is at of king James the firft, and again brought 

this time in the hands of the commons, into a lower and more defpifed condition 

The motives that induced k Henry the fe- than ever it was fince the conqueft, by the 

venth (held to be, by the beft authors, a civil divifions and unnatural war between 

wife and politick prince) to this courfe, king Charles the firft and his parliament, 

contrary to the approved maxims of the which entirely fubverted the monarchical 

maintainers of monarchies, might be thefe, government in Great-Britain and Ireland, 

i . He had obferved in the hiftory of Eng- and within the fpace of twenty years changed 

land, that the civil broils wherewith this the form of the ftate Jeven times ; and 

kingdom had been grievoufly afflicted in loft many confiderable advantages to the 

the reign of ! Stephen, John, and Henry Englijh nation, which, to this day, have 

the third, kings of England, had proceeded never been retrieved. And thus I con- 

from the imperious carriage of the great elude the defcription of the feveral kinds 

barons and nobility towards their fovereign^ of governments in the known world. But 

2. That in all civil divifions, the difcon- Before I make an end of this fubjecT:, The cau- 

tented barons became the heads of parties, let me produce a few examples, to mew fes of the 

3. That the nobles are naturally more ambi- the principal caufes of the ruin of monar- ruin of 

tious, and apter to foment civil diffentions, chies ; which may be reduced to fix heads : ^ks*' 

than the commonalty. But let that be as viz. 1 . The crying fins of a nation, 

it will, we are fenfible that the Englijh mo- 2. Want of iffue. 3. The ambition of 

narchy, as well as France and other king- men. 4. The luft of rulers. 5. The 

doms, hath had its increafe, full growth, effeminate life of princes. 6. Heavy 

decay, and reftorations : 1. From William taxes and oppreffions. And 

the conqueror's time it increafed till 1. The crying fins of p Sodom and Go- 

m Henry the fecond ; for, as I have faid, the morrah inforced the Lord to come down 

faid Henry was a potent prince ; who, be- himfelf, to fee if their tranfgrefiions were 

fides England and Ireland, poffefTed feven fo criminal, as they might not be pardoned, 

of the beft provinces of France, which and arguing the cafe with Abraham, he 

did truly appertain to him by right of in- was fo gracious as to promife, that if ten 

heritance, the homage only excepted ; and only were found righteous in thofe cities, 

the revenue of thefe did far excell the re- he would pardon all the reft for their 

venues that Scotland affords at prefent : but fakes : but this fmall number could not be 

it fell to decay in Richard the firft, and found, and therefore the Lord confumed 

king John-, and came to fo low an ebb, them with fire and brimftone. 2. The 

that Henry the third refigned the right of crying fins of the q Amorites, Hivites, and 

his tranfmarine dominions to the French Canaanites were the only caufe why the 

king for a trifle. Then it increafed by the Lord made them to be deftroyed by the 

Vol. I. M people 

1 See Stow and Speed, in his life. k Ibid; » See the reigns of Stephen, John, 

and Henry the third. »" See Speed and Stow, in their reigns. R Ibid. 

• See the life of Queen Elizabeth. p Genejis, xix. 24. 1 Gevefu, xv. 16. 

xlii An Introductory Dijcourje, 

people of Ifrael; and his judgment came France, viz. z Francis the fccond, Charles 
not fuddenly upon them, for the Lord the ninth, and Henry the third, kindled 
was pleafed to flay till their iniquities were fuch a fire of civil war in France, that 
full, and gave them five hundred years could not be quenched by the blood of a 
time to repent ; for the people of s Ifrael million of men, and had caufed that king- 
were captives four hundred and thirty dom to fall into the Spaniards hands, if 
years, and this was fpoken to Abraham, the right of Ifabella Eugenia, eldeft daugh- 
whereby the long fuffering and patience ter to Philip the fecond, king of Spain, 
of God may be obferved towards poor and the laft feminine heir of the houfe 
miferable finners. 3. The impenitency of Valois, had not been annihilated by 
of the Jews for their crying fins and tranf- the French Salick law, that gave it to 
greffions, was the only caufe that moved Henry the fourth, of the houfe of Bourbon, 
Nebuchadnezzar to come up againft Jeru- as the next heir of the mafculine line. 
falem, and to burn the temple, raze the 3. By the ambition of men. 1. Ambi- 
walls, and to carry Zedekiah and the reft tion was fo predominant in the heart of 
of the people into l Babylon, to captivity ; a Gefar, that it made him trample under 
and this came not unawares, for they had his feet the law of nature, and of his alle- 
warning given them of it long before giance confirmed by a folemn oath made to 
by the prophets. 4. And lajlly, The the people and fenate of Rome, to obey and 
crying fins of the Jews, and their obfti- obferve punctually their orders ; and yet out 
nate impenitence, after they had been of ambition to make himfelf an abfolute 
admonifhed by our Saviour himfelf to re- monarch, when the fenate fent him divers 
turn unto the Lord, was the only caufe honourable commiffioners to enjoin him to 
why Jcrufalem was utterly deftroyed by difband his army, and refer the differences 
the emperor Titus, and all the Jews feat- he had with Pompey to the judgment and 
tered over the face of the earth, as they arbitration of the fenate, he did not only 
are at this day ; and this general defolation refufe to obey, but marched with the 
had been foretold forty years before it hap- fame army, that had been raifed by the 
pened. power of the people and the Roman fe- 
2. By want of hTue. 1. The only caufe nate, againft Rome, and deprived the fe- 
why the u Grecian monarchy was rent a- nate and his native country of their an- 
funder, and divided between the chief cient privileges and liberties. 2. It was 
commanders of Alexander the great, was ambition that moved the emperor b Baf- 
becaufe he left no iffue able to govern a /tan us Caracalla to trample the law of na- 
monarchy of that extent. 2. The kingdom ture under his feet, and to murder moft 
of England fell into the hands of a ftranger impioufly his own brother Geta in his mo- 
tor want of ifiue ; for x Herold ufurped the ther's arms, that he might reign alone, 
crown, and deprived Edgar Mtheling of 3. It was ambition which induced c Rich- 
his right, becaufe Edward the confeffor ard the third, king of England, to trample 
left no ifiue j and William duke of Nor- the law of God and of nature under his feet, 
•mandy, pretending more right to it than by imbrewing his hands in the innocent blood 
Herold, croffed the feas with a great army, of his two nephews, his own brother's 
and in a pitch'd battle flew Herold, routed fons, who had in his life-time greatly pre- 
his army, and fo made good his title by ferred him, and all to attain to the crown, 
the fword. 3. Jane, the laft queen of which he enjoyed but a fhort time, and 
7 Naples, by want of iffue, with her wan- that alfo with great perplexities of fpirit, 
ton life, and inconftant carriage towards the and terrors of confeience. 4. And lajlly, 
apparent heirs of the crown, fiding one It was ambition that did infatuate the 
day with the houfe of Arr agon, and fa- mind and judgment of the duke of d Guife, 
vouring another day the houfe of Anjou, to make attempt on his fovereign, Henry the 
kindled fuch a fire of contention between third, king of France ; or at lead to have him 
the houfes of Arragon and Anjou, that the fhaven, and caft into a cloifter •, and to bring 
blood of many thoufand men could not this his perfidious defign to pafs, he fo- 
quench the fame for many years. 4. And mented for many years together a moft 
lajlly, The want of iffue of the three laft bloody civil war in the bowels of France ; 
brethren of the houfe of Valois, that fuc- and when he was (at the three eftates affem- 
ceeded one after another to the crown of bled at Blots) ready to receive the reward of 


s Exod. xii. 40. t See the Prophecies of Ifaiab and Jeremiah. u £>ui»tus Curtlus, in 

Alexanders life. * See the Chronicles of Stow and Speed. / See the Hiftory of the King- 

dom of Naples. * See the Hiftory of France. a See his Commentaries, and Plutarch in his life. 

b See Herodian in his life. « See Speed and Stow in the Chronicles of England. d See the 

life of Henry the third. 

concerning Government. xliii 

his wicked defigns, it was pride and am- by the foldiers of his own guard ; not for 
bition that made him write thofe infolent any offence or injury received from him, 
words upon a ticket (that had been laid but by a juft judgment of God, becaufe 
under his napkin by fome confident friend of his voluptuous and lafcivious life, which 
of his, as he came to dinner the day be- was abhorred of all men, and did fo in- 
fore he was flain) with thefe contents, cenfe his foldiers, that they broke into his 
Save your fehes, or you are loft ; but he, palace, and having found him hidden in a 
without amazement, called to his page for privy, they hailed him out, with the em- 
a pen and ink, and wrote underneath, prefs his mother, and dragged them both 
They dare not do it ; and fo threw the ticket together (faying that the bitch and her 
under the table: but notwithstanding the whelps mould not be parted) up and down 
carnal fecurity of this ambitious duke, he the ftreets of Rome ; and when their fury 
was flain the next morning by the appoint- was paft, they threw their bodies into the 
ment of the king, as he was going through Tyber. 3. k Childerick the fourth, king of 
the privy chamber to the king's private France, was depofed, and made a monk, 
cabinet. by the unanimous confent of the three 
4. By the luft of rulers. 1. The rape eftates of the kingdom ; and Pepin, fon of 
of e Dinah, by Shechem the fon of Hamor, Charles Martell, conftable of France, was 
was the caufe of the utter overthrow of chofen in his place, becaufe of the lafcivi- 
the city, and of all the people thereof, ous and effeminate life of Childerick, who 
and of the death of Hamor, and of She- was the laft king of the firft race. 
chembis fon. 2. The rape of Lucre tia by 4. Charles the third, called the Jimple, of 
Sextus Tarquinius, fon to the king f Tar- the fecond race, and the eighth king after 
quinius the Proud, was the caufe that his Pepin, was alfo by the judgment of God 
father, his brethren, and himfelf were depofed by Raoul, king of Burgundy, al- 
banifhed, and their poilerity excluded though the faid Charles had a fon called 
from the royal dignity ; and that the go- Lewis, who was afterwards king of France, 
vernment of Rome, which was then an e- and the fourth of that name, who was 
leclive monarchy, was changed into a brought over into England by his mother, 
popular democracy. 3. The luft of daughter to king Edward, named by the 
s Appius Claudius, one of the decem-viri, French authors Ogine, and filler to Aide- 
(who had by violence ufurped the fupreme ftan, a Saxon, king of England. She,. like a 
power of the Roman commonwealth) to- virtuous and careful mother, brought up 
wards Virginia, a chafte virgin, was the Lewis her fon in her brother's court, and 
caufe that he made himfeJf away in pri- waited patiently until Raoul the ufurper 
fon, and that the reft of his colleagues was dead, who reigned not above ten 
and fellow decem-viri were banifhed, and years ; and then Ihe intreated her brother 
the ancient democratical government of Aldeftan, king of England, to fend embaf- / 
Rome reftored, that had been for three fadors to the peers and the three eftates of 
year sunder thefe ten tyrants. 4. The luft of France, to intreat them that her fon Lewis, 
h Roderigo, king of Spain,who having by vio- who was the right heir of the crown of 
lence diihonoured and defiled a Spanijh lady, France, might be reftored to his father's 
called Florinda, daughter to Don Julian, a dignity. The peers and the three eftates 
Spanijh earl, whom he had, on purpofe, affented to it, and fo the queen and her 
fent abroad as an ambaffador into Africa, fon returned to France, where he was 
was the caufe that the faid earl, to re- received with great joy and honour, and 
venge himfelf for this injuftice, brought in was crowned, and called Levis d' 'autre 
the king of the Moors with a great army Mer, becaufe he had been brought up 
into Spain, who deprived the faid Roderigo nine years in the Englijh court ; and the 
of his kingdom, and kept the greateft only reafon why his father was depofed, 
part of Spain under their fubjection for was becaufe he was of a fottifh, filly, and 
the fpace of feven hundred years. effeminate difpofition. 

5. By the effeminate life of princes. 6. And laftly, By grievous taxes and 

1. Sardanapalus, the laft prince of the firft oppreffions. Many ancient inftances could 

line of the Affyrian monarchy, was deprived be produced to prove this point •, but, for 

of his empire, by his two lieutenants, Be- brevity-fake, I will only make ufe of four 

lochus and Arbaces, for his lafcivious and modern examples : 1 . The grievous taxes 

effeminate life. 2. The emperor j Helio- and oppeflions laid upon the commons of 

gabalus was deprived of his life and empire, the ) Switzers and Grifons by the houfe 


e Gen. xxxiv. 12, 26. f Limius, Decade 1. lib, i. * Ibid. lib. 3. 

See the Spanijh Hiftory. i See Uerodian, in his life. k See the Inventory of France. 

1 See the Hiftory of Germany. 

xliv An Introduttory Difcowje } 

of Atfiria, and their imperious nobility, felves with the neceffaries and conveniences 
inforced them to a general infurre&ion, of life, by propagating a commerce be- 
to make off the yoke of the houfe tween all and each of thofe governments, 
of Aufiria, to kill or banifti all their nations or countries, wherein they were 
nobles, and change their ancient govern- difperfed; and this for the mutual good 
ment into thirteen cantons, or fmall com- and benefit of the whole, as well as for 
monwealths, the greater of them being the private gain and intereft of fbme in- 
ariftocracies, and the fmalleft democracies, dividuals of each place. Which com- 
2. The exceffive oppreflions of the Spa- merce has been improved from time to 
niards in the feventeen provinces of the time, according as the induftry, know- 
c Netherlands, both in the ecclefiaftical, ledge, neceffities, and love of riches have 
temporal, and civil government, inforced increafed in different dates, countries, and 
feven of thofe provinces to fall off from places : and is now become the principal 
their allegiance, and to make off the object and care of all kings and potentates ; 
Spanijh yoke ; and, by the power of the becaufe the return of commerce is riches 
fword, inforced the kings of Spain to and plenty, which fortifies countries with 
acknowledge them free Jiates ; and fo ftrength and reputation. 

from a monarchical government, they Trade or commerce in general may be What it is. 
have erected a commonwealth, partly ari- juftly defined a bufinefs or employment, 
flocratical, and partly democratical. 3. exercifed in the buying, felling, bartering, 
The grievous impofts and taxes laid upon and exchanging goods and commodities ; 
the French commons, by the French kings, which, in a naval fignification, extends to 
or their emiffaries, projectors or partizans, all traffick or merchandife, to and with 
was the caufe of great infurrections in the other countries •, and its effential parts are 
provinces of Anjou, Xanlonges, Poitou, commodities or goods of all forts, money, 
Gafcoigne, and Normandy, as it appears and exchange. Not that every one who 
in the d French hiftories ; and the new buys and fells goods is a merchant ; for 
taxes impofed at Paris, and other cities of thofe only are merchants, who traffick 
France, upon the houfes belonging to the in the way of commerce by importation or 
king's demefnes, caufed, in the year 1647, exportation, or carry on bufinefs byway 
great tumults, and popular commo- of emption, vendition, barter, permuta- 
tions ; and yet thefe disorders came not tion or exchange, and make it their bufi- 
by the king, for he was but a child ; but nefs to buy and fell, by a continual afiiduity 
from the avarice of the minifters of ftate, or frequent negotiation, in the myftery of 
who make monarchical government odious, merchandifing. Of whom we may ob- 
and are the caufe that kingdoms are rent ferve, that there is no profeflion in which 
afunder, and divided at laft into fmall more courage is required, than in this : 
principalities, or commonwealths. 4. And for merchants, who trade to foreign coun- 
laftly, the heavy and intolerable impofts tries, not only encounter and flrive amongfl 
laid by the king of Spain upon Portugal, men of various natures and capacities, but 
the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily, inforced fometimes againft the four elements to- 
them to fhake off the Spanijh yoke; gether. Therefore 

whereby it appears, that e Machiav-eVz My prefent intention is to give you alts rife 

principle is falfe and erroneous j who coun- jfhort account of the rife and progrefs of ' :nd V ro ~ 

felled his prince to keep his fubje&s low commerce. gre b " 

by taxes and impofitions, and to foment We may properly, and with the moft At Sidon. 

divifions among them, that he might awe certainty, fix the epocha or beginning of 

them at his pleafure; for daily experience commerce at Sidon, a city built, after the 

doth fhew, that plurality of parties, and Babel confufion, by Sidon, the eldeft fon 

grievous taxes and impofitions, are two of of Canaan, the grandfon of Noah, on the 

the moft dangerous motives to overthrow Mediterranean fea. Here it was, as I have 

monarchies and commonwealths, and that obferved before in this introduction, that 

unity, and moderation in affefsments and navigation firft began, and by that means 

taxes, upholds them, and makes them to not only eftablifhed colonies in the neigh- 

profper and flourifh. bouring iflands, but, by bringing together 

Of com- From the natural propenfity of human a great conflux of people from all parts, 

merce. nature towards felf-prefervation, it is natu- eftablifhed themfelves the merchants of 

ral to fuppofe, that having provided for the world, and their city, foon after aug- 

the mutual fecurityof every man's property, mented with 'Tyre, became the emporeum, 

in their refpective focieties or governments, or ftaple for merchandife to all nations, 

their next care was how to furnifh them- So truly it has been faid, that navigation 


See DemetriuSs Hiftory of the Netherlands. d See the Hiftory of France, c Maebiave!, in his Prince. 

concerning Commerce. xlv 

was the parent of trade -, and trade has al- countries they poffeffed were fruitful in 

ways been the fupport and encouragement abundance of the materials of trade, w'z. the 

of navigation : trade had never been con- moft extraordinary product of the earth for 

fiderable without (hips, nor could mips be exportation,and moft extraordinary product 

ufeful or valuable without trade. of a diligent induftrious people, in the moft 

At Car- In proceis of time we read that the Car- ingenious manufactures, for their confump- 

thage. thaginians, becoming a colony to the Ty- tionjbeing an employment ofthepoor,as well 

rians, and inheriting their enterprifing ge- in the nations about them, as of their own 

nius in trade, and their particular difpofi- fubjects ; and of their fhips, by exporting 

tion to improvements and difcoveries in them to, other countries : confequently they 

the world, continued to propagate navi- had both the ends of commerce in their 

gation, and to plant colonies in diftant own hands ; forafmuch as their numbers 

countries, with the fame vigour as the at home were able to confume the product 

Phoenicians of Tyre and Sidon had done of other countries, brought back by them 

before them. in return for what they had exported,which 

In Spain. This made them carry on their com- will appear more demonftrably in this ac- 

merce with Spain to an extraordinary de- count of their product. 

gree •, building, in the fouth parts thereof, The product of Africa, under the Gzr-Produdof 

New Carthage or Carthagena,Barcelona,and thaginian government, confifted in corn,^f rica - 

Malaga. Being thus well fituate for com- wine, oil, and fait, which are four capital 

merce, they divided with the Tyrians the articles of life ; and it abounded fo much 

trade of the whole world ; thefe trading in thefe, that there was always found a 

by land to Perjia, Paleftine, and Affyria, great furplus to fupply other countries that 

and to India, and the eaftern coaft of wanted them, and were glad to purchafe 

Africa, by the Red fea ; by which means them at fuch price as the merchants of 

all the rich filks of Perjia, the fpices and Carthage demanded. Here alfo was the 

gold of India, the gums, drugs, precious mart for iron and copper. The copper 

perfumes and ointments of Arabia, and, was the fineft in the world; which being 

in a word, all the wealth of the eaft was carried to Corinth, where the lapis calami- 

brought to the port of Tyre ; and thence naris is found, was melted down, and 

exported and difperfed throughout the produced the Corinthian brafs, which in 

weftern world, by the help of their colo- thofe days was efteemed of equal value 

nies eftablifhed at Carthage in Africa, Ca- with gold ; and the iron, dug out of the 

diz in Spain, Syracufa and Palermo in Si- bowels of Numidia, was bought up at a 

cily. And great price by the Grecians, Romans, and 

As to the Carthaginian trade, when we Spaniards. This country was alfo very 

remember that the city of Carthage, for fruitful in figs, almonds, raifins, lemons, 

a long time, fat as the queen of the fouth ; pomegranates, and other delicious fruits, 

and was the feat of commerce, as well as for exportation, as well as home confump- 

of empire, near the port of Golletta, com- tion. From hence was exported great 

manding the land by her victorious armies, quantities of horfes, of the Numidian breed, 

and the fea by her powerful fleets : how which at that time were efteemed the moft 

fhe was poffefled of all Africa, from Barca, beautiful and fwifteft in the world. And 

on the borders of Egypt, to Tangis or if we confider that fugar was not then 

Tangier, at the freights mouth, and from known in Europe, we muft believe that the 

thence fouth to Santa Cruz, cape Blanco, great quantities of honey and wax, produ- 

and cape de Verde : how the infinite, po- ced amongft them, became an extraordi- 

pulous, and powerful nation of Numidia, nary article in their merchandife. 

with their king Jugurtha, and the equally Hitherto I have confined myfelf to their 

populous Mauritanians, with their king merchandifes, that properly were the pro- 

Juba, were tributaries to this city and duct of the inland countries : but to thefe 

ftate : how the two ifland kingdoms of let us add thofe valuable commodities, 

Sardinia and Sicily had fubmitted to its which thofe merchant-adventurers im- 

force : and how they had extended their ported for fale, from the remoter coafts of 

conquefts over all Spain, except the prin- their conquefts,plantations or colonies ; and 

cipality of Afiurias, and the kingdom of were to be had in this or that particular 

Navarre ; over all Calabria in Italy, and country only ; fuch as the civet, emeralds 

great part of Tufcany ; and not only fub- and balm, fetched from Ethiopia by land ; 

dued the famous city of Capua, but were gold and elephants teeth, from the weft 

become a terror to Rome itfelf: what coaft, towards the cape de Verde,by fea -, and 

could deprive her of the next fhare in lions, leopards, tigers and oftriches, out 

' trade with the city of Tyre ? And of the defarts of Mauritania. But 

If to this extenfive power we add, that Now we approach to the period of^ he cr "" 

as they had a genius for commerce, fo the commerce 3 eftablifhed at Tyre &ndCarthage. e Jl x ° lJer 

Vol. I. N Y or the great. 

xlvi An Introductory Difcourfe, 

For Alexander the great, having taken the and the foldier has always been the plun- 
city of Tyre by ftorm, murdered 26000 derer of the induftrious merchant. How 
of the citizens in the heat of blood, vainly then do fuch men boaft of their va- 
hanged 2000 of the molt wealthy mer- Jour and gallantry in arms, crown them- 
chants on gibbets in rows for fix miles along felves with laurel, and affume the name 
the fhore, and did every thing to blot out of brave and great ; when their boafted 
the very name and remembrance of Tyre actions ought to make their very names 
and a Tyrian merchant on the earth ; and ftink in the noftrils of every wife and 
refolved to erect a new Tyre, by the name great man, and mould make them 
at Alexandria, at the mouth of the great odious to fuch as read them. In a word, 
river Nile, to be an emporeum of commerce, Alexander the great, and Scipio the brave, 
and to preferve the important trade of were the two furies of the world, that 
Egypt, Perjia, and the Indies. Thus overwhelmed commerce in the rubbifh or 
Trade at Alexandria, by its fituation, and the their conquefts, and never concerned 
Mexan. ru j n Q f <jy re ^ became a place of great themfelves with the lofs which all the 
traffick ; tho' far inferior to the trade of world felt by their folly and rage. By 
Tyre, which never recovered itfelf entirely, which means, not only the inhabitants, 
fo as to be fixed in any one place ever after, but the very places where fome of the 
but run into different channels. For the greateft cities flood, are not to be found, 
Eaft-India trade was carried on by the and the names of them are in a manner 
Egyptians and Arabians, whofe mips brought perifhed from the earth, 
filks, fpices, drugs, diamonds, pearls, cal- This was the fate of Carthage, and al- 
licoes, dying- Muffs, falt-petre, indigo, red moil of all the cities on the north and 
earth, &V. from India to Sues, a port in weft coaft of Africa ; and with this ruin 
the Red fea, at that time called Suz or trade felt the pangs of death, and all the 
Elim, and thence to Alexandria ; and from commerce of the world feemed to be at a 
. thence, the Venetians, getting into that ftand : for the adventurous temper ; the 
port, carried thofe goods all over the north- genius for dilcovery ; the application for 
ern world. But improvement, and planting and cultivate- 
In the Another large part of the India trade, ing ; the fearch after new coafts and coun- 
the Caf- wn ^ cn c ame from the Ganges, and the tries ; and building new cities and fea-ports 
plan fea. kingdom of Bengal, into Perjia, was for traffick •, the earneft thirfl after a trade- 
brought to Samereand, Perfepolis, and to ing-navigating glory, fell with the famous 
other parts on the Cafpian fea, to be tranf- Carthaginian Hanno. 
ported to Georgia in Afia, and from thence All things in the mercantile world be* 
to be carried over land to Erzerum, and to ing now left, as it were, to mere nature, 
Trapezond, on the banks of the Euxine fea, and trade being to return only as the con- 
and fo forward to the Mediterranean ; by fequence of mens finding it needful to 
which means the city of Corinth became ve- cor refpond with each other ; the firft ap- 
ry confiderable for commerce ; where many pearance of any art that deferved the name 
of theTyn^fl merchants, who fled from their of commerce, after the destruction of 
city, before Alexander invefted it, had fet- Carthage, was the importation of corn to 
tied, and by their old friends in Perjia had Rome from Egypt, Syria, and Africa. 
drawn a large channel of trade that way. After this we may reckon the neceffity 
In like manner the trade of Carthage, which the merchants of India and Perjia 
with its city and ftate, were totally ruin'd found themfelves reduced to, how, and 
by the Romans ; whofe genius not being fo to whom they mould fell the goods, which 
much turn'd to mercantile bufinefs as the they or the Egyptian factors brought con- 
Carthaginians and Phoenicians had been, ftantly up the Red fea to Egypt, be- 
the commerce of the world received a fe- ing carried from thence to Alexandria ; 
vere check for fome time in the ruin of where the Carthaginian merchants refort- 
that ftate; and Rome being an in-land town, ed, and bought them to d.fperfe over the 
and its governours no merchants, the ci- world. But thofe merchants being de- 
ties of Alexandria, Corinth, Syracufa, Utica, ftroyed, together with their city, the 
&c. fituate on the fea coaft, and addicted merchants of Alexandria forced a trade 
to trade, increafed in riches by the ad- with the cities on the Italian coaft, in 
vantages of commerce. Gaul or France, the iflarids of leffer Afia, 
What are It now deferves our obfervation how and the fhores of Greece. 

theene- W ar, tyranny and ambition have continu- It was in this profperity of the Alexan- Trade be- 

™" e ally persecuted trade ; and how often the drian trade, that there fprung up a fmall gun at 

induftrious trading part of the world have infant correfpondence between thofe mer- M ar f e ' l ~ 

beenbeggar'dandimpoverifh'dbythevio- chants and the merchants of Marfeilks, "' 

lence and fury of arms. War, victory, and which, being a Roman colony, efcaped 

conqueft have deftroyed all that is good ; the defolatiw of Carthage . and Corinth, 

■ - which 

concerning Commerce. xlvit 

which were deftroyed by the Romans, goods all nations import from thence, For 
when they over-ran the Grecian empire, example, Great Britain fupplies that coaft 
And thus protected from all invafions,Mzr- with fifh, fait, lead, tin, pewter, fugars, 
feilles kept and carried on the commerce tobacco, woollen and filk manufactures* 
it had fo fuccefsfully begun with Jlexan- and in a great meafure with India goods \ 
dria, to both their advantages : for the all which, except the India goods, are the 
Marfeillian merchants, by being polTeffed product of our own country, or our colo- 
pf the fpice trade, which was the chief nies, and, in one refpect are clear gain to 
Alexandrian branch of the Indian com- our nation. On the other hand, what we 
merce, became in a few years the fetch from thence is chiefly iron, copper, 
chief merchants of the Roman empire, pitch, tar, hemp, flax, canvas, linen- 
till that empire alfo came to decay, by yarn, pot-afhes, Ruffia leather, hartfhorn, 
the irruption of the Goths and Van- amber, flurgeon, oak-planks, fir, timber, 
dais, &c. deals, &c. and all kind of naval ftores, 
At Venice. Then the Lombards, and other Italians, without which it would be impoffible to 
taking refuge in the iflands of the Aflri- maintain the number and credit of our 
atic fea, built the city of Venice, and fhipping, and confequently of our corn- 
formed themfelves into a government, merce. 

after the manner of ancient Rome, arid About the fame time we find the wool- r n the Ne- 

fell unanimoufly into trade ; and become- len manufacture erected in the Netherlands ',therlands. 

ing eminent in fea affairs, in procefs of and the herring fiihery in the north came 

time they ventured out into the Levant, upon the ftage. 

and into the JEgean fea; and fo found the ' The firft fifhing for herrings in Europe The ori- 
way to Italy, ancient Greece, and Egypt ; was certainly in Scotland, about the year gin of the 
from whence they not only brought corn, but 1320. I fpeak of it now as a commerce ; herring 
the manufactures of the Eaft-Indies, which, for, all the Scots hiftories mention their } ' 
as I have obferved before, had for ages fiihery, as well as that of the Englijh, al- 
been brought from India to Sues-, by which moft as far back as there is any men- 
means the Venetians obtained fo great re- tion of the Briti/h nation ; but they do 
putation for commerce, that they were for not fpeak of it as a trade, or merchari- 
many ages the mart for filks, drugs, and dife.' It appears that the Dutch, fo far 
fpices of India, Arabia, Ethiopia and back as the year 836, fent veffels to the 
Perjia. And while the whole Roman em- coaft of Scotland to buy faked fifh or her- 
pire felt the Ihock of the barbarous na- rings, for the fubfiftance of their own peo- 
tions, the Venetians engrafted all to them- pie, who, paying ready money for their 
felves, exclufive of the Marfellians ; and fifh, did much enrich Scotland: but the 
preferved it in their own hands, till the Scots in procefs of time, differing with 
- Portuguese, a few ages ago, found the their good friends and cuftomers, the 
way, to India by the Cape of Good Hope, Butch, and putting fome hardfhips upon 
furnifhed Europe with Eaft-India goods them in buying •, the Dutch rejected the 
on cheaper terms; then the Venetian Scots fifh entirely, and bringing nets and vef- 
greatnefs felt a mortal wound, and Lijbon felsof their own, not only caught and cured 
increafed in wealth, as Venice fenfibly de- them upon the high feas themfelves, to the 
clined. utter ruin of the Scots fifhermen, but, to the 
At Bifcay About the fame time that Venice be- impoverifhing the whole nation, carried 
iu Spain, gan to trade, there was alfo a new ftapie what they could not confume at home to 
for iron and fteel begun in the province foreign markets. Thus the herring fiihery 
of Bifcay, a Part of Spain. Thefe inha- became a commerce. 

bitants being drove by the Saracens from As for the woollen manufacture begun of the 
other provinces of Spain, and finding by the Flemings or Netherlanders ; it is true woollen 
great plenty of iron and fteel in their new many reafons may be offered to fhew that manufac ~ 
habitation, applied themfelves to the ma- this trade did really exift about the year ture ' 
nufacture of it ; and by that means, and 260, or before, for the people had a necef- 
building of ihips, pufhed on a large com- fity of cloathing ; and when the Romans 
merce with the reft of the world, . . . fhewed the world a more polite way of 
In the About the year 1232, the feutonick cloathing than with fkins of wild beafts, 
Balnck. knights laid the foundation of commerce, they began to be left off; fo neceflicy be- 
in the moft northerly parts ' of Europe, in gat manufacture, manufacture b^gat trade, 
the Baltick ; which I may affirm, with- and trade begat navigation. But it does 
out any rodomontade, is now one of not appearthat this commerce fucceeded to 
the moft advantageous and flourifhing any great confequence,till a long time after; 
trades in Europe-, whether we.confider they all the while importing their wool 
the goods we fend thither, or the neceftfary and fullers-earth from England, and their. 


xlviii An Introductory Difcourfe, 

oil from France. A folly never feen till the Carthaginians, excepting the northern 

King Henry VII. opened the eyes of the part in the Mediterranean : for the Sara- 

nation to fee into it ; who inviting over cens, who fucceeded the Roman arms, not 

feveral Flemijh matter-manufacturers, thou- only deftroyed the religion, but alfo the 

roughly fkilled in the managing, ordering commerce it had left with other nations, 

and directing the wool, to prepare it for And the Baltick fea was never difcovered, 

working, firft had his poor fubjects taught till the Teutonick knights open'd a trade 

to fpin the woollen yarn, which they pre- there in the thirteenth century. Nor was 

fently made better and cheaper than could it till the fourteenth century that America 

be fpun in Flanders \ fo that this imme- was firft heard of; and not till after that 

diately produced a trade with us for yarn, bold attempt, the coafts of Greenland or 

But our wife king, refolving utterly to ruin Spitjhergen, for whale riming -, the coafts of 

the Flemijh woollen commerce, and to con- Angola, Congo, the gold and grain coafts 

fine it to his own fubjects, got an act to on the weft fide of Africa, from 15 de- 

pafs in parliament to prohibit the car- grees north, to 25 degrees fouth of the 

rying any more wool out of England, line, were difcovered, or the leaft inquired 

Yet, - after. In like manner the Eaft-India and 

When The woollen manufacture, upon which China trade were not fo much as thought 

brought fa commerce of this nation principally of; the South feas were hid from our eyes •, 

7and. ng ~ depends, did not arrive at its maturity till all the Atlantic ocean, beyond the mouth 

the Flemings, flying from the cruelty of the of theftr 'eights, was frightful and terrible 

Spanijh general (the duke of Alva) in the in the diftant profpect of it •, nor durft any 

Netherlands, fettled at Norwich, Ipfwich, one peep into it, otherwife than as they 

Colchefter, Canterbury, Exeter, &c. in Eng- might run along the coaft of Africa, to- 

land, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and wards Sallee or Santa Cruz. The North 

brought over with themfelves the complete feas were ftill more hidden to the fouthern 

knowledge of the woollen manufacture,and parts ; and the White fea, or Archangel, 

people alfo to work the fame ; and by thefe was not found out till Sir Hugh Willoughby 

means the Englifh foon became the mer- was frozen to death in doubling the North 

chants of all the woollen cloth in the known Kyn, on the coaft of Lapland, with all his 

world •, and, it is plain, might be fo ftill, crew, while his companion's fhip, with 

would they keep their wool at home. the famous Mr. Chancellor,foikd forward to 

Theftate Here we muft obferve to what a fmall the gulph of Rujfia, on the White fea, 

of trade extentj tne commerce of the world was where no chriftian people had ever been 

reign 6 of reduced to, and fallen, compared to that of before him. 

Hen.vil. ancient times among the Phoenicians, Car. In this narrow circumference ftood the 

or 15th thaginians, &c. For before the reign of frame of the world's knowledge and com - 

century. jj enr y yn. the Europeans had neither feen merce, at the beginning of the fifteenth 

the Cape of Good Hope fouth, nor the North century. But a trading genius did no 

, Cape -, their knowledge being confined fooner begin to arife, than a general ala- 

within the narrow limits of France, Bri- crity appeared, to fpread knowledge thro' 

tain, Spain, Italy, Germany, Greece, the the earth, and to extend commerce to 

letter Afia, the weft parts of Perfia, Arabia, and from regions unknown to their prede- 

and the iflands of the Mediterranean fea ; ceflbrs. Neverthelefs, 

and this was the whole world to the Ro- The Portugueze, how ignorant foever Portugueft 

mans, who, we have reafon to believe, they now feem of navigation, and indolent thefirl * ad * 


never fo much as peep'd into Norway, or in traffick, were the firft confiderable ad- lh 

Denmark, which countries for fome ages venturers in new difcoveries for trade, anddifcove- 

were no otherwife known, than as the to plant new colonies in the ocean. For,ries. 

Danes made themfelves dreadful by John, king of Portugal, an afpiring and 

their piracies, invafions and barbarities, enterprifing prince, hearing that the Spa- 

As to Germany, the Romans had difcovered niards had,by the height of the Pike ofTene- 

very little beyond the Elbe ; the Viftula riffe, difcovered the Canary iflands, and 

confined their knowledge of Poland, and taken pofleflion of them, fent John Gon- 

the Danube,of Hungary. And if we defcend zales, and Triftrian Vaz, two experienced 

to latter ages, Mufcovy or Rujfia was per- mariners, with three fhips, into the fame 

fectly unknown to our forefathers in the feas, to make further difcoveries ; who 

thirteenth century, as much as China be- found and took pofleflion of the ifland of 

yond it ; and the Indian trade, for a long Madeira, anno 1420, in the right of the 

time, was no more than a fmall commerce king their fovereign, which to this day re- 

upon the coaft of Surat and the coaft -of mains fubject to the crown of Portugal. 

Malabar. Africa, which had been fo pro- And in 1429 the Azores, or, as fome call 

fitable, fell into obfcurity by the ruin of them, the Tercera iflands, being fortuitoufly 


concerning Commerce. xlix 

touched upon by a Flemijh {hip in diftrefs, way up the river : He alfo built the forts 
that brought the account of their being St. Antonio, de Elmina and Sebafiian, upon 
uninhabited, and defcribed their fituation, the Gold Coaft, of which they have been 
were prefently feized upon by Don Henry difpoflefs'd by the Dutch, when under the 
prince of Portugal, who failed thither Spanifh government about the year 1646 ; 
with five fhips for the king's ufe, who and extending farther to the fouth, he gave 
caufed them to be planted and inhabited •, the Portuguefe a. name and footing at the 
and they have never changed hands to mouths of every river, and upon the coaft 
this time. Their next difcoveries were of every kingdom, from the Rio Formofa 
made not till the reign of Alphonfo V, the and Benin, to Congo and Angola ; till at laft, 
grandfon to King John, who beginning at in the year 1489, he difcovered the Cape 
cape Spartel, the very mouth of the de Bon Efperanza, or Cape of Good Hope : 
ftreights, took and fortified Tangier, Ar- From whence a few years after, viz. be- 
zilla, and Santa Cruz, &c. on the coaft of tween 1448 and 1500, under the conduffc 
Africa. This fuccefs led the fortunate of Vafco de Gama, following the coaft, they 
Portuguefe fo far fouth as to Cape de Verde ; began fettlements and colonies on the eaft 
and here, ftretching forth into the ocean, coaft of the continent, as they had done 
they difcovered the Cape de Verde iflands, before on the weft, a place never before 
where fhips to this day load great quanti- heard of by the Europeans ; in which ex- 
ties of fait. From hence extending them- pedition they landed by force on the coaft 
felves along the coaft of Guinea, they feized of Mozambique and Zanguebar, where they 
upon the mouth of the great river Niger, maftered the natives, poffeffed the country, 
which they named Rio Grande, ox the Great and have kept them in fubjection by their 
River ; tho' this was but one of the feve- fortifications at St. Sebaftians, Port St. 
ral branches, by which the truly Grand Efprit, and Melinda. Yet all this time, 
Niger empties itfelf into the ocean. Then there being no fea compafs, the great corn- 
taking the coaft of Sierra Leon, or as now merce of the Indian ocean was ft ill a fe- 
vulgarly called Serraloon, they built forts, cret, none daring to venture out of fight 
fettled factories, and traded with the na- of land in thofe remote parts. This dif- 
tives for elephants teeth, fkins of lions covery was referved for the invention of 
and leopards, tamarins or Guinea grains, the mariners needle, and ufe of the mag- 
civet and civet-cats -, but efpecially for net, which was no fooner found, but like 
bees wax : as for flaves, they had none, young fwimmers grown expert, and fcorn- 
neither did the Negroes fell one another ing any longer to keep within their depth 
then, as they do now •, nor had the Portu- and in mallow waters, they boldly fwim off 
guefe as yet any colonies in America to dif- into the channels of larger rivers ; the for- 
pofe of them to, fo that the flave trade tunate mariners, fcorning any longer to 
was not as yet begun : neither had they fpend their time by fleering along the coaft, 
found much gold ; but finding the coun- boldly traverfed the wide ocean : fo that 
try fruitful and rich, and impatient of within lefs than twenty years, after this 
further advantages, they coafted from weft help was difcovered, we find Portuguefe 
to eaft, in the latitude of eight to four, fettlements upon the coaft of Brafil in A- 
In which voyage they were much obliged merica, they being mafters of all the coaft 
to the knowledge and induftry of Anthony in the Eaft-Indies, as far as the Spice iflands, 
Nola, a Genoefe, who ranged the whole and almoft to China itfelf. So iwiftly and 
Grain-Coaft, the Gold-Coajl, and the Slave- extenfively did commerce irgprove and di- 
Coaft, and wintered at the ifland of St. late itfelf. 

Thomas under the equinoctial line, where Such was the advantage of thefe newEnvy'J, 

he arrived on St. Thomas's Day, Dec. 21, difcoveries, that for the fake of more dif- andf pl- 

1471, which remains now in the pof- fufive commerce, other nations ftrove to ! °^ by 

feffion of the Portuguefe, and is very ufe- fhare it with the Portuguefe. For tho' the nations. 

ful to water their fhips, and for fupplying Englifh did not land on the coaft ot Guinea, 

them with provifions in their way to the and fettle factories and forts, as they had 

Indies. But it was that famous navigator done, yet they traded with the natives at 

Bartholomew Diaz, who, without inftru- fuch places where they could correfpond with 

ments or compafs, extended gradually from them moft conveniently ; and the French 

Sierra Leon to Benin, a continued coaft of did the fame ; till at laft, the kingdom of 

about 500 leagues, wherein, between the Portugal falling to the crown of Spain, in 

years 1461 and 1472, he built and laid the reign of Philip II, who had open war 

the foundation of a fortification at the with the Dutch, the Netherland adventurers 

mouth of the river Niger, fince called Se- took almoft all their foreign dominions from 

negal, where the Portuguefe continue fet- the Portuguefe, efpecially in the Eajl-Indies, 

tied to this day, with fome little ftrengths and Gold Coaft of Guinea. Now, 
and well inhabited towns, a confiderable O If 

Vol. I. 

1 An Introduffory Difcourfe, 

If we turn to America, we lhall find that Cufco, Cuba, Hifpaniola, and all the coun- 

commerce is alfo very much increafed by tries upon the Rio de la Plata, to the eaft 

the difcoveries made in that part of the fide of the ftreights of Magellan. And I 

world, fo late as the fixteenth century, need not detain you with fuggefting the 

F or great benefit which thefe conquefts brought 

The ex- Chrijlopher Columbus, inftructed in the to Europe, by commerce. 

pedition of u f e of the load-ftone, and from geography But to proceed, the Britijh genius was The En- 

Colutnbus. De j n g perfuaded, that there was a new not backward in contriving how to extendi difco ' 

weftern world to be found out, failed from its commerce into North America, where ver 


the Canary iflands with a refolution not to they made equivalent difcoveries with lefs 
return till he had found fome place of con- barbarity -, for, within this period of the 
fequence; and tho* he failed 987 leagues, Portuguefe and Spanijh conquefts in South 
by his reckoning, due weft from the Pike America, we difcovered and fettled feveral 
of Teneriffe, before he difcovered land, he valuable factories and plantations well for- 
perfevered, till he fafely landed on the tified in Virginia, Newfoundland, New- 
Bahama iflands, on St. Luke's Day, the England, Bermudas, Hudfon's Bay, &c. on 
eighteenth of OcJober, 1585, which, for or near the continent of North America; 
that reafon, he called St. Luke's ; but they from whence we now reap an advantageous 
have fmce been named the Lucaya iflands ; commerce for tobacco, rice, rich furs, train 
and then turning to the north-weft, he dif- oil, turpentine, fifh, and many other pro- 
covered the coaft of Florida ; and from ductions of the continent ; and for fugars, 
thence failing fouth, he landed upon the indigo, ginger, cotton, cocoa, pimento, and 
iflands of Cuba and Hifpaniola, &?c. and fo, other productions of the iflands, which, in 
returned to Spain, to give the king an ac- their amount, and improved by our trade, 
count of his fuccefs •, upon which, Jaques are equal to the gold of the Brafils, and 

Of Vehfco. Velafco was fent with five Jfhips and 300 the filver of Potofi. 

foldiers, to fubdue thofe two great iflands, Within the fame time the French en- The 

which he executed with the murder of five tered this new world by the bay of St. French , 

millions of the natives, if publick fame Laurence, or the rivers Canada and M#*- dllcovenes 

may be credited. fifpU an ^ opened a trade for furs, tobacco, 

Of Fer- This conqueft being fettled, Ferdinando and fijh -, and fince have obtained part of 

dinando Cortez, with only 400 foot and 40 horfe, the Newfoundland fifhery, which they have 

Cortex. ] anc i ec i n the great continent of America, improved very much. Befides, they pof- 

near la Vera Cruz ; and with this little fefs feveral American iflands -, as Martinico, 

army fought and beat an army of 4000 part of Hifpaniola, Granada, St. Martin, 

Tfalcallans, and after that another, con- Guadaloup, Santa Cruz, Marygalanie, and 

fifting of 100,000, which ended in a Petit Guaves. 

peace ; by which the Tfalcallans were Thus I have given you a fhort hiftory of 

obliged to favour his expedition, and fup- commerce, by which the whole globe 

ply him with provifionsjfo that he marched feems now to be brought into a kind of 

diredly to the imperial feat of Mexico, general acquaintance with itfelf ; the re- 

and attacked the great Montezuma, the moteft nations converfe, the people know 

greateft emperor of America, in the midft of one another, or I may fay continually talk 

his armies, and in a city faid to contain with one another, by miflives or letters, 

2000000 people ; who indeed at firft drove mefiengers or factors, and by correfpon- 

him out •, but he having recruited his forces dences of all kinds. But I cannot pafs from 

His cru- to the number of 500 foot and 80 horfe, this pleafing topick, without adding the 

city and returned, befieged the city, took it, killed following obfervation. 

conquefts. I2 oooo people in the ftorm, flew the em- Commerce is naturally an encourager of Of what 
peror, overthrew the empire, deftroyed learning, and has by its correfpondence advantage 
it, rebuilt it, and made it the feat of the' been the greateft afliftance to human know- ^^^ 
Spanijh empire in America, as it ftill re- ledge. Is it not trade that picks up all ing 
mains. And, fiufhed with victory, this the moil: ufeful drugs in every part of the 
handful of men carried on the Spanijh con- world for the fupply of phyfick, and for 
quefts above 2000 leagues, from latitude the help and health of mankind ? Do we 
40 degrees north, to> 53 degrees fouth ; not fee the materia medica fetched from the 
fubdued infinite nations of people, and moft remote parts of the world ? Is not 
joined to Mexico the conqueft of Peru: every druggift and apothecary's Ihop fur- 
So that, in confequence of this fuccefs, nifhed from both the Indies, and almoft 
Spain now poffefies Florida, Guadalajara, from both the poles ? Every new difcovery, 
New and Old Mexico, Guaxaca, Nicara- every new plantation, every new branch 
gua,Guatimala, Yucatan, Honduras, Darien, of trade, furnifheth fome new thing, fome 
Carthagena, St. Martha, New Granada, Ve- rarity in nature, fome fpecific in phyfick, 
nezula, Caracas, New Andahfia^Peru, Chili, for the relief of a diftempered world; 


concerning Religion. li 

which lay hid till navigation carried us to Protefiant, Romijh, and Greek churches ; 

America, and trade brought America to us. and the Proteftant church is generally con- 

And as it would be tedious to run into all fidered as the Proteftant Lutheran, and the 

the particulars we are bleffed with from Proteftant Reformed. 

our extenfive commerce, which the world The Proteftant Lutheran is profeffed in where the 

never heard of before, I will only men- Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Iceland, upper Lutheran 

tion in phyfick the Peruvian or Jefuits and lower Saxony, and in fome other parts ^.F roteis * 

bark, that fovereign and fpecific medi- of Germany ; and in fome parts of Poland, 

cine in all intermitting and periodical fe- Hungary, and Tranfylvania. 

vers, agues, and mortification in the The Prcteftant Reformed is profeffed in Proteftant 

blood ; the Cantharides, or Spanijh flies, of the Britijh ifles, the United Provinces, in Reformed. 

wonderful and various operations in phy- all the dominions of Pruffia, in the land- 

fkk •, the lapis contrayerva, fuperior to the gravate of Hejfe Caffel, the Palatinate, and 

famous Gafcoign powder ; the Indian root, fome parts of Germany, in the cantons of 

or hypecocuana, efteemed the belt emetic in Zurich, Berne, Bajil, and Schaffhaufen ; in 

the world ; balfam or balm of Peru, more parts of Glaris and Appenzel, and fome 

valuable than that of Gilead or of Mecca ; other parts of Switzerland, in many parts 

the fnake root, the tamarins or Guinea of Poland, Hungary, and tranfylvania, and 

grains, the civet of Africa-, in dying, log- in thofe parts oi Afia, Africa, and America, 

wood, fuftick, Nicaragua wood, brajiletto, wherein the proteftant potentates above- 

fhumack,indigo,z.n6. cochineal', (the laft is an mentioned have plantations. 

inimitable drug for fixing the brighteft fear- The Romijh or Popifh religion is by efta- Romijh. 

lets, crimfons and purples) and which blifhment profeffed in Spain, Portugal, 

were never before heard of in Europe: In Italy, and France; in the electorate of 

provifions, the cocoa nut, of which cho- Mentz, friers, Cologn, Bavaria, and all the 

colate is made, the fugar cane and pimento, German dominions belonging to the houfe 

the coffee of the red Tea, and the tea of of Auftria ; it is dominant in Poland, fome 

China ; in ornaments, the lack or lacquer parts of Germany, the Netherlands, and 

of Japan and China, and their earthen or Switzerland : and there are Papifis in 

china-ware ; in manufactures, the filks, moft parts of the territories belonging to 

cottons, and linens, of _ India ; the pitch, the Proteftant princes, except in the cantons 

tar, ro/in, deal, iron, and hemp, of the of Zurick, Berne, Bafil, and Schaffhaufen. 

Baltick ; the whale bone of the north feas, This religion is propagated with all ima- 

and the firs or peltry of north America ; ginable diligence and zeal in all the places 

to all which we may add tobacco, which, and countries of Afia, Africa, and America, 

tho' now of univerfal confumption in the belonging to the princes above-mentioned, 

known world, was never heard of till of that communion ; and even in China, 

America was difcovered : for it would re- and fome other parts of Afia. 

quire an index of curiofities and rarities in The Greek religion is chiefly fettled in Greek. 

nature, mould I go about to defcribe all Mufcovy, Abyffmia or Ethiopia, Georgia or 

the particulars which our new commerce Mingrelia ; and it is tolerated in Turkey, 

has introduced. And, as thefe particulars Europe, and Afia, under the Mahometan 

will be obferved and fet down in their pro- government, and in fome parts of Afia, 

per places in the courfe of this work, under the name of Neftorians and Chriftians 

I (hall now proceed to inquire how many of St. Thomas. 
religions there are in the world j and con- Judaifm has no certain eftablifhment : Judaifm. 

cerning the particular religion of each but Jews are to be found in Europe ; fome 

country ; for, next to commerce, there is in Italy ; very few in France ; a great many, 

nothing fo much behoves a merchant tra- but concealed, in Spain and Portugal-, 

veller to obferve, as the religion of the many in Germany and England, but the 

people, with whom he trafficks or abodes •, greateft number in Poland, Holland, and 

becaufe it is well known, that every feci: 'Turkey in Europe. If we feek for them 

are zealoufly attached to their own fuper- in Afia, there are fome in almoft all 

ftition, and an error againft the eftablifhed the countries in Afia, but efpecially in the 

religion of a country has often not only Holy Land, and other parts of Turkey in 

proved very fatal to the offender, but has Afia. In Africa ; there are fome in Abyf- 

fometimes wholly ruined the commerce,en- finia, but many more in Egypt ; and great 
joyed there by the country to which he numbers on the coaft of Barbary, and in 
belonged. Now, the empire of Morocco. There are very 

As to the number of religions, there are few in America. 
almoft as many as there are nations, but The Mahometan is almoft univerfal Mahomet* 
are principally divided into Chriftianity, throughout Arabia, Perfia, and little Tar-v'™. 
Judaifm, Mahometifm, and Paganifm ; and tary, in Turkey, Europe, and. Afia; in the 

again, Chriftianity is fubdivided into the territories of the Great Mogul; in the 



An Introductory Difcourfe, 

weftern parts of Great Tartary ; in the nor- 
thern parts of tht peninfula on rhis fide the 
Ganges \ in the Maldivian iflands ; in molt 
parts of the iflands ofSonda,zndMolucques ; 
in Egypt, Barbary, Bildulgerid, Zaara, Nu- 
bia, part of Nigritia, and on the coafts of 
Zanguebar, Abex, vcAAjan. 

Pagaxifm. Pavanifm is yet profeffed in moft parts of 
Aft a, Africa, and America •, but as it dif- 
fers in many things, we mall defer fpeak- 
ing of it till we arrive at thofe feveral 
countries wherein it is profeffed ; only I 
muft obferve that, except in Lapland, 
and in the moil northern and weftern 
parts of Mufcovy, there are no pagans open- 
ly profeffing themfelves fuch and tolerated 
in Europe. And 

Of the I fhall in the next place exhibit a 

different Q^ ovt fketch of the languages by which 

languages. a jj ^^ nat i ons con verfe and traffick with 
each other. Thefe, tho' almoft as many 
as there are different countries or nations, 
may be properly reduced to fifteen generals, 
from which all the other dialects may be 
properly faid to flow. 

Latin. Eirft, Latin is ftill continued by feveral 

idioms, in Italy, France, Spain, Portu- 
gal, part of Switzerland, and in the plan- 
tations belonging to thofe nations. 

High- Secondly, The Dutch, or High-German, 

Dutch. - m Germany, Scandinavia, the Britijh ifles, 
Low-Countries, and in the greateft part of 

Sclavom- Thirdly, The Sclavonian, in Mufcovy, 

on. Poland, Bohemia, Hungary, and moft parts 

of Turkey in Europe. 

Greek. Fourthly, The Greek is corruptly fpoken 

in the fouthern parts of Turkey in Europe, 
in the iflands of the Archipelago, and in 

Arabian. Fifthly, The Arabian or Arabic is the 
language of Arabia, Turkey in Afia, Perfia, 
and in the Indies, Barbary, and Egypt ; 
and in many other countries of Afia, where 
it is the language of the learned, as the 
Lingua Franca and Malayan are of the 

lartari- Sixthly, The Tartarian is ufed in the 

an. great and little Tartary, Turkey, Mogul's 

country, and by conqueft lately introduced 
into China. 

■Chinefe. Seventhly, The Chinefe is the common 
fpeech of China, part of the Indies, and 
moft of the iflands of Afia, where the 
Malayan and Portugueze is alio fpoken by 
the traders. 

jfrican. Eighthly, The African is mixed more 
or lefs throughout all Barbary, Bildulgerid, 
Zaara, and Nubia. 
\\ nr « Ninthly, The Negro is confined to Ni- 

gritia, and Guinea. 

Ethiopian. Tenthly, The Ethiopian is only fpoken 
in Ethiopia and Abyffmia. 

lltxiian: Eleventhly, The Mexican extends no 

further than the north parts of America. 

Twelfthly, The Peruvian is the language Peruvian. 
of the fouth part of the fame continent. 

Thirteenthly, The Tapyan is the fpeech oftTapyan. 
the inhabitants, natives on the coaft of 

Fourteenihly, The Guaranyan is fpoken Guaran- 
along the Paraguay, as far as the river > an - 
Amazons. And, 

Fifteenthly, The Carabinian is fpoken Caralim- 
in both parts of America, among the native*- 
Caraibes, the people of Guiana, and other 
parts of fouth America. Now 

Of all thefe languages, the following Which 
I propofe to be the moft deferring your are moft 
attention, as being of the greateft ex- uleruL 
tent, by reafon of conqueft, trade, or re- 
ligion j namely, The French throughout 
Europe ; the Englifh in north America, 
and the Caribbee iflands ; the Spanifh and 
Portugueze in fouth America, and the Eaft- 
Indies, both on the continent and in the 
iflands of the Indian ocean. The High- 
Dutch, in the northern parts of Europe ; 
and a Lingua Franca, or a compound of 
French, Englifh, Spanifh, and Italian, is 
now become the moft current way of 
commerce in Afia and Africa. 

I am now arrived at the extent of thofe 
obfervations which I at firft propofed to 
make by way of introduction ; but as my 
chief intention is to collect every thing 
that may entertain and improve my readers, 
I fhall further add the profitable inftruc- 
tions of thofe three much admired writers, 
Robert earl of Effex, Sir Philip Sidney, and 
fecretary Davifon ; a treatife both pleafant 
and profitable, defcribing the particular 
obfervations which are to be taken by tra- 
vellers in all nations, countries and ftates. 

For your better information of the ftate infirnftl- 
of any prince, or country, it lhall be ne« ons for 
ceffary for you to obferve, travellers. 

\ft, The country. 

idly, The people. 

%dly, The policy and government. 
In the Country you are to confider, 

Firft, The fituation and nature thereof ; 
as whether it be, 

i. Ifland, or continent •, near or far 
from the fea. 

2. Plain, or hilly *, full or fcarce of ri- 

Secondly, Quantity. 

i. Length. 2. Breadth. 3. Circuit. 
4. Form. 5. Climate. 

Thirdly, How it confineth with other 
countries ; and, 

1 . What thefe countries are. 

2. What their ftrength and riches are. 

3. Wherein they confift. 

4. Whether friends or enemies. 


concerning Travel. 


Fourthly-* The fertility thereof, and 
what commodities it doth either, 

ift, Yeild and bring forth, and what 
part thereof hath been, or is, 
i. Confumed at home. 
2. Vented abroad. 
idly, Want ; and how, and from 
whence it is fupplied. 

I. Nature. 
Fifthly, Of what ftrength it is, and how 
defended againft the attempts of bordering 
neighbours, either by, 

i. Sea, where may be obferved what, 
ift, Ports and havens it hath, and of 
i. Accefs. 

2. Capacity. 

3. Traffick. 

4. Shipping. 

idly, Other defence upon the coaft. 
2. Land, what 

1. Mountains. 

2. Rivers. 

3. Marfhes. 

4. Woods. 

II. Art. 
As what cities, towns, caftles, £?r. it 
hath either within the land, or upon the 
frontiers : and how they are 

1. Fortified. 

2. Peopled. 

Sixthly, What univerfities or places of 
learning it hath, and of what 

1. Foundation. 

2. Revenue. 

3. Profeflion. 

Seventhly, What countries and provinces 
are fubject thereunto ; and what 

1. The fame contain in 
(1.) Quantity. 

(2.) Quality. 

2. People are for 
(1.) Number. 
(2.) Affection. 

3. The form of government, and by 
whom adminifter'd. 

Secondly, Is to be confidered the People. 
Firft, Their number ; as whether they be, 

1. Many. 

2. Few. 

Secondly, Quality ; as, their trade and 
kind of life whereunto they give them- 
felves, and whereby they live , as whe- 
ther by 

1. Exercife of 

( 1 .) Mechanical arts and merchandifes, 


(3.) Arms. 

2. Their rents and revenues. 
thirdly, Kinds and degrees. 

1. Natives 

(1.) Noble. 

(2.) Not noble. 
Vol. I. 

2. Strangers 

(1.) Denizens. 

(2.) No denizens. 
I. Noble. Generally as their 
ift, Number. 

idly, Quality and degree of nobility. 
2dly, Refidence and place of abode. 
4-thly, Religion. 

Sfhly, Gifts of body and mind •, where 
alfo their 

1. Virtues. 

2. Vices. 

3. Studies. 

4. Exercifes. 

6thly, Profeflion of life, 
• 1. Civil. 

2. Military. 
ythly, Means,wherein are to be confider'd, 

1 . Their revenues, or comings in. 

2. Their hTuings, or goings out. 
%thly, Offices and authority they bear 

in the ftate. 

gthly. Credit and favour, or disfavour 
with the 

1. Prince. 

2. People. And upon what caufe. 
lothly, Factions and partialities, if any 

be, with the grounds, caufes, and proceed- 
ings thereof. 

II. Particularly, as their 

ift, Original, antiquity, arms. 

idly, Names and titles of dignities. 

^dly, Alliances, off-fprings, genealogies. 

Thirdly, The Policy and Government. 

In the policy and government falleth to 
be confidered, 

Firft, The laws whereby it is governed. 

Secondly, Perfons that govern. 
In the laws you have to note, 

ift, Their kinds ; as, 

1. Civil. 

2. Canon or municipal. 

idly, Their conformity with the na- 
ture of the people. 

The perfons that govern are the magi- 

ift, Sovereign. 

idly, Subaltern. 
The fovereign is either 

1. One, as a monarch. 

2. More, as 

(1.) Optimates or magnates. 
(2.) Popular. 
In the former may be comprehended, 
Firft, The means whereby he attaineth 
the fame, whether by fovereignty, as, 
ift, Succefiion. 
idly, Election. 
%dly, Ufurpation. 
Secondly, How he carries himfelf in the 
adminiftration thereof^ where may be ob- 

ift, His court, 
P idly, 


An Introductory Difcourfe, 

idly, His wifdom. 
idly, His inclination to 
i. Peace. 
2. War. 
^thly, How he is beloved or Feared of his, 
i. People. 
2. Neighbours. 
$thly, His defignments, enterprizes, &c. 
6thly, His difpofition, ftudies, and ex- 
ercifes of, 

i. Body. 
2. Mind. 
ytbly, His favourites. 
Stbly, The confidence or diftruft he 
hath in his people. 

In the things that concern his eftate, are 
chiefly to be confidered, 
His revenues, 
i. Ordinary, 

2. Extraordinary, abroad and at home* 
In his friends and confederacies you 
are to confider how, and upon what re- 
fpects they are leagued with him ; what 
help, fuccOur, and commodity he hath 
had, or expecleth from them, and upon 
what ground. 

His power and ftrength for offence and 
defence are to be meafured by the 
17?, Strength of his country. 
idly, Number and quality of his forces,for, 

1. Nature. 

2. Art. 

3. Commanders. 

4. Soldiers. 

1. Horfe. 

2. Foot. 

^dly, Magazines, and provisions for his 
wars, either by 

1. Sea. 

2. Land. 

^tbly, As to the wars he hath made in 
time paft are to be confidered, 

1. Time. 

2. Caufe. 

3. Precedency. 

4. Succefs. 

The fubaltern magiftrate is either, 

1. Ecclefiaftical. 

2. Civil. 

Under the titles of the ecclefiaftical ma- 
giftrate, you may note, 

iy?, The religion publickly profefied, 
the form and government of the church. 

idly, The perfons employed therein, as, 

1. Archbifhops. 

2. Bifhops. 

3. Deans. 
•4. Abbots. 

(1.) Number. 
(2.) Degree. 
(3.) Offices. 
(4.) Authority. 
{5.) Qualities. 
(6.) Revenues. 

The civil magiftrates fubaltern, are thofe 
who under the fovereign have admini- 
ftration of 

1. The ftate. 

2. Juftice. 

Among the magiftrates that have the 
managing of the ftate are chiefly to be 

Firjl, The council of ftate. 

17?, Ordinary, attending on the prince's 
perfon ; as the 

1 . Great council. 

2. Privy council. 

3. Cabinet council. 

idly, Extraordinary, as the eftates of par- 

1. Their number. 

2. Their quality; as, 

( 1 .) Place and authority in council. 

(2.) Their wifdom. 

(3.) Fidelity. 

(4.) Credit and favour, with 

1. Prince. 

2. People. 

Secondly, What councils the fovereign 
hath (and by whom adminifter'd) of 

1. Finances, 

2. Wars. 

3. Provincials. 

thirdly, Lieutenants and deputies of 
provinces, employed either 

1. At home. 

2. Abroad. 
Fourthly, Officers, &c, 

1. Admiralty. 

2. Ordnance. 

Fifthly, Ambafiadors, pnblick minifters, 
and intelligencers employed with 

1. Princes 

2. Common-wealths. 

In the adminifiration of jujlice, you have 
to confider, 

Firft, The order and form obferved in 

i. Civil. 
2. Criminal. 
Secondly, The perfons of the 

1. Prefidents. 

2. Confederates. 

3. Advocates. 

Befides thefe three, occur many other 
things to be obferved ; as the mint, valu- 
ation of coins, exchanges, with infinite 
other particularities, which for brevity- 
fake I omit ; and which yourfelf, by dili- 
gent reading, obfervation and conference, 
may eafily fupply. 

Your purpofe is to travel; and your The carl 
ftudy muft be what ufe to make thereof : °J W**'* 
The queftion is ordinary, and there is to^J 1 ^^ 
it an ordinary anfwer ; that is, you fliall r, i n his 
fee the beauty of many cities, know the travels. 


Concerning Travel* lv 

manners of the people of many countries, ten by education ; and health, and an evert 

and learn the language of many na- temper of the mind, by good obferva- 

tions. Some of them may ferve for or- tion •, but if there be not in nature fome 

naments, all of them for delight : But you partner in this active ftrength, it can never 

muft look further than thefe things •, for be attained by any induftry ; for the vir- 

the greateft ornament is the beauty of the tues that are proper unto it, are liberality, 

mind, and when you have as great delight magnanimity, fortitude, and magnificence : 

as the world can afford you, you will con- And fome are by nature fo covetous, and 

fefs that the greateft delight is, /entire te cowardly, that it is as much in vain to in- 

indies fieri meliorem. Therefore your end flame or inlarge their minds, as to go 

and fcope mould be [that which in moral about to plough the rocks. But where 

philofophy we call cultum animi] the gifts thefe active virtues are but budding, they 

and excellencies of the mind : And they muft be repaired by ripenefs of judgment, 

are the fame as thofe of the body, beauty, and cuftom of well-doing. Clearnefs of 

health, and ftrength. The beauty of the judgment makes men liberal,for it teacheth 

mind is fhewed in grateful and acceptable them to efteem the goods of fortune not 

forms and fweetnefs of behaviour-, and for themfelves (for fo they are but jailors 

they who have that gift, caufe thofe to to them) but for their ufe (for fo they are 

whom they deny any thing, to go better lords over them.) And it maketh us know* 

contented away, than men of contrary dif- that it is beatius dare, quam accipere ; the 

pofition do thofe to whom they grant, one being a badge of fovereignty, the 

Health of mind confifteth in an immoveable other of fubjection. Alfo it leadeth us to 

conftancy and freedom from pafllons, which fortitude ; for it teacheth, that we fhould 

are indeed the ficknefs of the mind, not too much prize life, which we cannot 

Strength of mind is that active power keep ; nor fear death, which we cannot 

which makes us perform good and great fhun : That as he which dieth nobly, 

things,as well as health ; and an even temper doth live for ever •, fo he that lives in 

of mind keepeth us from evil and bafe fear, doth die continually. I mail not need 

things. Firft, thefe three are to be fought to prove thefe two things ; for we fee 

for, although the greateft part of men by experience, they hold true in all things 

have none of them. Some have one, and which I have hitherto fet down. What I 

lack the other two ; fome few attain to defire or wifh, I would have you to take 

have two of them, and lack the third ; and in mind, what it is to make yourfelf an 

almoft none of them have all. expert man, and what are the general helps 

The firft way to attain to experience of which all men muft ufe who have the 

forms or behaviour, is to make the mind fame defire. I will now move you to 

itfelf expert; for behaviour is but a gar- confider what helps your travel will gain 

ment, and it is eafy to make a comely gar- you. 

ment for a body that is well proportioned ; Firft, When you fee infinite variety of 

whereas a deformed body can never be behaviour and manners of men, you muft 

helped by the taylor's art, but the counter- chufe and imitate the beft : when you 

feiting will appear. And in the form of the fee new delights, that you never knew, 

mind it is a true rule,that a man may mend and have paflions ftirred in you, which 

his faults with as little labour as cover them, you never felt, you fhall know what dif- 

The fecond way is by imitation ; and to eafe your mind is apteft to fall into, and 

that end, good choice is to be made with what the things are that breed that dif- 

whom we converfe. Therefore you fhould eafe : when you come into armies, or 

affect their company whom you find to be places where you fhall fee any thing of the 

worthieft, and not partially think them wars, you fhall conform your natural cou- 

moft worthy whom you affect. rage to be fit for true fortitude ; which is 

To attain to the health of the mind, not given unto man by nature, but muft 

we muft ufe the fame means which we do grow out of the difcourfe of reafon : and 

for the health of our bodies ; that is, to laftly, in your travel you fhall have great 

make obfervance what difeafes we are apteft help to attain knowledge, which is not 

to fall into, and to provide againft them : only the moft excellent thing in man, but 

for phyfick hath not -more remedy againft the very excellency of man. 

the difeafe of the body, than reafon hath In manners you muft not be caught 

prefervatives againft the paflions of the with novelties, which are pleafing to young 

mind. men ; nor infected with cuftom, which 

To fet down means how a man may at- maketh us keep our own ill graces, and 

tain to the active power mentioned in this participate of thofe we fee every day ; nor 

place (I mean ftrength of mind) is much given to affectation, which is a general 

harder than to give rules in the other two : fault amongft Englifh travellers ; and which 

For behaviour and good form may be got- is both difpleafing and ridiculous. 


it£ An IntroduBoiy Difcourfe, . 

In difcovering your paflions, and meet- grounds of learning, which are the liberal 
ing with them, give no way, or difpenfe arts •, and then ufe ftudy of delight, but 
with yourfelf, refoiving to conquer yourfelf fometimes for recreation ; and neither 
in all • for the ftream that may be ftopp'd drown yourfelf in them, nor omit thofe 
with a man's hand at the fpring head, may fludies whereof you are to have continual 
drown whole armies when it hath run long, ufe. Above all other books, be conver- 
On your being in the wars,think it better fant in hiftories, for they will beft inftruct 
at the firft to do a great deal too much, you in matters moral, politick, and mili- 
than any thing too little ; for a young tary, by which, and in which you mull 
man's,efpecially a ftranger's firft actions are fettle your judgment, 
looked upon i and reputation, once gotten, I make conference the fecond help to 
is eafily kept : but an evil impreffion, con- knowledge, in order, tho' I find it the firft 
ceived at the firft, is not eafily removed, and greateft in profiting ; and I have fo 
The laft thing I am to fpeak of,is but the placed them, becaufe he that is not ftudied, 
firft you are to feek ; which is knowledge.To knoweth not what to doubt, nor what to 
praife knowledge, or to perfuade you to afk. To profit much by conference, you 
feek it, I (hall not need to ufe many muft chufe to confer with expert men ; for 
words ; I will only fay, where it is wanting, men will be of contrary opinions, and every 
that man is void of any good. one will make his own probable. In con- 
Without it there can be no fortitude, ference be neither fufpicious, nor believe 
for all dangers come of fury, and fury is all you hear, what opinion foever you 
pafiion, and paflions ever turn to the con- have of the man that delivers it, nor too 
traries; and therefore the moft furious defirous to contradict. I conclude this 
men, when their firft blaft is fpent, are point of conference with this advice, that 
commonly the moft fearful. you fhould rather go an hundred miles to 
Without it, there can be no liberality ; fpeak with one wife man, than five miles 
for giving is but want of audacity to deny, to fee a fair town. 

or elfe difcretion to poife. The third way to attain to knowledge is 

Without it there can be no juftice ; for obfervation, and not long life, nor feeing 

giving to a man that which is his own, is much j becaufe as he that rides a road 

But chance, or want of a corrupter or fe- often, and takes no care of notes or marks 

ducer. to direct him, if he comes the fame way 

Without it there can be no conftancy or again, to make him know where he is if he 

patience •, for fuffering is but dulnefs or come unto it, fhall never prove a good 

fenfelefsnefs. guide-, fo he that liveth long, and feeth 

\ Without it there can be no temperance ; much, and obferveth nothing, fhall never 

for we fhall reftrain ourfelves from good prove a wife man. 

as well as from evil : for he that cannot The ufe of obfervation is in noting the 

difcern, cannot elect or chufe. Nay, coherence of caufes, effects, counfeJs, and 

without it, there can be no true religion ; fucceffes, with the proportion and likenefs 

all other devotion being but a blind zeal, between nature and nature, fortune and 

which is as ftrong in herefy as in truth. fortune, action and action, ftate and ftate, 

To reckon up all the parts of knowledge, time paft and time prefent. You now fee 

and to fliew the way to attain to every that the end of ftudy, conference, and ob- 

part, is a work too great for me to under- fervation is knowledge ; you muft know 

take at any time, and too long to difcourfe alfo that the true end of knowledge is 

at this time ; therefore I will only fpeak clearnefs and ftrength of judgment, and 

of fuch a knowledge as you fhould have not oftentation or ability to difcourfe ; 

defire to feek, and fhall have means to which I the rather put you in mind of, 

compafs : I forbear alfo to fpeak of divine becaufe the moft part of noblemen and 

knowledge, which muft direct our faith ; gentlemen of our time have no other ufe 

both becaufe I find my own infufHciency, nor end of their learning but their table- 

and becaufe I hope you nourifh the feeds talk. But God knoweth they have gotten 

of religion, which during your education little, who have only this difcourfing gift ; 

at Cambridge were fown in you : I will only for though like empty veffels they found 

fay this -, that as the irrefolute man can loud when a man knocks upon their out- 

never perform any action well ; fo he that fides, yet if you pry into them, you fhall 

is not refolved in religion, can be refolved find that they are full of nothing but 

in nothing elfe. But that civil knowledge, wind. 

which will make you do well by yourfelf, This rule holdeth not only in know- 

and good unto others, muft be fought by ledge, or in the virtue of prudence, but 

ftudy, by conference, and obfervation. in all other virtues. 

In the courfe of your ftudy, and choice I will here break off, for I find that I 

of your books, you muft look to have the have both exceeded the convenient length 


concerning Travel. 


of a letter, and come fhort of fuch dif- 
courfe as this fubject doth deferve. 

You perhaps may find many things in 
this paper fuperfluous •, and molt of them, 
lame. I will, as well as I can, fupply that 
defect upon the fecond advertifement, if 
you call me to an account. What con- 
fufion foever you find in my order or me- 
thod, is not only my fault (whofewits are 
confounded with too much bufinefs) but 
the fault of this feafon, being written at 
chriftmas ; which confufion and diforder 
hath by tradition not only been winked at, 
but warranted. If there be but any one 
thing which you may make ufe of, I think 
my pains well-beftowed in all. And how 
weak foever my counfels be, my wifhes 
mail be as flrong as any man's for your 

Tour affectionate coufin, — E. 
Greenwich, January 4, 159b. 

Another My good brother, you have thought 

letter o. j t un kind j n me tnat; j ^yg not written 
oftner unto you, and have defired I mould 
write unto you fomething of my opinion 
touching your travels ; you being perfnaded 
my experience therein to be fomething, 
which I muft needs confefs ; but not as 
you take it : for you think my experience 
grows from the good things which I have 
learned, but I know the only experience 
which I have gotten, is to find how much 
I might have learned, and how much in- 
deed I have miffed* for want of directing 
my courfe to the right end, and by the 
right means. I think you have read 
jiriftotk*s ethicks ; if you have, you know 
it is the beginning and foundation of all 
his works, the end to which every man 
doth and ought to bend his greateft and 
fmallefl actions. I am fure you have im- 
printed in your mind the fcope and mark 
you mean, by your pains, to moot at. 
For if you mould travel but to travel, or 
to fay you had travelled, certainly you 
mould prove yourfelf a pilgrim, no more. 
But I prefume fo well of you, that (tho* 
a great number of us never fufficiently 
confidered why we went, but from a cer- 
tain tickling humour, to do as other men 
had done) your purpofe is, being a gentle- 
man born, to furnifh yourfelf with the 
knowledge of fuch things as may be fer- 
viceable for your country and calling ; 
which certainly flands not in the change 
of air (for the warmer! fun makes not a 
wife man) no, nor in learning languages 
(although they be of ferviceable ufe) for 
words are but words, in what language 
foever they be ; and much lefs, in that all 
of us come home full of difguifements, 
not only of apparel, but of our -counte- 
nances, as though the credit of a traveller 
ftood all upon his outfide ; but in the right 
Vol. I. 

informing your mind of thofe things 
which are mofl notable in thofe places 
which you come unto : of which as the one 
kind is fo vain, that as (I think) before it is 
long, like the mountebanks in Italy, we 
travellers mall be made fport of in come- 
dies i fo may I juftly fay, whoever rightly 
travels with the eye of Ulyffes, doth take 
one of the moll excellent ways of worldly 
wifdom. For it is certainly hard to know 
England, without you know it by com- 
paring it with fome other country, no 
more than a man can know the fwiftnefs 
of his horfe, without feeing him well 
matched. For you, who are a logician, 
know,- that as greatnefs of itfelf is a 
quantity, fo the judgment of it, as of 
mighty riches and all other flrengths, 
flands in the predicament of relation : {o 
that you cannot tell what the kingdom of 
England is able to do defenfively or offen- 
fively, but by knowing what they are able 
to do with whom fhe is to be matched. 

This therefore is one notable ufe of tra- 
vellers ; which flands in the mixed and 
correlative knowledge of things : in which 
kind comes in tho. knowledge of all leagues 
between prince and prince ; the topogra- 
phical defcription of each country, how 
the one lies by fituation to hurt or help the 
other ; how they are by fea, well harboured 
or not i how flored with mips, how with 
revenue, how with fortification and gar- 
rifons ; how the people, whether warlike, 
trained, or kept under, with many other 
fuch warlike confiderations ; which as they 
confufedly come into my mind, fo I, for 
want of leifure, hallily fet them down : 
but thefe things, as I have faid, are of the 
firft kind, which flands in the ballancing 
one thing with the other. 

The other kind of knowledge is of 
them which fland in the things which are 
in themfelves either fnnply good or limply 
evil, and fo ferve for a right inflruction, or 
a fhunning example. Of thefe Homer 
meant in this verfe, qui multos hominum 
mores cognovit et urbes. For he does not 
mean by mores, how to look, or p V. off 
one's cap or hat with a new-found grace, 
altho' true behaviour is not to be defpifed ; 
marry my herefy is, that the Englijh be- 
haviour is befl in England, and the Italians 
in Italy. But mores he takes for that from 
whence moral philofophy is fo called, the 
certainty of true difcerning of mens 
minds both in virtue, paffions and vices. 
And when he faith, cognovit urbes, he 
means not (if I be not deceived) to have feen 
towns, and mark'd their buildings-, for 
furely houfes are but houfes in every place, 
they do but differ fecundum magis et minus j 
but he intends to their religion, politicks, 
laws, bringing up of children, difcipiine 
Q, both 

lviii An IntroduBory Dijcourje, &c. 

both in war and peace, and fuch like, feem over curious, it is an eafy matter to 
Thefe I take to be of the fecond kind, cut off when a man fees the bottom. Flan- 
which are ever worthy to be known for ders likewife, befides the neighbourhood 
their own fakes. For even as to the great with us, and the annexed confiderations 
Turk, tho' we have nothing to do with thereunto, hath divers things to be known, 
him, yet his difcipline in war matters is, efpecially their governing their mer- 
propter fe, worthy to be learned. Nay, chants and other trades. Alfo for Italy, 
even in the kingdom of China, which is we know not what we have, or can have 
almoft as far as the Antipodes from us, their to do with them, but to buy their filks 
good laws and cuftoms are to be learned : and wines : And as for the other point, ex- 
but to know their riches and power is of cept Venice (whofe good laws and cuftoms 
little purpofe for us ; fince that can nei- we can hardly proportion to ourfelves, be- 
ther advance us, nor hinder us. But in our caufe they are quite of a contrary govern- 
neighbouring countries, both thefe things ment) there is little there but tyrannous 
are to be marked, as well the latter (which oppreflion, and fervile yielding to thofe 
contain things for themfelves)as the former, who have little or no right over them. 
(which feek to know both thofe, and how And for the men you mall have there, al- 
their riches and power may be to us avail- though indeed fome be excellently lear- 
able, or otherwife.) The countries fitteft ned, yet are they all given to counterfeit 
For both thefe, are thofe you are going into, learning : as a man mail learn among 
France above all others is mod needful for them more falfe grounds of things than in 
us to mark, efpecially in the former kind, any place elfe I know. For from a tap- 
Next is Spain and the Low Countries ; then fter upwards, they are all difcourfers in 
Germany, which in my opinion excells all certain matters and qualities ; as horfe- 
others as much in the latter confideration, manfhip, weapons, waiting; and fuch are 
as the other doth in the former, yet nei- better there than in other countries : But 
ther are void of neither : For, as Germany, for other matters, as well (if not better) 
methinks,doth excell in good laws and well you (hall have them in nearer places, 
adminiftring of juftice ; fo are we likewife Now refteth in my memory but this 
to confider in it the many princes with point,which indeed is to you the principal of 
whom we may have leagued ; the places of all others ; which is, the chief of what men 
trade, and means to draw both foldiers you are to direct, yourfelf to •, for it is cer- 
and furniture there in time of need. So tain no veiTel can leave a worfe tafte in the 
on the other fide, as in France and Spain liquor it contains than a wrong teacher 
we are principally to mark how they ftand infects an unfkilful hearer with that which 
towards us both in power and inclination ; fo will hardly ever out. I will not tell you 
are they not without good and fitting ufe, fome abfurdities I have heard fome tra- 
even in the generality of wifdom to be vellers tell; tafte him well, before you drink 
known ; as in France the courts of parlia- much of his doctrine ; and when you 
ment, their fubalternjurifdiction, and their have heard it, try well what you have 
continual keeping of payed foldiers; in heard before you hold it for a principle, 
Spain, their good and grave proceedings, for one error is the mother of a thoufand. 
their keeping fo many provinces under But you may fay, how fhall I get excellent 
them, and by what manner ; with the true men to take pains to fpeak with me r* 
points of honour, wherein fince they have Truly in few words, either with much ex- 
the moll open conceit, and in which they pence or much humblenefs. 

A Geo- 

( I ) 

Geographical Defcription 

O F 



Its name. /\MIT TING whatever may favour moft intirely in the northern temperate situation 
VV of fable or heathen fuperftition in zone; for the moft exa£t geographers fix it and ex- 
the derivation of this name given to one between 34 and 80 deg. north lat. and be- tent - 
part of the world, I mail agree with the tween 5 and 80 deg. longitude, fuppofing ' 
learned and faithful author Bochart, who the firft meridian to pafs thro* the ill and 
derives Europe from the Phcenician words of Teneriff ; for, its limitation is thus : on 
Hur-Appa, which is as much as to fay, the fouth, Europe is bounded with the 
White Face-, becaufe the inhabitants of Mediterranean fea feparating it from Africa ; 
Europe are white or fair*, in compari- on the weft by the Atlantick ocean •, on the 
fon of the Africans. But be this as it will ; north by the fame ocean called the wr- 
it is certain that it has not always, nor in them, Hyperborean, or Glacial fea ; on 
all nations, been called and known by this the eaft it is fepa/ated from Afta by the Ar- 
name : for though the Romans knew it chipelago (anciently jEgeum Mare), by the 
by the name of Europa, and the Italians, Hellefponius, now cailed the Arm of St. 
French, Spaniards, Englifh, German, &c. George, or the Streight of Gallipoli or Dar- 
do now call it Europe ; yet fome ancient danelles, by the Propontis, now called the 
foreigners, who bordered on the Gauls fea of Marmora, by the Streight of Con- 
and Celta, named it Galatia and Celtica : fiantinople, formerly called Thracian Bof- 
as it is now called Rumeli or Alfrank by phorus, by the Black fea, or Pont Euxine, 
the 'Turks at Conftantinople, Frankoba by by ( the Cimmerian Bofphorus, called now 
Georgians, and Frankijlan by the other the Streight of Caff a, or Vofporo, or Bocca de 
Afiaticks, who confequently ftile us ge- St. Giovanni, and by the Palus Mceotis, now 
nerally, Francks, or Franguis -, for this called the Sea del Zabache. But to all thefe 
reafon, it may be conjectured, be- limits muft be added the Don or Tanais, 
caufe the French, of all the Europeans that and from its greater); bending a line muft 
undertook the conqueft of the Holy Land be drawn to the mouth of the river Obi ; 
from the 'Turk, made the greateft figure. and fo whatever (hall be on the left hand 

Its fhape. -^ s to * ts ma P e » Europe has been re- or weft is deemed to be in Europe, and 

prefented by Strabo, and others among whatever you find on the right hand be- 

the ancient geographers, in the fhape of a longs to Afta. 

dragon. But our modern authors reprefent So that it contains in breadth, as a con-j tscon . 

it like a woman in a fedentary pofture ; tinent, from the north cape to cape Cata- tents, 

and with the mere view to flatter Charles pan, in the Morea, about 2600 miles; 

the fifth, Chrijlianus Weekel compofed the and not lefs than 2800 miles in length from 

woman in this manner : He fixed Spain the mouth of the river Obi in the eaft to 

for the head ; Languedoc and Guienne, the Cape St. Vincent, on. the coaft of Portugal, 

neck; the other provinces of France, the in the weft. And it is divided into twelve D - . f 

breaft ; Great-Britain and Italy, the two parts by thofe who have beft confidered it 
arms ; Germany, the belly ; Bohemia, the . according to nature, which are fituate af* 

navel ; and the other provinces, the reft ter this manner, four in the north, four 

of her limbs or cloaths ; which is a very in the middle, and four in the fouth, 

ingenious, but I cannot account it to be each divifion containing three large coun- 

an exact representation. tries and a fma4-l one, viz. 
As to its fituation and extent, it is al- 


A Geographical Description ^/Europe. 


f S. Britain, "> London, Canterbury. 

i. Britijh \ N. Britain, ( Edinburgh, Glafgow. 

Iflands, 1 i re l an d ( \Dublin,^Cork,lVaterford, 

2. i>K/- 

Thc four in the north are < Countries, 

3. Scandi- 

4. Mufco- 

j t Londonderry. 
United } •■» J Amfierdam, Rotterdam, 
Provinces, \ \ IDelf, Utrecht. 

JBriiffels, Ghent, Antwerp, 
Mechlin, Life, Tournay, 
1 Copenhagen. 
S Objlo, Drontheim. 
) Stockholm, Gottenburgh. 

}Mofcow, Archangel, Pe- 




The four in the middle are 

The four in the fouth are, 

1 . France \ 

2 . Switzerland, 

3. Germany, 

4. Poland^ 

1. Spain, 

2. Portugal, 

3. Italy, 

4. Turkey, in Eu- 


Paris, Lyons, Rhoan, Bourdeaux. 
Bqfil, Zurick, Berne, Soleurre. 
Vienna, Hamburgh, Cologn, Aujbourgh. 

Nurenbergh, Frankfort. 
Cracow, War f aw, Dantzick. 

Madrid, Toledo, Seville, Barcelona. 
Lijbon, Porto. 

Rome, Naples, Venice, Genoa, Milan. 
Conftantinople, Gallipoli, Adrianople. 

After which general divifion, it will not be improper to give fome account of the 
iflands, peninfuU, ifimus's, capes, mountains, oceans, feas, gulphs, Jlreights, lakes, and 
rivers in Europe. And, 


In the ocean are, 

Britijh Iflands, 

' Sicily, 
Corfica, $ 


In the Mediterranean fea are, < 

North of France. 
Weft of Holland. 
Weft of Norway. 
South Weft of Spain. 

f South of Italy. 
I Weft of Italy. 

Corfou, 7 



South eaft of Morea. 

> ty in g < S Weft of Greece. 
Zante, 3 ( 


Minorca, V 

Ivica, J 

With fome other fmall ones on the coafts of France 

and Italy. 


Eaft of Spain. 

In the Baltick fea are, 







And many other fmall ones. 

2. PENIN- 

A Geographical Defcription 0/" Europe. 


Peninfula of 


p Germany. 
Adjacent to \ Greece. 

Little Tartary. 
3. I S T H M U S's. 

Morea or Pelo 

Taurica Cher 


f Corinth, 1 

< Taurica Cher- I 




Morea to Greece. 
The fame to Z/7/& 


• Cape Nord, 

La Hogue, 
Promontories or Capes \ The Lizard, 

The Star/, 
Ctfptf Finifterre, 
Cape Rocca, 
Cape St. Vincent, 

" The moft northern parts of 
South weft 
Y frr»m i South j> of England. 


,]J J 


Weft of Spain. 


Vol. I. 

' The Bolfrine " 

Between Sweden and Afor- 




In the fouth , 



or Ripheans, 

> of Mufcovy. 

or S/0^> 



In the north 

The Ceven- 1 


nes Moun* ( 

< In the fouth of France. 

vergne, J 


The Vauge, 

In Lorrain, Alface, and Franche 


Incirculating Bohemia. 


In Swabia. 

The Carpa- 

In the fouth of Poland. 

thian Mount, 

Mountains <{ The Pyrenaan 

> Are ^ Between France and 




The ^><?j, 

Between Italy \ Switzerland. 
1 Germany, 

TheM?#7z/ y^>- 

Cutting Italy through the 



Vefuvius ( a 

Near Naples. 


Monte Santo, 

In the eaft of Macedonia. 

or Athos, 

The Crampian 

In Scotland, fouth of the River 

^ Hills, 


Cheviot Hills, 

Between England and Scot- 

Malvern Hills, 

In Worcejlerjhire, 

The Peak, 

In Derbyjhire. 

t Snowden, 

In Carnarvon/hire. 



A Geographical Description of Europe. 



Seas •{ 

Gulfs of 


Streights of 

Knock Patrick, 
Mount Jura, 
Mtna (a Volcano) 
Mela {a Volcano) 

In Cardigan/hire. 
In Ireland, near Limmerick. 
Are -{ Between Switzerland and France. 
In Sicily, 
In Iceland. 


The Hyperborean, 
or northern, 

The Atlantick, or 

Wafhing Eu- 
rope on 


The north. 
The weft. 


Baltick Sea, 

German Sea, 

Irijh Sea, 

Mediterranean Sea, '^ Inclofed 


Black Sea, 

Sea of Marmora, 




f Sweden, T 

< Poland, part (on the 
(_ Germany, part J 
C Scandinavia, o , t E. 
t Great-Britain, J \ W. 

c Great-Britain, ? . ( E. 
1 Ireland, J onthc t W. 


C Europe, 

Part of 2£«- 

Part of 

Part of £»- 

Part of 


"N. & 1 
►on the^ 

>on the 

8. G U L P H S. 

Bothnia, > 

Finland, y 




1 \ 

y Bending y 

( "^ I North into t 
\ / North weft i 

J (.E.N. E. bet 

.Northward 7 T * o j „ 
Eaftward 1 Int0 W<? *- 

North weft between iito/p and 

the fouth of France. 
into the fouth of ihz/y. 
between Greece and Morea. 


Dover, or P<« *fc 

The Sound, 


Faro de Meffma, 

Bocca of Corfica, J 

Joining <{ 

The German Sea to the Englifh chan- 
T he Danifh to the Baltick Sea. 
The Mediterranean to the weftern 

P#/«j Maotis to Ptf#/ Euxine. 
Pont Euxine to the Propontis. 
Propontis to the Archipelago. 
One part of the Mediterranean to 


*o. LAKES. 

A Geographical Description of Europe. 

io. LAKES. 






Lakes of j T , & ? 
J ^ llment, 


the eaft parts 
of Sweden. 

7 In the weft parts 
of the fame. 

iWeft part of 
Conjlance, fouth part of Germany. 
Geneva, weft 1 
Lucerne, north / Parts of Switzer- 
Tverdun, weft f land. 

Moral, weft J 

Lake Major, 1 XT , 
LakeCoL \ Northparts 

Garda, j of7/ ^' 

JVinander Mere in Weflmore- 

Wittlefmere in Huntington- 
rNefs, north i parts- of 
\Z.0»0»i,fou. J 5^//. 

6 jJV>^,nor. (Parts of 
I ham, north [Ireland. 
^-Derghe, mid. J 

: i . The moft remarkable RIVERS of £«r^ are, 

In Mufcovy, 1 Don, 



In Germany, 


Scheldt \ 
Maes, 5 

In "Poland, ^ T ,.%* 7 -, 
) Vijtula, 1 

Niemen, > 

Duna, J 


In 7ta/y, 

Po, ) 

Adige, ) 

Tyber, J 



In England. 


j J Humber,! 

' ) #**, [ 

/ Twede, J 
*- Medwav 


In Scotland. 





In JfcW, < r "^ 
) narrow, 

Bcyne, 5 


!• running ) 

eaft turning fouth 
eaft turning weft, 
north weft. 


-v ~ cait. 

/ V | north turning weft 

> running < 

I fouth eaft. 



/ j north weft. 

J eaft fouth eaft. 

j fouth weft, 

fouth weft. 




> miming * 

3 L 


r fouth weft. 
\ eaft. 

^ eaft turning fouth. 

| aorth eaft. 





A Geographical Description of Europe. 

In France, 



f north weft. 
\ weft. 
J fouth. 
L north weft. 

ilqueveirl I \ r 

ana, > i running < | 

I J w 


T „ . j \Guadalqueveir 

In Spam and j^ ,. •* 

„ * 7 <Guadiana 

Portugal, \ Tagm 


The next thing to be confidered is, by 
what languages thefe different parts traffick 
and correfpond with each other. Some 
reckon but three principal ones, as the 
Latin, High Dutch, and Sclavonian-, al- 
ledging, that the Italian, Spanijh, and 
French, are only different dialects of the 
Latin tongue; that the High Dutch is the 
current fpeech of Germany, and that Scan- 
dinavia and Great-Britain fpeak the fame 
corruptly, or in a different dialect ; that 
the Sclavonian is chiefly ufed in Mufcovy, 
Hungary, Poland, Sclavonia, and Bohemia : 
Others pretend to derive all the languages 
now ufed in Europe, from the Greek, Latin, 
Teutonic, or Old German, Celtic, Sclavonic, 
and Gothic: But I apprehend that they 
come nearer to the truth, who reckon eight 
feveral languages in Europe, viz. the 
French, the native of France, and intro- 
duced not only into the fouthern parts of 
Switzerland, and fome parts of the Ne- 
therlands, but into all the European courts, 
polite converfation, and merchandife. 
The German circulates in Germany, pro- 
perly fo called ; in Sweden, Denmark, Low 
Countries, and Switzerland, Italian, in all 
the ftates of Italy ; the adjacent ifles, and 
country of the Grifons ; and of late on the 
mufical ftages of all Europe : The Eng- 
lijh tongue being chiefly confined to the 
Britijh iflands, as the Spanijh is in Spain and 
Portugal ; the Irijh in Ireland, and among 
the Scotch highlanders; the Britijh, or 
Welch, in Wales, Cornwall, and Little 
Britain in France ; and the Cantabrian, or 
Bijcayan, near the ocean, towards the Py- 
renaan hills. As for the religions in Eu- 
rope, fee the introduction, where religion 
is treated of in general. 

The governments of Europe are either 
monarchical, where the fovereign power 
is in the hands of a Jole man, as in Spain, 

fouth eaft. 

fouth weft, 

Denmark, &c. or dejpotic, where one has 
an abfolute power over the life and goods 
of his fubjects, as in Turkey, Mujcovy, and 
France ; or arijfocratical, where a few no- 
blemen have the whole authority, as at 
Venice \ or democratical, where the go- 
vernment is in the hands of the people, 
as in the United Provinces, and fome part 
of Switzerland : Befides fome other go- 
vernments, which are a medley of monarchy 
and arijlocracy, as in Poland., and demo- 
cracy, as in England and Sweden. And 
the principal fovereignties in Europe are as 
follow : 

f Germany, 
The empires of j Rujfia, 

L Turkey. 


The kingdoms of 

Great Britain and Ireland, 



Bohemia, K ' m r 

r> rr corns. 



Naples and Si- 
cily (which 


are term'd 


the two Si- 


cilies) ; 

And the Popedom of Rome. 

C Venice, Republics. 

y United Netherlands, 

The republics of) S ^ e " la f 
r ^ 1 he Grijons, 

J Genoa, 

L Lucca, 

And the fmall republics of Geneva, St. 

Marin, and Raguja. 

Next to thefe may be reckoned the elec- Elefto- 
torates of Germany,whofc princes chufe the rates - 
emperor ; of whom the three firft are fpi- 
ritual, and all the others temporal princes, 

P Mentz, _ - Bavaria, 

The archbimopricks \ ^ . /Thetemporal) S ^ on ^ , , 
and electorates of i Tners > f electorates of) ^andenburgh, 

I \ I Palatine, 

Co log n, J L Brunfwick-Lunenburgh, 

And the kingdom of Bohemia. 


A Geographical Defcription of Europe, 

Other fo- 








There are, befides thefe, no lefs than 
three hundred fubaltern fovereignties in 
Germany, Italy, &c. whofe poffeffors, 
whether fpiritual, as archbifhops and 
bifhops ; or temporal, as princes, land- 
graves, dukes, marquiffes, counts, £<?c. 
though they are tributaries or feoffees to 
the emperor, or fome other fuperior prince, 
have authority in their own eftates. 

Of the fpiritual the moft confiderable are, 

The grand mafter of the Teutonic order. 

The grand mafter of Malta. 

The grand prior of Malta, who alfo is 
called the grand prior of Germany. 

The archbifhop of Saltzburgh j and 
twenty-one bifhops in Germany. 

The abbots and princes of Fulda in 
Germany, St. Gall'm Switzerland, and fome 

Of the temporal, the moft confiderable are, 
The archduke of Auftria. 
The great duke of Tufcany. 

f Cajfel, 

The landgraves of Heff. e\ %™{^ 

L Homburgh. 

The dukes of Savoy, and Modena, &c. 
in Italy: the duchies of Milan, Mantua, 
Mirandola, Parma, and Placentia, are, at 
prefent, in the houfe of Auftria: the 
dukes of Mecklemburgh, Wertembergh, 
Holftein, Saxe-Weymar, Eyfenach, Gotha, 
&V. in Germany ; 

And the duke of Courland, in Poland. 

The princes of Anhalt, Arembergh, 
Hohenzollern, NaJJ'au, and Eaft-Frifeland, 
Furflembergh, Lichtenftein, Waldeck, Tour, 
and Taxis, See. in Germany. 

The marquiffes of Baden, Dourlacb, 
Brandenburg}), Culembach, and Branden- 
burgh-Anfpach, in Germany. 

The counts of Hanau, Solms, Traun, 
Schlick, Starembergh, &c. 

Befides thefe, there are the cham of the 
European Tartary, the hofpodars of Wala- 
chia, Moldavia, &c. 

And now though Europe be the fmalleft 
of the four parts of the world, yet it is to 
be preferr'd to any of them on many ac- 

counts j the air is milder, the foil more 
fruitful, and the countries thereof more 
populous than thofe of the reft •, and tho' 
there jbe but a few filver and gold mines, 
yet trade is a good compenfation for their 
deficiency. And if Europe does not pro- 
duce many drugs, which are found in the In- 
dies, brought thence, and ufed by phyficians, 
yet it is no difparagement to Europe, but 
is rather an inftance, that Europe is the 
wholefomeft part of the world, and that we 
may very well live without thofe drugs, 
if we were well acquainted with what na- 
ture affords us at home. And though 
it be certain that Afia was peopled before i nna bi- 
Europe, and that it be likely that the in- tants. 
habitants of this laft, either came into 
it from Phrygia into Greece, or from Bar' 
bary into Spain ; yet for all that, 'tis now 
agreed on all hands, that Europe is by- 
far the better cultivated and moft populous 
part of world. Mr. Defer reckons it con- 
tains 117 millions of people, who have 
infinitely outdone the Pbxnicians and Car- 
thaginians, the famous ancient traders of 
Afia and Africa, both as to difcoveries, and 
length and importance of trading voyages ; 
and we may with the authors of the New 
General Atlas, or rather of the New French 
Geographical Method, conclude, that the 
Divine Providence has fitted the Europeans 
for thofe great undertakings beyond the 
inhabitants of the other three parts ; for as 
they have nothing fhocking in their fea- 
tures and lineaments, which is the cafe of 
moft other people, fo they are of ftronger 
conftitutions ; and being alfo bred in the 
northern temperate zone, and having bet- 
ter notions of religion, learning and liber- 
ty than others have, their minds are thereby 
more adapted to generous and bold attempts, 
and to defpife dangers, than thofe of the 
A/iaticks, Africans, and Americans, who 
never were a match for them in any cir- 
cumftance when the terms were equal. 
Witnefs the two famous empires of Greece 
and Rome, who conquer'd the beft part of 
Afta and Africa-, and as for America it was 
no fooner difcover'd, but it was fubdued 
by the Europeans, who in general are kind, M anner9> 
civil, and witty : and by their abilities 
and courage they have fubdued the in- 
habitants of the other parts of the world. 
They are very ingenious in their workman- 
fhips, wife in their government, courage- 
ous in war, fkilful in trade, and magnifi- 
cent in their buildings. 

Vol. I. 


T H E 

V O Y A G E 

O F 

Don Manoel Gonzales, 

(Late MERCHANT) of the 


T O 



An Historical, Geographical, Topographical, Political, and 
Ecclefiafticai ACCOUNT of 



A curious Collection ofTHINGS particularly Rare, 
Both in Nature and Antiquity. 

Tranjlated from the Portugueze Manufcript. 


IO The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

chapter I. 

Containing the Reafons of the Author's Voyage to England, &c, 

IN my infancy, my parents, being on 
both fides defcended from new ChriJ- 

The au- 
thor's pa- 

and edu- ■ -^- tians, to appear more devout and 
cation, attached to the eftablilhed church, and 
fo the better to fcreen themfelves from 
the eye of the Portugueze inquifition, put 
me on the habit of a Jejuit, and deter- 
mined to breed me a fcholar at leaft, if 
not a father of that fociety. In confe- 
quence of this refolution, I, as foon as 
age would permit, was fent to their pub- 
lick fchool of St. Antoaon, or St. Anthony the 
greats at Lijbon, where not only languages, 
but all the liberal fciences are taught; and 
in a few years was to determine, whether 
I would enter into the fociety, or fucceed 
to my father's bufinefs of a merchant, who 
then was declining, both with age and in- 
firmities of body. My tutor laid clofe 
fiege to my affections, well knowing 
that, as then I was the only furviving child 
of my parents, all their fubftance (and 
they were accounted rich) would *center 
with me in their fociety for ever, could I 
be perfuaded to become a jefuit : to whom 
I had almoft yielded ; till my mother in- 
terpofing, with folid reafons convinced me, 
that for the prefent it would be better, 
both for her, and myfelf, to enter into 
partnerfhip with my father, a Hedging that 
I was not yet fo capable to judge how an 
ecclefiaftical life, under vows of poverty, 
chajlity, and obedience, might confift with 
my growing inclinations and propenfity of 
nature ; that as the whole paternal eftate 
would be feized on for their own ufe, 
upon my father's death, me muft be ruin- 
ed or become obfequious to the fociety for 
a mean fubfiftance, or perchance be obliged 
to end her days in a monadic confinement : 
and again, that mould I happen to give 
them any provocation, or break their or- 
ders or rules, I might be unjejuited, ex- 
pelled their fociety, and excluded both 
from my inheritance, and all means of 
living. And then, fhe added, that if in 
after-life my inclinations continued, when 
youth was conquered, and the world could 
yield me no pleafure, I might then do as 
I pleafed; and it would yet be time 
enough to retire. 
Leaves Thus advifed, I no longer appeared at 

JchoS. A Anthony's, nor in my ftudent's drefs; 
yet my bookilh inclination continued : But 
the courfe of my ftudies was changed, for 
infteadGf//ny?<?//<?'s Philosophy, School Di- 
vinity, and Cafuijiry, I now relifhed nothing 
but Voyages, Travels, and Geography •, and 

fuch other books as would lead me into" a 
juft notion of the world, and affift me in 
that ftate of life I then had juft entered 

As for languages, I had been very hap- His leam- 
py in taking them at fchool ; fo that I was ing. 
at no lofs in reading authors of diverfe na- 
tions, except the Englijh : for tho' the En- 
glijh factory at Lijbon is both the richeft 
and the largeft, and there is alfo an Englijh 
college, an Englijh nunnery, and two lrijh 
colleges, and a nunnery of that nation alio, 
who fpeak the Englijh tongue ; and I may 
add, tho' our greateft dealings in the mer- 
cantile Way are with the fubjects of Great- 
Britain, none of the natives endeavour to 
teach or learn their language. Therefore 
my next ftep towards obtaining true ideas 
of a nation I, in all probability, was to 
deal with during my life, was to fearch not 
only for Portugueze and Spanijh, but forxhe caufe 
French and Italian authors ; yet I could of his 
find none in any of thefe languages, that j n q ui| y 
are any other than mere fuperficial ^-/^V^I 
counts, and in my opinion no way capable ry , 
to convey juft ideas of fo deferving a peo- 
ple, nor furficient to inftruct a foreigner 
how to manage an advantageous com- 
merce with them. For fo long as we 
are kept ignorant of any country, and 
traffiek with its natives only by factors of 
their own nation, fettled among us, we 
muft take only what they pleafe to im- 
port, and at their own times and price, 
to our own great lofs : whereas a merchant, 
that is thoroughly acquainted with the 
product, manufacture and genius of the 
nations he trafficks with, has the advantage 
to fupply himfelf with the beft commodi- 
ties, in the beft feafons, and at the cheap- 
eft rates. Confequently, 

I, refolving to merchandife with Great- jj e learns 
Britain, refolved alfo firft to learn t\\t Englijh, 
language, and then to make a voyage to and tra " 
the ifland itfelf. I foon made myfelf vcls> 
mafter of as much of the Englijh tongue, 
as to enable me to attempt my intended 
voyage, without the incumbrance and the 
accidents that often befall gentlemen, who 
are obliged to truft all to an interpreter. 
Having gained my parents confent, I em- 
barked with their bleffing, on board the 
packet, on the 23d of April, being St. 
George's Day, commonly called the patron 
of England j and, after a pleafant voy- 
age of feven days, we arrived fafe at Fal- ' 
mouth the 30th of April, 1 730, N. S. 


to Engl And and Scotland* 



Containing an Account of the Preparation for the Author's Journey through 

Great-Britain; and of its Name. 

T N the voyage, having flgnified to the 

Is invited ■ 

to the A. captain my intention to make the tour 
captain's of Great-Britain, being well furnifhed 
houfe. w i tn money and credit, he very genteelly, 
upon landing, invited me to his own houfe, 
which I accepted of, till I could recover 
the little fatigue of my fea-ficknefs, and 
indeed chiefly to take his advice, and to 
concert with him the moll practicable me- 
thod to obtain a thorough knowledge of 
this kingdom. 
Takes his His difintereftednefs demanded my at- 
advice tention to his advice ; and furely his ad- 
how to y j ce was g od. For, he pofitively ob- 
' jected againft my travelling alone, as dan- 
gerous •, and to put myfelf in the power 
of an Englijh fervant, might, he faid, be 
attended with many bad confequences, 
and could not be expected to be a proper 
means to make any advantageous observa- 
tions : But, continued he, I can procure 
you a gentleman of the cloth, or a cler- 
gyman, who, for a fmall gratuity, by 
way of prefent, for lofs of time, and bear- 
ing his expences, will give you his com- 
pany j and his learning, character and af- 
fability* will make your journey pleafant* 
gain you admittance wherever you come 
and defire to pry into things, and explain 
whatever is needful for you to know. I 
clofed with this* very thankfully. But 
now faid I, Sir, to compleat my felicity, 
may I be fo bold to afk and to hope that 
you will favour me, at my own expence, 
with the company of Mr. * * * your fon 
alfo, and his fervant. The good captain 
yielded to my intreaties. A worthy cler- 
gyman in the neighbourhood agreed to go 
with us, and we fet forward on our jour- 
ney on the 4th of May, O. S. 

My good and ingenious tutor, for fuch 
I (hall ftile the worthy clergyman (my 
fellow-traveller) for the future, being a 
very good Latinijt, prefently learned to 
converfe with me intelligibly ; for though 
(the Englijh pronunciation of the Latin 
being barbarous) I could not at all times 
at firft directly understand him in Latin, yet 
by the help of the little fmattering of the 
Englijh tongue I had got, nothing was loft 
Vol. I. 

that he was pleafed to promote for my in- 
formation : and being a good hiftorian and 
geographer, he (being acquainted with 
my intentions) began immediately to pre- 
pare me for a more clear perception of 
things to be met with in our tour, by a ge- 
neralaccount of Engl and and Scotland, 
now called Great-Britain. 

Great -Britain, fays he, is theGreat- 
greateft ifland in Europe ; as well as the Briiain; 
belt fituated, richeft in commerce, rrioftjj^ 1 ^" 
fruitful, and moft powerful in arms. extent. 

Its longitude (Teneriffe being the me- 
ridian) being 9 degrees 45 minutes, at 
the Land's-End in Cornwall, and 1 7 de- 
grees 1 5 minutes, at the South- Foreland in 
Kent ; in all 7 degrees and a half: its la- 
titude being 50 degrees at the Lizard- 
Point in Cornwall; and 58 and a half at 
the Headland, in Caithnefs, Scotland ; which,, 
according to the geometrical meafure of 
Englijh ftatute miles, viz. 69 miles and 
8 64. feet to a degree, makes the true 
breadth of the ifland 285 miles, and 587 
miles in length. And here it will not be 
improper to obferve that its form is trian- 
gular; for the Land's-End, Dover-Head, 
and Caithness, make three corners ; thofe 
promontories mooting out into the fea : 
being bounded on the north, by the 
northern fea; on the eaft, by the German 
ocean ; on the fouth, by the Englijh chan- 
nel ; and on the weft, by the Irijh fea, or 
St. George's channel. 

As to the name of this ifland, Albion, Name. 
Cimbri, Prydyn, Prydein, or Prydain, for 
by all thofe names it was called by the 
ancient Britains ; out of which laft the 
Romans called it Britannia, and the Greeks, 
Uretanian ; whether Albion, Britain, or 
Cimbria, was the firft name, is uncertain ; 
tho' I think thefe names grew about one 
time, upon the firft habitation thereof. 
As to Albion, fome derive it of Alphos 
in Greek, and fome of Album in Latin, 
tho* it hath in it neither Greek nor Latin, 
white or black* but is plain downright 
Britijh, compounded of two words, G<z/and 
Bian, that is, Little Gaul, by removing 
the radical letter G, a as it is ufual with the 
T Hebrews 

* For as a learned author obferves, every Britijh word, whofe radical is P, T, or C, in writing and dif- 
courfe, for the fweet harmony of found, hath three variations, fo that the radical P is fometimes turned 
into B, Ph, and fometimes into Nhj T into D, Th, and Nh; C into G, Ch, and into Ngh the Hebrew 
Gnayn. As for example, Pen in the Britijh language is a head, and P radical ; his head I Ben, with a 
head A Phen, and her head I Phen, my head Fym-hen: likewife fire is Tan, out of fire O Dan, with fire 
A Than, my fire Fim-han ; love is Cariad, out of love O Cariad, with love A Cariad, my love Fyngha' 
riad. Divers like variations we have in removing the radical, and fometimes the radical is quite taken 
away, and no other put m its place, as when for Ga/bion, that i s > little Gaul, we fay Albion. 


12 The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

Hebrews and Welch* turning Galw into Antiq. Jib. i. c. 7. tranflated by Sir Roger 

Alw, Garw into Arw, Gavel into Avel, Lejlrange. 

and Galanas into ^>mj, &c. fo they tur- As to the etymology of Prydyn, Prydein, Itsetymo- 

ned Galbian into Albian, the ancient Bri- and Pry dain, or Britain ; they are wittily Io SX- 

///& word J?/^ fignifying &/ȣ$ and Albian, derived by feveral authors, as collected by 

(or as now corruptly written Albion) which Camden : but neither they nor this great 

isto fay Little Gaul; which name has con- antiquary could hope to fucceed in their 

tinued ever fmce the Gauls, Cimbri, or inquiry •, when it muft be confeffed that 

Bri tains took poffeffion of this ifland. Britain is an ancient Br 'itijh or Welch 

As to Cimbria, it is urged that the Cimbri word, for Prydein or Prydain, the derivatives 
were its firft inhabitants; who now are of Pryd, which fignifies beauty, and P 
called Welch,' and contend that they can being made B, according to the rule cited 
prove their pedigree down to Noah, and before, are turned into Britain. Or, other- 
even to our firft parent Adam-, and pretend wife, it is to be obferved that the termi- 
to demonftrate that they are the real de- nation Dain in the ancient Britijh tongue 
fcendents of Corner the eldeft fon of- Japhet, fignifies delegable, derived from the Hebrew 
who was the eldeft fon of Noah ; building word addin or addan, i. e. delicate ; and as 
their- preemption on the affinity there is we know from good authority, that when 
between the words Gomer and Cimbri ; ef- the Cimbri came firft from Gaul up the 
pecially on this teftimony of Jofephus ; viz. river Thames, they, delighted with the 

" Now the fons of Noah had children, place, called it Avon Dain, or the delicate 

ct who, for the honour of their memory, river; and afterwards fixing upon a place 

" called the people wherever they got on the more moft agreeable to themlelves 

" poffeflion by their own names : As Ja- for to inhabit, they called it Lundain or 

<c phet, the fon of Noah, had feven fons, London : and, in fine, when they had ken 

" who planted themfelves in Afta, from and tailed the goods of the whole land, 

" the mountains -of I'aurus and Amenus to what could- they do lefs than name it Pry- 

" the river Tanais; in Europe to Gades; dain. ov" Britain? However, the epithet 

u and the places being not as yet peopled, 'Great' is given univerfally to this ifland, 

" where -ever they got footing,as aforefaid, either to diftinguifh it from the province 

" they called the countries after their own of Britany in France, or from the other 

"names. Gomer was the founder of thofe Britijh ifles, particularly from- Ireland, 

" that were called Gomerites, and by the which, in ancient times, was known by the 

" Greeks at this Day Galatians (ox Gauls.) name of Britannia 'Minor. 


Containing the ancient State of the Ifland of Great-Britain, ejpecially under the 

Roman Empire. 

By whom rj^ H E moft true and ancient of all hifto- conqueft ; for as much as many great cu- 

firft inha- J^ ries informs us,that after the flood the riofities and pieces of antiquity in our tra- 

bited ' pofterity of Japhet inhabited and divided a- vels, can't well be accounted for, nor un- 

mong'emtheiflesoftheG^/^.G^m^who derftood, without this part of Englijh hi- 

was eldeft fon of Japhet, gave a name and ftory. 

defcent to the Cimbrians ; who imparted the Julius Cafar, governor of Gallia for the Invaded 

fame to the Gauls and Germans, and con- Roman fenate, intending to invade Bri -by the 

fequently to the inhabitants of this ifle, as tany, and being informed that his inten- mam ' 

being originally defcended from the Gauls, tion had got wind, and that divers ftates of 

who°firft came over and fettled in this the ifle had fent over ambafladors to offer 

iftand ; as is moft probable both from the hoftages for afllirance of their obedience 

fituation, or its nearnefs to the continent, to the fenate and people of Rome, received 

and from the uniformity in language, reli- them courteoufly, and appointed Cominus, 

gion, and policy between the moft ancient who was much refpected by the Britains, 

Gauls and Britains. As to the ftate of to accompany the ambafladors home again, 

Britany before the arrival of the Romans, and to endeavour with all his intereft and 

it being obfcured with many intricacies, eloquence to perfuade the rulers to fubmit 

and rather matter of amufement than in- themfelves, as fome of their nation had al- 

ftru&ion, and a labyrinth in which a man ready done: and further to let them know, 

may more eafily fhoot wide than hit the that himfelf with all convenient fpeed 

mark, I fhall pafs it over, and begin an would come thither. The princes of the 

account of its ancient ftate at the Roman ifle, being as yet unacquainted with any 


to England and Scotland. 


The an- 
cient Bri- 
tains de- 

civil kinds of government, maintained 
quarrels and factions among themfelves, 
whereby, while one fought to offend ano-, 
ther, and to enlarge his own part by in- 
croaching upon his neighbours (not ob- 
ferving, that what they gained in particu- 
lar one of another, they loft all together in 
the general reckoning) they made an open 
pafTage in the end for the Romans to con- 
quer the whole (a thing common to, them 
with other nations, who have found the 
like effects to proceed from the likecaufes.) 
For, the mod part of the Britains, in thofe 
days, delighted in war, neglecting hufband- 
ry, or perchance not then knowing the ufe 
of it. Their manner of living and 
cuftoms, were much like thofe of the in- 
habitants of Gallia. . , Their diet was fuch 
as nature yielded of.herfelf, without the 
induftry of man ; for though they had 
great ftore of .cattle, yet they lived (efpe- 
cially in the inland countries) with milk. 
It was held among them as a thing un- 
lawful, to. eat of a hare, a hen, or a goofe, 
and yet they nourifhed them all for recre- 
ation lake. Their apparel was made of 
the fkins of beads, though their bodies 
were, for the molt part, naked, and ftained 
with woad, which gave them a blueifh co-, 
lour, and (as they fuppofed) made their af- 
pect terrible to their enemies in battle. 
Their houfes were built with flakes, reeds, 
and boughs of trees, fattened together in 
a round circle. They had ten or twelve 

wives a 





Dn the ar- 
rival of 
the Ro- 



though the iffue were always accounted his 
that firfb married the mother when a mai- 
den. They were in ftature taller than the 
Gauls y but in wit, more fimple, as being 
leis civilized. 

Cominus was no fooner difcovered to be 
in the Roman intereft, and delivered his 
meffage, but he was caft into prifon ; and 
there remained till Cafar arrived, and with 
much difficulty and hazard had overthrown 
the nat ves, who made a gallant refiftance 
at firft on the more, but at laft ran away, 
releafed their prifoner, and fent frefh offers 
of fubmiffion, the chief ftates laying the 
whole blame upon the multitude, who re- 
fufed to confent to thofe terms, which had 
been offered by C#far in Gaul. It was 
Cocfar's intereft to accept of their obedi- 
ence and excufe : and therefore faking fuch 
pledges, as could immediately be deliver- 
ed to him, he appointed the reft to. be 
brought at a certain day. But this fun- 
fhine of fortune was foon overcaft, and 
this new allegiance lafted but a few days ; 
the Br i tains being informed that C^r's 
fleet was wrecked or totally difperfed, and 
confequently fuppofing that, as the Romans 
could by no means repair the fame, nor 
ctherwife return to Gaul for provifions,they 

might, by prolonging the war till winter, 
ftarve his whole army, and . deter others 
from the like attempt. Cafar not receive- l 
ing the hoftages according to. agreement, 
concluded that he muft prepare againft fu- 
ture attacks ; and at the fame time gather- 
ed all the neighbouring corn into his camp, 
and repaired his boats and fhipping with 
fuch as were totally difabled from fervice. 
While thefe things were doing, the fe- 
venth legion, according to cuftom, was 
fent forth to forage, till which time, the 
Britains- revolt was not certainly known, 
for fome of them remained abroad in the 
fields, and others came ordinarily into the 
Roman camp. The warders in the itation 
before the camp, gave.. notice to Qefar 9 
that the fame way which the legion went,, 
there appeared a greater .duft than was 
ufual to be feen. Cafar miftrufting fome 
new practice of the Britains, commanded 
the cohorts that kept ward to march thither, 
appointing two others to fuppjy their, 
places, and the reft of his forces to arm 
themfelves with fpeed and follow him. 
When he approached near the place de- 
fcried, he perceived his foldiers to be over- 
charged with the Britains, killing a few of 
them, and difordering the reft with their 
horfes and chariots. The manner of their Manner 
fighting in chariots was thus ; firft they ? f fighting 
ufed to ride round about their enemies ™ x ^*~ 
forces, cafting their darts where they faw™ S * 
advantage, and oftentimes with the fierce- 
nefs of their horfes, and whirling of their 
chariot wheels, they broke their enemies 
ranks, and being gotten in among the 
troops of horfemen, they would leap out 
of their chariots and fight on foot. The 
chariot-drivers in the mean time withdrew 
themfelves by little and little out of the 
batde, and placed themfelves in fuch fort, 
that their matters, being overmatched by. 
their enemies, might readily recover their 
chariots ; fo that in their fighting they per- 
formed the offices, both of horfemen in. 
fwiftnefs of motion, and alfo of footmen 
in keeping their ground ; and, by daily ufe 
and exercife, they were grown fo expert in 
managing their horfes, that driving them 
forceably down a fteep hill, they were able 
to ftay or turn them in the mid way, yea, 
to run along the beam, to Hand firm upon 
the yoke, and to return thence fpeedily 
into their chariots again. But, 

Tho' the Britains had taken the Romans 
at a nonplus, Cafar's vigilance, expedi- 
tion and valour, recovered his legion, and 
brought, them off to his camp •, and the 
Britains,no longer diffembling their breach 
of faith,in a fhort time attacked the Romans 
in their camp, but were repulfed with 
great lofs. Again they fued for peace, which Were beat 
upon fending double the number of and rued 

hoftages for P eace - 

14 The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

hoftao-es into Gaul, was granted ; and Ca~ This is called the conqueft of Brit&in 
far, content with his prefent fuccefs, and by Cafar •, but whoever views this ifland, 
fcafor's n ot daring to venture his fhips any later and marks the progrefs of his arms there- 
return to orl ^fe ^ eaSj return ed into Gaul with all in, mull confefs that he rather mewed the 
Gau ' his forces. Romans fome part of the ifland, than 
Cafar re^ In the fpring following, Cafar embarked made a conqueft of the whole. He ha- 
tums a- a t Tortus Iccius with five legions, and a ving thus adjufted matters, and impofed Britain* 
gain to proportionable number of horfe, on board a tribute to be paid yearly to the fenate become 
Britain. q ^ ,, bout goo fc\ Q f j^ips, f one k\ n & or an d people of Rome by the Britains, failed [" b ^ r 
other, and landed without oppofition : for, immediately to Gaul, and never returned 
though the Britains expected his return, more into Britain. 

and were actually in arms on the coaft to After Cafar* s death, the princes of the The tri- 

prevent his landing, they were ib terrified ifland being delivered from the terror of bute re- 

at the fight of his fleet, that they left the his arms, refufed the ftipulated tribute ; fufed - 

more, and hid themfelves in the countries for which they were threatened with a 

about j where, gaining the woods and the powerful chaftifement by his fucceffor Au- 

tops of hills, they refolved to wait the ar- gufius. At firft Auguftus was appeafed 

rival of Cafar*s forces ; and after fome with their promifes of amendment, and 

conflicts, with various fuccefs, the ftates of fome valuable prefents fent to him by their 

the ifland gave the command of their army ambafTadors, into Gallia Celtica j and the 

Is oppofed to Caffibeline, a prince, whofe country laid Britains, falling again from their allegi- 

by Cajfi- along the river Thames, about fourfcore ance, were left to themfelves to ufe their 

behne. m jj es f rom tfie f ea . a man Dotri valiant own laws, and to enjoy their own liber- 

and experienced in the art of war. Cafar ties •, for, the Romans having found the 

Fought him divers times with fome fuccefs, fweetnefs of peace, after long civil wars, 

till at laft gaining a compleat victory, he fought rather to keep in obedience fuch 

led his army to the banks of the river provinces as had been before-time brought 

Thames, oppofite Cqjfibeline's country : when under fubjection, than, by attempting new 

he came thither, he perceived that the Bri- conquefts, to hazard the lofs of that they 

tains had great forces in readinefs on the had already gotten. 

further fide of the river, the banks whereof Britain being now once more freed from Cunobe- 

were fortified withfharp pointed flakes or foreign yoke, Cunobeline, king of the Tri- 1 !"*^ tc %*' 

piles (about the bignefs of a man's thigh, nobantes, who refided at Camalodunum, be- Britain. 

and bound about with lead) pitched near gan prudently to reclaim the Britains from 

the fhore, to impede their paffage •, and their rude behaviour ; and to make him- 

fome others of the fame kind (the rem- felf more refpected, he afterwards caufed 

iiants whereof are to be feen at this day) his own image to be (tamped on his 

were planted covertly under water, in the coin, after the manner of the Romans (a 

main river •, whereof Cafar having intel- cuftom never ufed among the Britains, be- 

ligence (by fome fugitives and prifoners fore his days ; and but then newly received Coin, 

that he had taken) commanded the horfe- by the Romans themfelves^ ; for, before vvh <j n . firft 

men firft to enter the river, and the le- that time the Britains ufed rings of iron, \ritTin 

gions to follow, fo that (the dangerous and little plates of brafs of a certain weight, 

places being difcovered) the Romans waded inftead of coin. During the time of his 

through (their heads only appearing above government, the divine myftery of hu- 

water) and charged the Britains with fuch man redemption was accomplifhed by the 

violence, that they forced them to forfake birth of our Saviour Chrift ; Augujlus 

the fhore, and betake themfelves to flight. Cafar then pofTefling the Roman empire, 

Over- Cqffibeline after this having endeavoured which he afterwards left to Tiberius his 

comes whatever laid in his power, both by ftra- adopted fon, a wary and politick prince ; 

peaceTo S tagem, and new alliances with the other who, following the advice and example 

Cajfbelim potentates of the ifland, to put a flop to the of Augufius, did neither attempt any thing 

victorious arms of their conquerors, find- in Britain, nor maintain any garrifon 

ing his country wafted with war, all his there. 

endeavours fruftrated, and himfelf for- In this flate the Britains remained till 

faken in a manner by the cities round the reign of the emperor Claudius, not- 

about him, was at laft induced, to prevent withftanding the vain pretences of Cali- 

final ruin, to feek for peace from Cafar, gula's triumph for the conqueft of the 

by the interpofition of Cominus -, which fame. 

Cafar granted, on condition that he deli- The expedition under Claudius was un- Expedi- 

vered hoftages for the aflurance of his dertaken by the perfuafion of fome ^ r f" U °^'^ •. 

obedience, and fliould give no offence to tifh difcon tented fugitives, and conducted % in um J e ' r 

the Trinobantes, whom he had taken into by the courageous and ikilfulAulus Plautius, Claudius. 

his fpecial protection. a Roman fenator, who, after many diffi- 

ft? England and Scotland. i<> 

culties with his own foldiers, and hazards nations, under the conduit of Voadicia, Revolt un- 
by fea, landed,and encountering theBritaitts or Boadicia, a lady of the royal blood, who, der q ueen 
in open field, routed them, and took Ca- amongft other things, encouraged her Boadiaa * 
taratacus, the Ton of Cunobeline, prifoner. army to fell their lives with honour, which 
But this did not prevent them from dif- they could not poffefs with fafety, and fay- 
puting every inch of their country with ing, that for her own part, Jhe was deter- 
their invaders ; amongft whom we find mined either to conquer or die) marched 
Flavius Vefpafian, and his fon Titus, and directly to Camalodunum, ovWalden in Effex, 
his brother Sabinus. the Roman colony, where they confumed 

The Romans had now purfued victory all but the temple with fire and fword. 
to the north banks of the Thames, where This revolt reaching Suetonius in the ifle 
enfued a very bloody battle, in which, on of Mona,he haften'd back with his army,and 
the Britains fide, fell prince Togodumnus, arrived at London, at that time, though not 
another of Cunobeline* & fons : and they a colony, famous for its concourfe of mer- 
maintained their caufe fo well, that the chants and traffick. But while he doubted 
Roman general wrote for greater fupplies in what manner he might flop their fuc- 
Claudius from Rome. Now it was that Claudius cefs, the Britains put all to the fword that Britijh 
comes in came in perfon, and with a fufficient army refufed to join with them againft the i?<?- cruelt y« 
perfon. j j nec j t he forces under Plautius and Vef- mans, to the number of 70000 and up- 
pqfian, who waited his arrival on the fouth wards; fo that being forced to rifque a 
of the Thames, whereto they had been battle to prevent more (laughter, Suetonius 80,000 
obliged to retire and intrench themfelves ; offered them battle, which was accepted Britains 
and in fixteen days gave the iflanders bat- by Voadicia, and fought defperately -, for flain in 
Conquers, tie, conquered, difarmed, and reduced the the Britains left 80,000 on the field f battIe ' 
hither part of the ifland into the form of a battle, and, being vanquifhed, Voadicia, Boadicia 
Roman province •, and reimbarked again for difdaining to fall into v the hands of herpoifons 
Rome, where it was decreed, among many enemies, ended her life by poifon. herfelf. 

other honours paid him on this occafion, This victory, though the Britains were New con- 
Surnamed that he fhould take the furname of Bri- not contented, brought them fo far under <I ae . fts } n 
Britanni- tannicus, and that it fhould remain here- fubjection, that they gave their Roman go- Bntattt ' 
tut ' ditary to the Claudian family. vernors little trouble till the empire was 

Notwithftanding this great fuccefs of confirmed to Vefpqfian, when Petilius Ce- 
the Romans, and the continual lofies of the r talis was fent to conquer the Brigantes \ 
Britains, the iflanders refolved to fell their Julius Frontinus, to fubdue the Silures ; 
liberty and nation at a dear price : fo that and Julius Agricola, to reduce the Ordovices, 
All in when P. OJlorius Scapula was charged with (or people of north Wales) -, all which being 
confufion the profecution of this conqueft, he found executed with glory to the Romans, Jgri- 
again. a jj j n confufion again ; and was obliged to cola invaded and compleated the conqueft Mona con- 
ufe both the utmoft policy, and the greateft of Mona, which Paulinus had been ob-^ uered * 
precaution and firmnefs of courage and re- liged to abandon ; and fo well behaved to- 
folution, before he could execute his com- wards the Britains he had reduced, that 
million. For, he not only was encountred the ifland enjoyed, in his govemment,more 
by the Icenians, Cangi, and Brigantes, but peace than ever fince the wars with the 
by the mod warlike and ftubborn Silures Romans', which gave him an opportunity 
(the people of fouth Wales) who neither to difcover new countries, as far as the 
by cruelty nor fair means could be brought frith of Taus; but this was followed by a 
to fubmit to the Roman yoke, till he en- fevere war with the Caledonians, or inha- War W1 - th 
tirely defeated them, under the command bitants beyond Bodotria •, where he was the Cak- 
of Cataratacus, whom he took prifoner, contented to fix the bounds of the Roman damans. 
with his wife and daughter, and after- conquefts. Upon the defeat of the 
wards led him in triumph, with his bre- north Britains, the foldiers demanded to 
thren, into the city of Rome. But this ra- be led into Caledonia, that they might find 
ther inraged than quelled the bold Bri- out the outmoft limits of Britain. But 
tains, who, after this, gained many ad- when the next fummer this was attempted, 
vantages over their new mailers, and con- they were met by 30,000 armed men, 
Nero fuc- tinued in arms, when Nero fucceeded under the command of Galgacus ; but the 
ceeds Claudius in the empire ; in whofe time, Romans gave them a warm reception, and 
Suetonius Paulinus, to whom the Britijh after killing 10,000, difperfed the reft, and 
province was afligned, refolving upon the obtained a compleat victory and conqueft Scotland 
conqueft of a neighbouring ifland, called of Scotland. Then Agricola commanded the conquered 
Mona (now Anglefey) and imprudently admiral of his navy to fail round the whole 
neglecting to fecure the country behind ifland of Britain ; and by his valour and 
him as he marched from their attacks, the induftry difcovered the Orcades, the out- Orcades 
Icenians (inciting the Trinobantes and other moft limits of Britain, and reduced the difcovered 
Vol. I. U fouth 


l6 The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

fbuth part of the ifland into a full province;; thefe, being overthrown, and (lain near 
the government whereof was peculiar to Lyons in Gaul -, and other diforders 
the Roman emperors, and not at the dif- (by reafon of the often change of gover- 
Agricola\ pofal of the fenate. But this fuccefs proved nours) threatening a revolt in that pro- 
dn'grace, the ruin of Agricola, in the efteem and vince, Severus refolves upon a voyage to Severn's 
&*' envious court of Domitian, for he was foon Britain-, and although the Britains, upon expedition 
after recalled, difgraced, and at laft poi- intelligence of his purpofe, did fend over^™" 
foned by- the emperor's confent. ambaffadors, to offer their voluntary fub- 
Airian\ Agricola had fo far fettled the peace million, yet the emperor (in whom nei- 
progrefs anc i Roman authority in Britain, that all ther age nor ficknefs had abated the heat 
into Bri- t hj n g S remained pretty quiet till the reign of ambition) would not dire&ly accept 
tmn ' of the emperor Adrian, who came in per- thereof, but entertained them with delays, 
fon with an army, and forced the nor- till all things were in readinefs for his ex- 
thern rebels to retire to the mountains pedition •, [fo earneft a defire he had to 
Adrian** of Scotland: and then fortifying the bor- pafs into the furtheft part of Britain, and 
wall. ders of England with a wall of turj 's, from to purchafe the furname of Br it 'amicus, 
the mouth of the river Tyne to the mouth as an honourable addition to his other ti- 
of the river Ituni, to defend his fubjecls ties.] His two fons, Baffianus (commonly 
from their bad neighbours, he returned called Caracalla) and Geta, he took with 
triumphantly to Rome, and received the him, as doubting their agreement in 
Title. title of the Reftorer of Britain, which his abfence. To Geta his younger fon 
infeription is ftill to be read on his coins, he committed the government of the pro- 
gut vince here for civil caufes, wherein Mmi- 
Thefe incurfions did not only continue litis Paulus Papinianus, the famous lawyer, 
to the great annoyance of the borders, (who, as chief minifter of juftice under him, 
but alfo in the next reign the Brigantes had his tribunal feat at Eboracum) was ap- 
be<*an a new war with the Roman con- pointed to aflift and direct him. Severus 
federates-, but this was quenched by the himfelf, and Baffianus (with the army) 
prudence of the general before it broke marched northward againft theM^/^, a peo- 
Pias into a flame : and the Picls or Scots were pie bordering upon the Caledonians, and in 
wall. k e pt in awe by a fecond wall or rampart of league with them ; having a little before de- 
turfs, which Lollius Urbicus the lieutenant feated ViriusUlpius'm his expedition againft 
commanded to be added to Adrian's wall, them, and forced him to purchafe his 
and by his fleet which lay on the north peace with money. Then Severus, no- 
fide of the ifle. thing difmayed, purfued his enterprife, 
Kingla- About this time, Lucius, furnamed Le- though he loft 50,000 in his feveral en-L°'es 
cius turns ver ^ auTt) w { 10 by licence from the lieu- counters and by ficknefs, till he reduced the ^'°°° 
c " Ian ' tenant governed (as king) a great part of Caledonians to treat of peace, which he was™ 
the ifland, embraced and permitted the glad to grant upon thefe conditions, viz. 
chriftian religion to be preached within his " That the Caledonians mould firft difarm Terms of 
dominion-, and expelled all the heathen " themfelves, and deliver part of the coun-P eace 
priefts, with their rites and ceremonies, and " try (lying next the province) into the ""jljj^ 6 
converted the heathen temples to the true " Roman poffeflion, and that from thence niani " 
worfhip of the living God. Which con- "forward they mould attempt nothing 
verfion continued without oppofition till " againft the publick peace, 
this ifland, with other provinces of Rome, Thefe articles, though ftrongly allured, 
felt the feverity of Diocle/ian's perfecu- were foon broken, and their breach was 
tion. Yet as feverely punifhed by the emperor, who 
Pigs in- The peace of the ifle was often difturbed fent part of the army to purfue the Cale- 
vade£»£- in. the mean while : for the Picls repaired donians, with exprefs orders to put all Quel 
land ' the wall, and ravaged the borders-, and to the fword, without refpect to fex orcommif- 

the Roman legions, difconten ted with their age. This fharp manner of proceeding 1 * 011 - 

The Ro- leaders, mutinying, were hardly to be ap- quailed the hopes of the northern Britains, 

man\e- peafec^ till Perennius, a favourite of the who fled into the remote parts of Caledonia ; 

finy S mU e raperor G?02Wi?^ ( who had enraged them and Severus, having rather impeded than 

Perm- by kis bad ufage) was declared a traitor, ended the troubles, lpent fome time in 

vius, how and delivered to their mercy ; whom they repairing and enlarging Adrian's wall, Enlarges 

puniflied. ftript of his apparel, whipped with rods, which he carried acrofs the ifland, from^ d '|" /flw,s 

and put to a cruel death. fea to fea, intrenching and fortifying it fortifief?t. 

But the difcord, which broke out after- with bulwarks and fquare towers, in places 

wards between the emperor Severus and moft convenient (to give warning one to 

his affociate Albinus, much efteemed by the another upon any fudden affault) for de- 

foidiery in Britain, brought frefh troubles fence of the borders. Then being wearied 

into the ifle-, for Albinus, fuccoured by with age,- ficknefs, and travel, having 


to England and Scotland. 


dies at 

The re- 

©f Carau 


The ex- 
of Con- 
tius con- 


his mindalfo much grieved with the dif- 
loyal and unnatural practices of his fon 
BaJJianus, he withdrew himfelf to Ebora- 
cum, or York city, then a coJony of the 
Romans, being the tlation of the fixth le- 
gion, called Viclrix ; afterwards becoming 
one of the chief places of account 
among the Brigantes. For thefe ftations 
of the Roman legions were commonly the 
feed-plots of towns and cities, both in this 
ifle, and divers other parts of the empire. 

Severus died at York ; but his afhes, be- 
ing put into a golden urn, were carried 
by his emprefs Julia to Rome. And from 
this time the Britains bore a great fway 
in the Roman affairs ; for among the many 
competitors to the empire, from time to 
time, the province of Britain was always 
courted, as capable of giving a fandlion to 
their electron. And thus under various 
fortune Britain continued a province, to 
Rome, till Caraujius, who was admiral of 
the Britijh fleet, fearing to be called to 
account for his male-practices, rebelled, 
and engaged feveral difcontented perfons 
' as well as the north Britains in his confpiracy, 
who declared him emperor. 

This caufed a new embarkation, under 
the command of Conftantius Clorus : but 
before it arrived, C. Alettus, a pretended 
friend to Caraujius, flew him, and ufurped 
the imperial dignity ; whom Conftantius, 
having landed, and cut off all hopes from 
his foldiers of efcaping, attacked, beat 
and flew Aletlus, routed and fcattered his 
mercenary army ; and by that means Bri- 
tain once more became a Roman pro- 
vince. After this, Conftantius married 
Helena, the daughter of Coil a Britijh king, 
and the mother of Conftantine the great, 
who fucceeded his father in the empire, 
and, by the bravery and fidelity of the 

Britains, overthrew all that ufurped up- 
on his dignity, or oppoled him. In his.c<w?/?«»- 
time, at the requeft of his Britijh fubjects, tine the 
their form of government, both in civil S reat ^' 
and martial caufes, was altered, and new S o Vern . 
laws eftablifhed : And all continued quiet ment and 
till the . days of the emperor Jovinian j laws of 
when the Scots, Pidh, Saxons, &c. v/hh Britai »- 
their frequent incurfions and invafions w ty the 
gave the emperor fo much trouble, and be- Rm ? n J 
came fo expensive to the ftate, that it was ^Htail. 
refolved in the reign of Honorius to give 
over the government of Britain, and to 
direct them to provide for their own fafe- 
ty : but decreed, in regard of former fcr- 
vices, to build them a wall of ftone, about Adrian's 
eight feet in breadth and twelve feet wa . n re- 
high, in the fame place where Severus had ^£ d 
built one of turfs ; upon which, next the n one . 
fea, on the fouth, they raifed bulwarks. 
But as foon as the Roman foldiers had 
withdrawn themfelves, the Scots broke the Broke 
wall down to the ground j by which down - 
mean* they were reduced to the laft ex- 
tremity for fome time, till taking frefh 
courage they drove their enemies away : 
however (taking advantage of a general A g reat 
plague, which had deftroyed fo many pla S uc - 
that the living were fcarce enough to 
bury the dead) the Scots and Pifo foon en- 
ter'd boldly into the heart of the ifle, car- 
ried off the wealth, burnt the cities, and 
made the natives flaves, and fhortly after 
over-ran a great part of the nation. This 
happened five hundred years from the 
landing of Julius C<efar, and four hundred 
and forty-fix years from the birth of Chrift, 
in the reign of The-odojius the younger. And 
here we finilh our account of the ancient 
ftate of England, under the Roman govern- 


calls in 
the Sax- 

Of the ancient State of England, efpecially under the Saxon Government. 


AFTER that the Romans had quitted 
the ifland, one Vortigern, ufurping 
the command over the Britains, called in 
the Saxons, either to fecure the kingdom 
to himfelf, or to defend his country againft 
the Scots and Bills : but whether thefe, 
or any other confiderations, put him upon 
fb imprudent a counfel, it is certain that 
it was very impolitical in him to truft the 
garrifons on the Pitts wall, and on the 
Kentijh fhore, in the hands of thefe auxilia- 
ries ; for, as by this means they were pof- 
felTed of the keys of the ifland, it was in 
their power to admit what number of 
forces they pleafed, to execute their own 
fchemesj and confequently proved the 

utter ruin of the Britains. For the Saxons 
under Hengift and Horfa having raifed their 
reputation considerably with Vortigern, by 
their fuccefs againft the Scots and Picls t 
and having tafted the fweets of this ifland, 
and finding that the air, fituation, fruit- 
fulnefs, and other conveniencies of it, far 
exceeded thofe of their own country, they 
never left off wheedling Vortigern with 
fair promifes, and a neceflity of greater 
fuccours, till they had got together fuch 
a force as put them in a condition of bid- Thefeize- 
ing defiance to the Britains. As foon in g °f 
therefore as they found themfelves thus ?"%'* Y 
powerful, under pretence of ill pay and a „a ^f' 
Ihort diet, having firft made a league with/«. 



18 The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

the Pitfs they turned their arms againft bounded on the weft by the German Ocean, 

their entertainers and raifed a bloody war extended eaftward to the borders of Tbu- 

in feveral parts of the ifland. The poor ringen. Confequently they were matters 

inhabitants were put to the fword, their of Saxony, Weftphalia, and all the part of 

lands wafted and their cities razed •, in- the how-Countries lying north of the Rhine. 

fomuch that after fome ftruggles and re- The nations fubdued by thefe conquerors 

fiftance made chiefly under Aurelius Am- were in time called Saxons, in like manner 

brcfius and the renowned king Arthur, the as the inhabitants of Gaul were named 

Saxons tho' the fuccefs was fometimes va- Francois or French, after their fubje&ion 

rious 'at laft proving fuperior, drove the to the Francs. But however, whether 

Britains out of the beft part of the ifland, the Saxons were not fo rapid in their con- 

into that part of it now called Wales, quefts as the Suevi, or the courfe they took 

where their pofterity remains to this day. made it longer before they approach'd 

As then thefe Saxons laid the foundation the Romans, *tis certain they were not fo 

of the Englijh government and polity, foon known. The firft Roman hiftorians 

which now exifteth, I fhall endeavour to who mention them, at leaft by the name 

inform you from whence they came. of Saxons, are Eutropiui and Orofius, who 

Whence About the time the Romans began to extend inform us that Caraufius (as I have elfe- 

the Saxc « their conquefts in to Germany, the inhabitants where taken notice) was lent to clear the 

came. { the CimlrianCberfonefus, now called Jut- feas of the pyratical Francs and Saxons, 

land, leaving their country, advanced to- From that time they became formidable 

wards the fouth. They pofTefled them- to the Romans, and obliged them to keep 

felves at firft of the northern parts of ftanding forces to guard both the German 

Germany, and doubtlefs fpent fome years and Britijh coafts,mth a general officer ft iled 

in fettlino- themfelves in thofe quarters, the Prafeff, or Count of the Saxon Coafis. 

But as the Romans had not yet penetrated Upon the decline of the Roman empire, 

fo far and we have no ancient hiftories after the death of Theodcfius, the Saxons, 

of the northern countries, nor even of the taking advantage of its weaknefs, made 

weftern but what the Romans have left us, themfelves matters of the whole country 

there is little known of the firft irruptions along the coaft of the German Ocean, and 

made by the northern people into Germany, even extended their conquefts as far as the 

The Cimbri continually puihing their con- ifles of Zealand. Hence the Frifons, Ba- 

quefts to the fouthward, and the Romans tavians, and the neighbouring nations 

advancing to the northward, they at laft were hardly known by any other name 

approached one another. Then it was than that of Saxons. 

that the Romans had an opportunity to Tho' feveral authors have writ of the 

learn in fome meafure the ftate of thefe Saxons, we are ftill in the dark as to their 

hitherto unknown nations. Their hifto- original, or how to diftinguilh the nations 

rians, however, fpeak very confufedly of called by that general name. And there- 

them, giving different names to the fame fore the beginning of their hiftory remains 

people, and fometimes the fame name to very confufed and intricate, it being im- 

different nations. The Cimbri, who came poffible it fhould be otherwife, confider- 

from the Cimbrian Cherfonefus, were di- ing authors for the moft part have made no 

vided into three bands, one taking the diftin&ionof times or places. One while, 

name of Suevi, another of Francs, and a they are confider'd juft as they left their 

third of Saxons. Some will have the own country, and then are confounded 

Francs to be a branch of the Suevi. How- with the Francs and Suevi, under the 

ever that be, thefe three nations, continu- name of Cimbri. Another while they 

ally advancing fouthwards, came at length are view'd as beginning their conquefts 

to the frontiers of the Roman empire ; the towards the north-weft of the continent, 

Suevi towards Italy, the Francs to the and then they are reprefented as feated 

fouth-weft, towards the coaft of Belgick- north of the Frifons, Batavians, Marfians, 

Gaul, and the Saxons to the weft, towards and other nations of thofe parts fubjecl to 

the German Ocean. The Suevi efpecially the Romans. Some have placed them at 

were fo terrible to the ancient Germans, once along the coaft of the German Ocean, 

that they looked upon them as a match for and banks of the Rhine, and even in the 

the immortal Gods, as Cefar fays in his ifles of Zealand, as if they had from the 

Commentaries. As for the Francs, they very firft inhabited thefe regions. Others 

are known to have over-run the whole again, not confidering that all their con~ 

province of Gaul, and founded the noble quefts were term'd Saxony, and finding 

and ancient kingdom of France. Saxons in the eaftern parts of Weflphalia, 

The Saxons pofleffed themfelves of all have imagined they were a different peo- 

thofe traces of land lying between the pie from thofe inhabiting on the Rhine. 

Rhine and the Elbe. Their territories, Juft as if, fpeaking of the Francs, I fhould 


to England and Scotland. ip 

make different nations of thofe that con- that thefe three nations were united before 

quered Gaul and thofe that fettled in the their coming into Britain, when we con- 

Narbonnoife. However this be, it is cer- fider the good underftanding between them 

tain when the Britains fent to defire their all the while they were employed in eftablifh- 

affiftance, the Saxons were in poffeflion of ing themfelves in this ifland, as will be feen 

Wejlphalia, Saxony, Eajl and Weft-Friefe- in the courfe of this hiftory. It will be 

land, Holland and Zealand. found that they acted always in concert, 

Their ori- I could wifli that the origin of the Saxons that their interefts were never different, 

gmalun- were as we n known as their conquefts: it and that the government fettled by them, 

certain. wou | ( j j-^ a pj ea f ure to give an abftract of is a clear evidence, they looked upon them- 

their hiftory to the time of their fettling felves as one and the fame people, 

in Great- Britain. But the thing is impof- The true etymology of the name Saxons 

fible, fuch obfcurity do we meet with in is as difficult to be discovered as their ofi- 

the authors that have fludied this fubject. gin. They that derive them from the 

Some take up the Saxons at the tower of Saca of Afia, are indeed at no great lofs in 

Babel, and leading them from country to this point. But the moil common opi- 

country, fettle them at laft in Saxony, fo nion is, that the word Saxon comes from 

called from them. Others derive them Seax, which in their language fignifies a 

from the Sacaov Safjones of Afia, mentioned kind of weapon or fword. They had two 

by Pliny. There are fome who will have them forts, a long one worn by their fide, or at 

originally from Perjia, becaufe of the affi- their back ; and another fhorter, ferving 

nity between feveral Saxon and Perjian for a bayonet or dagger. They were both 

words. But they that are willing to fpare in the fhape of a cutlafs. 

the pains of fo laborious a fearch, are con- Not to dwell too long upon conjectures, Manners, 

tent to begin their hiftory from the time of I fhall briefly fpeak of their manners, go- 

their coming forth from the Cimbrian Cher- vernment and religion. It fuffices to ob- 

fonefus. It is not impoffible, perhaps, to ferve, that in their cuftoms and manners 

reconcile moft of the opinions concerning they very much refembled the ancient 

this matter, tho' feemingly very different, Germans, as defcribed by 'Tacitus. They 

if regard be had to the times of their feve- were naturally brave and warlike both by 

ral migrations. But fince, in the main, land and fea, witnefs their many conquefts. 

conjectures only are to be had, it is better But to their enemies they were fevere and 

to proceed at once to what is more certain. cruel, efpecially to their prifoners of war, 

The Saxons had for fome time been in pof- whom they facrificed to their gods, 
feflion of theCimbrianCherfonefus, when being Their dominions were divided intoGovern- 
driven thence by the Goths (from whom that twelve governments or provinces, each of ment - 
peninfula was called Gothland or Jutland) which had a chief or head,accountable to the 
they came and fettled in Germany, in the general affembly of the nation. In time 
parts now called Lower Saxony. Between of war they chofe a general, who corn- 
that country and the Cherfonefus, were a manded their armies, and was invefted 
people known by the name of Angles, in- with almoft fovereign power : but at the 
habiting about Slefwick in Holfiein. Pro- end of the war, his authority, like that 
bably the little country of Anglen in thofe of the Roman dictator, ceafed. The cen- 
parts was fo named from them, or they from ter of their empire was at Brunfwick. 
the country. However this be, the Angles The Saxons, hearten'd with fuccefs, and h ow tRey . 
joining with the Saxons,v?hen they came out to ftrengthen themfelves againft all at- ftrength- 
of the Cherfonefus, to make conquefts in tempts to remove them from their new en ' d 
Germany, became in a manner one nation and delectable habitation, invite great j., em " 
with them. Though, doubtlefs from the numbers of their own people to come and 
major part,they are generally called Saxons, fettle with them j among whom the Angles* 
yet they had fometimes the compound fwarmed over in fuch numbers, that this 
name of Anglo-Saxons given them. Great province, from them, was afterwards in the 
numbers of Goths mixed likewife with them, days of king Edgar called Angle-land, which 
to fhare in their conquefts. Thefe are cal- in procefs of time, for a better found and 
led Wites by Bede, and commonly known pronunciation, was foftened into Eng- 
by the name of Jutes, or (which is the land. 
fame) Goths. It can hardly be doubted 

Vol. I. X They. 

a So called from Ingo or Engo, the fon of Woden, the great progenitor of the Englijb-Saxon kings ; becaufe 

his pofterity were known by the name of Inglingar or Inglings. This Ingo was made (by his father) king of 
that part of the Suevi, which, upon the account of his being their firft king, they complimented him by 
taking his name, and from thenceforth calling themfelves Inglijh or Inglings. So Nicetas and Codinus, By- 
xantine hiftorians, call the Jngles 'lyyMyoi, i. e. Inglini or Ing/ins ; and there are many more proofs that ^ 
they called themfelves Inglifch. 

20 The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

Their re- They were heathens •, but differed from in April, they gave that month the name 

ligion. ,-kg wor fhjp f t he Romans : for as Jupiter of Eoftre Monath. Some remains of this 

was the chief among the gods at Rome, word we ftill fee in our Eafter. 

Woden* had the preheminence among the The Englijh Saxons were a warlike peo- s**^ de- 

Saxons-, who was, according to their no- pie, eminent for their tallnefs, proportion bribed, 

tions, to be appeafed by facrifices no lefs of parts, and exactnefs of features. Their 

than human, and to be made propitious cloathswere loofe, and generally linnen, as 

by many barbarous rites. From this we learn from Diaconus ; the trimming 

idol, the fourth day of the week received broad, made up of feveral colours, 

its name of Woden/dag, or, as we now call They were a people of great obftinacy, 

it, Wednefday. and would rather kill themfelves, than be 

His fon Thor c was to be applied to after expofed to the contempt of other nations, 

the fame inhuman manner; from whom A remarkable inftance of this we meet 

the fifth day of the week was called Tho- with in Symmachus, who had provided a 

rejdag', or Thurfday. number of them again ft the publick mews. 

Woden's wife Frea, d Friga, or Frigga, But on the day they were to be brought into 

was a noted goddefs among the Saxons, the theatre, Symmachus found that no lefs 

She has, not without fome fort of refem- than twenty-nine of them had ftrangled 

blance, been compared to Venus. How- themfelves -, fo that the people were difap- 

ever that be, certain it is, that Friday, the pointed. 

fixth day of our week, had its name from They were very fuperftitious, taking 

her. great notice, among other things, of the 

It is not fo eafy to determine why we neighing of horfes. They were much ad- 
call the feventh day Saturday. We are dieted to a peculiar way of cafting lots, 
not unwilling to believe that it is fo named To know what would be the event of a 
from Saturn, and that Seater is the Saxon war, before they engaged in it, they ufed 
word for Saturn. For tho' Verfiegan makes this method : They took a captive of that 
Seater different from the Roman Saturn, yet nation they defigned to invade, and made 
we have not been able to find fuch an idol him fight with one of their own country - 
among the Saxons. And we the rather di- men. They were both to fight in the 
flrufl Verfiegan in this cafe, becaufe we habit, and with the arms of their country, 
know he has affirmed many other things According to the iffue of this duel, they 
of greater moment, without vouching any judged that of the war. 
good authority for what he fays. So the To thefe we may add another of their 
firfb and fecond days of the week had their deities called Tanfan, quafi, 'Tan Abies, and 
names from the fun and moon, which, as Fan Dominus -, intimating the god of the 
they were worfhipped by the Romans, fo woods, or a deity worfhipped among a 
we are allured they were in a more pecu- grove of trees ; but as 'Tan in Saxon alfo 
liar manner by the Saxons. fignifies a Lot, & fort of divination, as 

Thor had a wife, a goddefs among his I obferved before, to which they were 

pofterity, whofe name was Thifa. She was much addicted, it may probably import 

looked upon to be the goddefs of Jujlice. the god that prefides over the lots. Yet, 

From her the third day of the week was I apprehend nothing impeached their 

•called Tijfday, or, as we now pronounce it, fimplicity more than their facrificing to 

Tuefday, and not from one Tuifco, as Ver- Elves or Fairies ; a little diminutive fort 

fiegan vainly imagines. of deities, not yet rooted out of the imagi- 

Many more deities, of an inferior rank, nations of fome weak people, 

were worfhipped by the Saxons. The As to their language, it was a dialect of Language 

names of feveral of them may be feen in the ancient Teutonic, and is the foundation 

Schedius, who has wrote a particular tract of the tongue we now fpeak ; which, tho* 

upon this fubject. To our prefent purpofe it has undergone many changes, and often 

it will be fufficient to obferve, that, among for the worfe, may eafily be traced by its 

many others, they had a goddefs called forcible energy throughout the mod refined 

Eoftre ; and from her feftivals, celebrated part of the EngUJh tongue ; a tongue fo 


' * i.i , .. . 

b Woden was the god of war, becaufe under his conduit the firft Saxons came from their country, and 
made large conquefts. Their chief families confidered him as their founder, and gloried in being defcended 
from him. Probably however there were two of this name, that are often confounded ; one more ancient, 
worfhipped as a God, another not fo old, from whom fprung the families of the Saxon leaders. There are 
ftill in England fome footfteps of the name of Woden in thofe-of feveral places, as Wan/dike, Wanjborough, Sec. 
which are contraftions of Woden" s-dike and Woden's -borough. 

c Thor, from whence came the word Thunder or Dunder,was the fame among the Saxons as Jupiter among 
the Romans, that is to fay, the Thunderer. 

d She was worfhipped in the fliape of an Hermaphrodite, as being, according to them, the goddefs of both 

to England and Scotland. 21 

improved within thefe eighty years paft, nate lover of diverfions, joyfully accept- 
that at prefent it is in many refpects not ed his propofal, and went fo far as to 
inferior to the belt European language : For, pay him the firft vi fit, accompanied with 
in relation to the French, fo much in 300 of his principal fubjects. Hengiji re- 
vogue, remark the fentiment of the earl ceived them feemingly in a very refpectful 
Rofcommon, who mull be allowed to be a and cordial manner, which charmed the 
very competent judge : Britijh lords. His entertainment Was fplen- 

did, and nothing was wanting to divert 

Thefupe-to who did ever in French authors fee them. But towards the end of the feaft, 

rior ener- effc comprehenfwe Englifh energy ? the fcene was changed. Hengiji had or- 

Wgiil C ^he weighty bullion of one jlerling line, der'd matters fo, that having artfully rai- 

tongue. Drawn to French wire, wou'd thro* whole fed fome fubject of difpute, at a certain 

pages fhine. fignal given, the Britijh lords were all 

i" fpeak my private, but impartial fenfe, murther'd. Vortigern, becaufe Hengiji had 

With freedom, and, I hope, without offence : need of him, was only made prifoner. In Acquifi- 

For Pll recant, when France can Jhew me vain did he complain of this bafe treachery ; tions 

IVit, he could not obtain his liberty without de- thereb /- 

As Jlrong as 'Ours, and as fuccintlly writ, livering up to the tern a great tract of 

land bordering upon Kent, with which Hen- 
And fo I conclude my account of £*/? enlarged his narrow territories. This was 
the Saxons before they fettled in England, afterwards divided into three provinces, 
and who were by the advice of Vortigern called by the Saxons, Sujfex, EJfex, and 
called in by the Britains to aflift them Middlefex, which names they retain to this 
againft the Tills and Scots. But, day. Moreover, not content with this ac- 
Britijh It muft be here remember'd that the quifition, Hengiji ravaged the neighbour- 
wars with^^j could neither by force or policy get ing country in a mercilefs manner, and be- 
thtSaxons.^y better footing upon the ifland, than came mailer of London, Lincoln, zw&Win- 
the counties of Northumberland, where chefter. 

Otla the brother of Hengiji reigned, and The indignation of the Britains at this 
Kent, after twenty years bloodfhed-, for, barbarous action was fo great, that they 
when the Britains difcovered their in- could not look upon a Saxon without hor- 
tended treachery, they obliged Vortigern to ror, and confequently armed themfelves Britijh 
admit his fon Vor timer to (hare the king- with all expedition under the command of wars 
dom with him, and to leave the govern- Ambrofius and the renowned prince Arthur \ U j^ e 
ment wtiolly in his care j upon which en- which only ferved to put off the ruin an dprince 
Htngift fued an open war, which in the end reduced of their country for a while ; being defti- Arthur. 
jeduced to Hengiji to the kingdom of Kent, who ned to undergo an extraordinary revolution, 
*' having always a defire to conquer the whole and to become a prey to the Saxons at laft. 
nation, meditated now, in time of peace, But Hengiji dying in 488, aged about 6g 9 
to execute that by fraud, which he found did not live to. fee an end of this war. ■ 
could not be done by force. For, Hengiji finding himfelf not only attacked Ella call- 
As foon as the peace was concluded, he with the whole ftrength of the Britains \ but ed over 
pretended to be exceedingly pleafed with alfo that his country was in a manner dif- h y Hen Pr- 
it, and behaved in fuch a manner as fhewed peopled, by his fubjects refufing to live un- 
he had no defign of enlarging his con- der a prince who had given fuch evident 
quefts. The Britains, charmed with his proofs of treachery and cruelty,and removing 
feeming moderation, were eafily comforted into other provinces in fuch crouds, that 
for the lofs of Kent, imagining they knew he could fcarce mufter hands to cultivate 
the word, and perhaps hoping one day to the earth ; he invited Ella, a Saxon gene- 
meet with a favourable juncture to reco- ral, from Germany, with a promife to yield 
ver it again. In the mean time, not to to him part of thofe poffeffions, which 
provoke a prince whofe valour they had Vortigern had lately granted him. Ella 
fo often experienced, they lived in an ami- embraced the propofal, and bringing with Arrives, 
cable manner with him. In ftiort, their ani- him his fons Baldulphus, Colgrin and Ciffa, 
mofity againft the Saxons by degrees en- landed his troops at IVhitering in Sujfex ; 
Hengiffs tirely vanilhed. Hengiji omitted nothing and tho' he met with fome oppofition at 
policy.and to fc ee p t h em [ n a f eC urity, which would firft, he in a little time obtained a good Settles in 
5J^g"J^lead them into the fnare he was prepare- fettlement on the coaft towards theThames, Sujfex. 
lords. ing for them. He let them know that (taking the name of Sud or South Saxons,) 
his intention being to live in perfect and the county of Sujfex. Hengiji alfo placed 
union with them, he fhould be glad his countrymen in EJfex, by the name of 
from time to time to keep up the good un- Eaft-Saxons, and the country that was be- 
derftanding between the two nations by tween Sujfex and EJfex he called Middlefex, 
parties of pleafure. Vortigern, a paflion- Kent ftill retaining its ancient name. 



The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

who died in 514, was fucceeded by his Ella dies. 

Gains Ella, under the protection of Hengift, 

ground gained ground upon the natives ; and had youngeft fon Ciffa, having loft the two 

and many fo fignaJized his valour, and extended his elder at Badon. 

advanta- con q Ue ft.. that upon the death of Hengift, Cerdic being reinforced, defeated the Cardie re- 

SeS * w ho was fucceeded in his kingdom by his Britains, anno 519, in fuch a manner, ^^" d * 

fon Efcus, he affumed the ftile and title of that Arthur was neceflitated to make peace tne Bri . 

Affumes kinp- of Sujfex, * or of the fouth Saxons, with him, by yielding up Hampfhire wd tains. 

the title of a nd was elected monarch or general of all Somerfetfhire. The Saxon prince, content obtains 

Sjy of the Saxons in Britain, in the place of for the prefent, and in poffeffion of thefe an a dvL- 

ff'X' Hengift. For it muft be obferved, altho' new countries, erected the kingdom of cageou. 

Hengiji was only king of Kent, yet he was Wejfex or Weft Saxons, fo called from itsP euce - 

Is eletfed considered alfo as head of all the Saxons, fituation, which was weft to Kent and Suffix. Kingdom 
monarch according to the cuftom of that nation in From the time Hengiji had peopled of Wejftx 

Germany, where, in time of war, they EJfex and Middle fex with Saxons and Jutes, eie ' 

had always their general in chief, account- they had been governed by a deputy, un- 

of the 


Arrival of 


able only to the ftates. This fame cuftom 
the Saxons continued in Britain, and al- 
ways elected a general, whom fome wri- 
ters ftile monarch, becaufe he was head 
over feveral kings. But 

Had not Cerdic, a Saxon general, arri- 

derthe king of Kent. But in 527, Erch- 



rived b foon after, the valiant prince Ar- 
thur was in a fair way of extirpating the 
name of Saxon in the Britijh nation. This 
Cerdic is famous, not only upon account 

Is decla- 
red mo- 

flain in 

enwm, defcended from Woden, affumed 
the title of king of EJfex, or of the Eaft- Kingd 
Saxons. This kingdom, lying eaftward of of EJfex. 
the other three, contained the two counties 
of EJfex and Middlefex, of which London 
was the capital. Who Erchenwin was, 
how long he had been in Britain, and what 
right he had to this new kingdom, hifto- 
rians inform us not. I fuppofe he was 
of his conquefts, for though he was once governor under Ocla, king of Kent, and 
defeated by Arthur, with the lofs of 6000 taking advantage of his weaknefs, engaged 
men, and obliged himfelf by treaty to re- the people to acknowledge him for king, 
imbark for Germany, with the remains of About this time, multitudes of Angles, Kingdom 
his troops, he deimbarked again at < Totnefs under the conduct of twelve chiefs, all of °J ^fA 
in Devon, and was foon declared monarch equal authority, but whofe names, except ** ta ' 
or general of all the Saxons, in the ftead Uffa (of whom I fhall have occafion to 
of Ella, who refigned ; they refolving to fpeak hereafter) are unknown, landed at 
unite with all their force, to flop Arthur's fome port on the eaftern coaft of Britain^ 
progrefs, and to fettle themfelves in peace, where, without much difficulty, they pof- 
and feize upon all Britain, by the utter ex- feffed themfelves of fome poll, thofe parts 
tirpation of the Britijh name. being ill guarded by the Britains. In time, 

The fame of this refolution roufed the as they were continually enlarging their 
Britains to make a general effort for their conquefts towards the weft, they corn- 
liberty, and to drive their invaders, if pof- pelled the Britains at length to abandon the 
fible, out of the land. They affembled country along the eaftern more. The 
in great multitudes under old Amhrqfius, Angles, thus fituated, had an opportunity 
who, too eagerly purfuing the flying of fending from time to time for frefh co- 
enemy in the right wing, was himfelf lonies from Germany, with which they 
routed, and flain in the flank, by Cenric, founded a fifth kingdom, by the name of 
the fon of Cerdic. This battle was fought the kingdom of Eaji-Anglia, or of the 
in 508, at Chardford, then called Cerdic* s Eaft-Angles. But as their firft chiefs af- 
ford, by the Saxons, who in that engage- fumed not the title of king, the beginning 
ment killed 5000 Britains. But Arthur, of this kingdom is generally brought 
who fucceeded Ambrojius on the throne, down to the year 571. 
and in the army, after feveral defeats of During the eight years peace between 
lefs note, gained fo compleat a victory over Arthur and Cerdic, the king of Armorica, 
the Saxons, at Badon-Hill, or Benhefdown, being difturbed by the rebellion of Frollon, 
that Cerdic was not able to attempt any one of his fubjects, fent to his uncle Arthur 
verthrows thing till recruited from Germany, under for aid. As Britain was then in a ftate of 
Cerdu. tne conduct of his nephews Stuff and With- tranquillity, Arthur would go in perfon, 
gar, who landed at Cerdic* s or a, or Cer- and afllft the king his nephew. To that 
die's haven, now Calfhot, in Hampfhire. end he paffes into Armorica, where he re- 

Efcus dies. In the mean time Efcus, king of Kent, venges Hoel, by flaying Frollon with his Arthur 

died, from whom all his fucceffors in that own hand in the firft battle they fought. fla y s Fro1 ' 
kingdom were ftiled Efcigians-, and was Arthur was ftill with Hoel when the An- l ^J?* re " 
fucceeded by his fon Ocla. And EIJa, gles arrived in Britain. His abfence very again"! his 

probably nephew, 

. _____________ __________________ /_**/ king 

of Arma 

Is fuccee- 
ded by 



* This fecond Saxon kingdom contained Sujfex and Surrey. 

b Anno 495. 



to England and Scotland. 23 

probably gave them an opportunity of fore he defired Arthur to come once more j^ impor- 
making greater progrefs than they would in perfon to aflift him againft fo formida- tuned by 
have done, had he been in the country, ble enemies, who were already matters of Hcc i t0 8° 
Cerdic alfo, taking advantage of Arthur's part of Gaul. How ncceflary foever Ar-^J^? 
abfence, and of the Angles, broke the /bur's prefence might be in his own king- 
Cerdk peace, and made fome farther conquefts. dora, he readily gave Hod this full proof 
breaks his He was conftantly attended by his fon Cen- of his affection and gratitude. As he was 
le ?S ue ric, who bravely feconded him in all his like to be detained abroad fome time by 
Xr and undertakings, and by his valour and con* the affairs of Armorica, he left Modred his 
obtains a duct caufed him to gain a fignal victory nephew, whom he defigned for his fuc- 
fignil vie- i n Buckingham/hire, at a place called Cer- ceffor, regent in his abfence, at the fame 
tor ^' die's Lega; now Cherdjky. time entrufting him with the care of the 
Arthur, at his return, found his affairs queen his wife, 
in extreme diforder, by reafon of Cerdic's Arthur was no fooner gone, but Cerdic, 
new conquefts, and the arrival of the An- taking advantage of his abfence, attacks 
gles. However, perceiving himfelf un- and fubdues the ifle of Wight, deftroying Cm/A- 
able to renew the war with his enemies, almoft all the inhabitants in a cruel man- fubdues 
whole number was continually increafing, ner. But this lofs was nothing to Arthur, 1 ^ ^ e 
hechofeto make a new treaty with Cerdic. in comparifon of what fhortly after fol-° ' s *' 
Immediately after this treaty, Arthur is lowed by the treachery of Modred, to 
Arthur af- faid to affume the title of emperor, of whofe care he had committed what he held 
fumes the wn j cn his f ea j ? found 2XWejlminfter, is moft dear. This traitor, finding the wife Modred 
pretended to be a proof. Leland fays, he and kingdom of Arthur in his power, falls debauches 
faw the imprefiion of it on red wax, with in love with both, and not fatisfied with^ r ^" r ' s , 
thefe words round it: Pair. Arthurius ; debauching the queen in private, publickly Jfurps^his 
Britann. Gall. Germ. Dae. Imper. that is, marries her. In order to avoid a fecond kingdom. 
Patricius Arthurius ; Britannicus, Gallicus, crime, by the punifhment of the firft, he 
Germanicus, Dacicus, Imperator. Thefe refolves moreover to feizfe the crown of 
proud titles perhaps were the occafion of his uncle, his king and benefactor. The 
afcribing to him fo many pretended victo- more eafily to accomplifh his defign, he 
ries in foreign countries, and of ftiling him judges it neceffary to make Cerdic his 
conqueror of the Gauls, Germans, and Da- friend, and by his means to gain all the 
dans. But whether this feal be genuine or reft of the Saxon princes to his intereft. 
not, there is foundation enough for thefe He was fenfible, it would be very 
titles from the exploits now related of difficult to fupport himfelf in his ufurpa- 
this prince. He might be called Britanni- tion, if he was immediately forced to en- 
cus, from his being monarch of the Bri- gage in a war with the foreigners. Befides, 
tains. The title of Gallicus might be owing he could not find a readier or more power- 
to his expedition into Gaul. The ibrname ful protection. But the Saxon prince not 
of Germanicus was no lefs proper, fince he being of a humour to neglect his own, for 
frequently defeated the Saxons, who came the fake of another's affairs, Modred could 
from Germany. Laftly, his being ftiled not poffibly attain this protection, without 
Dacicus, might be founded on his victory paying dear for it. However, as he had 
over the Jutes, who were mixed with the no other way to fupport himfelfj he re* 
Saxons, and by fome have been confounded figns to Cerdic one part of the dominions 
with the Danes and Dacians. Be this as it ufurped upon his uncle, and enters into a 
will, if he affumed the title of emperor, league offenfive and defenfive with him. 
as it is very likely, fince Ambrofius did the What the Saxon prince got by this treaty, 
fame, the four different times of his at- lay extremely convenient for him, and 
taining to the four feveral dignities, muft vaftly exceeded what was before given him 
be carefully diftinguiftied. i. tie mounted by Arthur. It contained, befides part of 
the throne of Damnonium in 467, at fif- Danmonium, or Cornwal, the prefent coun»- 
teen years of age. 2. In 476 he was ere- ties of Berk/hire, Wiltjhire, Devon/hire, 
ated Patrician by Ambrofius. 3. In 508 and Dorfet/hire. This, with Hamp/hire 
he was elected monarch of Britain. 4. In and Somerfeijhire, which he was before pof- 
528 he affumed ~ the imperial purple, feffedof, rendered his kingdom much lar- 
Thefe epochas, thus diftinguiftied, remove ger and more confiderable than the three 
in a great meafure the confufion in the hif- other Saxon kingdoms already eftablifhed. 
tory of this great prince, with refpect to The treaty being executed, Modred was 
chronology. Hod, king of Armorica, was crowned at London ; thofe who privately 
enjoying the repofe procured him by Ar- abhorred his treacherous doings, not da- 
thur, when he heard that the Wifigoths, ring to oppofe them, for fear of being op- 
then in poffeflion of part of Gaul, were preffed before the return of their lawful 
preparing to invade his dominions : where- prince. 

Vol. I. Y In 

24 7he Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

In the mean time, Cerdic, after having nine after his arrival in Britain. He muft 

much enlarged his dominions, was incum- have been of a great age when he died ; 

ber'd with his greatnefs. As moft of his for, thirty-nine years before, Cenric his fon 

fubjefts were Britains, on whofe loyalty he was able to aflift him in his wars. The 

could not wholly rely, he believed it ne- time this prince paflfed in Britain was a 

ceffary, in order to preferve his new domi- continued fcene of good and bad fuccefs, 

nions, to people them with Saxon colonies, which ferved equally to fhew his ability to 

To that end, he fent word into Germany, improve his advantages, and to repair, 

Cerdu in- that all who wer,e willing to come and with a wonderful readinefs, the diforder 

vites the fettle in his kingdom, fhould meet with his affairs were frequently thrown into by 

Saxons 0- g reat encouragement. This invitation in- the fortune of war. Cenric his fon, the 

de^r) his duces a great many of the Saxons and Jutes faithful companion of all his labours, fuc- 

kingdom. to embrace the prefent opportunity. Soon ceeded him both in the kingdom of WejJ'ex, 

after, above eight hundred veflels are feen and alfo in the monarchy or generalfhip of 

to arrive, freighted with families in queft the Saxons and Angles. Cerdic's fucceflbrs 

of fettlements in Cerdic's new kingdom, were furnamed Gewifhians, from Gewi/h, 

Thefe colonies were joyfully received, and one of their anceftors, famous no doubt in 

planted in habitations; from whence Cerdic his generation. 

took care to drive fuch Britains as he moft The fame year died OcJa, king of Kent, oaa, king 
fufpected, efpecially upon the frontiers, after a reign of 2 2 years, wherein nothing of Kent, 
Thus Britain was filled, by degrees, with remarkable occurs but the difmembring of dies - 
new inhabitants, and began to lofe the fu- the kingdom of Ejjex, which he, for fome 
periority in number fhe had hitherto had unknown reafon, did not think fit to op- 
above the foreigners. pofe. He was fucceeded by his fon Her- 
Crowned Cerdic having fettled thefe new-comers, menrick. 

x.Win* W as crowned a fecond time at Winchefter, Arthur, after a four years abfence, at Arthur re- 
chefter. t j ie me t r0 p ii s f his dominions, by the length quitted Armorica. We are igno- turns to 
title of king of Weffex, or of the Weft- rant of the caufe of his long flay there, fo Brttatn ' 
Saxons, that he had before affumed. This very prejudicial to his affairs, which at 
ceremony was thought neceffary, by rea- his arrival were in a defperate condition, 
fon of the great number of his new fub- Modred was in pofTeffion of his throne, and 
jecfs, Saxons and Jutes, that were lately moreover in ftricT: alliance with the Saxons. 
added to the old. This kingdom was On the other hand, thefe laft being now 
very advantageoufly fituated, being bound- matters of good part of the ifland, were 
ed on the north, by the Thames ; on the led by their own intereft to fupport the 
weft, by the Severn ; on the fouth, by the ufurper, and maintain him on the throne, 
fea *, and on the eaft, by the kingdom of However, Arthur, though broken with 
Sujfex. As for the Britains that were ftill age, and almoft deftitute of friends, re- 
in pofTeffion of the greateft part of Dan- folved to undertake the _ recovery of his 
monium, they could not be very formidable kingdom, and to punifh the treacherous 
to Cerdic, being divided from the reft of Modred. This bold refolution rouzed the 
their nation by this new kingdom and the courage of thofe that dared not at firft to 
Severn. declare for him. A great number of of- 
Cerdic was but too well acquainted with fleers and foldiers, who could not bear the 
the valour and activity of Arthur, to ima- thoughts of fighting againft him who had 
gine he would fit ftill at his return ; and taught them to conquer, deferted the 
therefore ufed all his endeavours to put ufurper, and came and lifted themfelves 
himfelf in a pofture of defence. To that under the banner of their lawful prince. 
Prepares end, he repairs all his ftrong holds, adds Thus Arthur faw himfelf on a fudden at 
for his de- new works, and takes all other precautions the head of an army capable of making 
ftnC ft & j ki s prudence fuggefts to him, not to be Modred uneafy, if not by the number, at 
f^r. T ' ft^prifed when he comes to defend his do- leaft by the bravery of the troops, and 
minions. Every thing being put in order, the valour and experience of the leader, 
he rewarded his nephews, Stuff "and With- Modred, on his part, omitted nothing- for 
gar (who had faithfully ferved him ever his defence. As he was not ignorant of 
fince their arrival) with the ifle of Wight, the people's inclination to his uncle, he 
As in all likelihood they were Jutes, Cerdic, had reafon to apprehend a general defec- 
in the diftribution of his new colonies, had tion, and therefore had ftrengthened him- 
taken care beforehand to people that little felf with the affiftance of the Saxons •, and 
ifland with their own countrymen. upon the fame account made an alliance 
Thus Cerdic was prepared againft the with the Picls. He eafily engaged the 
D- es> attacks of Arthur, when death took him Pitfs to his intereft, fince they paffionately 
out of the world, in the year 534, fixteen defired to be revenged of Arthur, who 
years after his firft coronation, and thirty- had formerly carried fire and fword into 



to England and Scotland. 2$ 

their country. Thus Arthur, with a hand- that Arthur was dead, and the difmayed 
ful of friends, was forced to Hand againft Britains had neither power nor courage to 
the Saxons and Pifls, in conjunftion with defend themfelves, great numbers of peo- 
the Britains that Tided with Modred. But pie refolved to go over and fettle in Wri- 
the want of numbers was fupplied by his lain. Ida, by nation an Angle, and de- Ida comes 
courage and experience. Though his fcended from Woden, having embarked on m \° Sn ~ 
troops were much inferior to thofe of his board forty veflels abundance of families " 
enemy, he found means however to en- of his own country-men, landed at Flam- 
gage him in a very difadvantageous poll, borough in Torkfhire, then in pofifeflion of 
Gives Mo- and obtained a fignal victory. In this ac- the Northumberland Saxons, who received 
dredtet- tion he loft Gafoan andAngufel, two princes them as friends. The Northumbrians, 
tie, and Q £ j^ s j-,^^ wno naa ! faithfully lerved fo called from inhabiting north of the 
jjj m# him both in profperity and adverfity. Humber, had maintained themfelves in that 
Though Modred was defeated, the fup- country ever fince the time of Hengift, and 
plies he received from the Piffs and Saxons had all along been in fome dependance on 
foon enabled him to give his uncle a fecond the kings of Kent. They had often fa- 
battle, but with no better fuccefs. As the voured the enterprifes of their country- 
particulars of this war are confufedly deli- men in the fouthern parts by frequent di- 
vered, and befides contain nothing mate- verfions, which had feveral times drawn 
rial, it will fuffice, I believe, to relate the into the north the arms of Ambrofius and 
iffue. Modred, though conftantly worfted, Arthur: but tho' frequently defeated, they 
found means to prolong the war feven had however kept pofTeflion of thofe nor- 
years, without Arthur* % being able to de- them countries, without its appearing how 
ftroy the ufurper, much lefs wreft out of they were governed, from the death of 
the hands of the Saxons, what had been O0a and Ebufa to the year 547. Ida, 
furrendered to them. During this war, when he firft arrived in their country, 
there happened two eclipfes of the fun, (whether he had made an agreement with 
which credulous hiftorians have exprefsly them before he left Germany, or they were 
remarked, fancying they were prefages of tired with being in fubjection to the kings 
the utter ruin of the Britains, which fell of Kent, from whom, by reafon of their 
out foon after. • diftance, they could expect no affiftance) 
The fuperiority of Modred's forces being found them ready and willing to obey him. 
ballanced by the valour and experience of It may be, they were not in condition to 
Arthur, the war had now Jafted feven oppofe Ida, who had brought with him a 
years without any thing decifive. Modred, ftrong army. However this be, Ida wasAcknow- 
though feveral times vanquished, was ftill acknowledged fovereign of the North- !ed £ ed 
at the head of a very numerous army, humbrians, as well as of the Angles his fol- v^i « 
On the other hand, Arthur, though ex- lowers, under the title of king of North- beriand. 
tremely old, and his army greatly weakened humberland. The readinefs of the Saxons 
by the feveral battles he had given his to mix with the Angles, and obey a king 
enemy, fupported himfelf by his great ex- of that nation, confirms what I have elfe- 
perience in the art of war. At laft the where obferved, that the Saxons and Angles 
fatal blow was given, in the year 542 : were in Germany but one and the fame 
Arthur purfuing his enemy from place to people. The name of the Saxons ftill re- 
place, drove him to the extremity of Dan- mains in Germany, whilft that of the Angles 
monium, where he could not avoid fighting, is entirely loft ; and on the contrary, this 
This laft battle was fought by the river latter is perpetuated in Britain, where the 
Cambalon, near Camelford. It proved fatal former is almoft forgotten. Northumber- 
to the two leaders, as well as to all the land was the fifth kingdom founded by the 
Britains, who having loft their beft troops, Anglo-Saxons. Ida, the firft king, was a 
were never after able to ftand againft the prince of great fame ; and yet as he efta- 
Saxons. During this bloody battle, the bliihed himfelf without any obftacle, there 
uncle and nephew happening to meet, is but one particular recorded of him in 
ruihed upon one another fo furioufly, that hiftory, and that is, his building the city 
nothing but death could part them. Mo- of Bebbanburgh, fo called from his queen 
Slays Mo- dred was flain upon the fpot, and Arthur Bebba. This city, after many years, was 
***• mortally wounded,who was carried to Glaff- deftroyed-, however there ftill remains the 
enbury, where he died, aged 90 years ; 76 caftle of Bamborough. 
of which he had fpentin the continual ex- The memoirs concerning the fettlements 
ercife of arms. Though he had reigned of the Anglo-Saxons in Britain, are fo fhort 
but 34 years, yet before he mounted the and imperfect, that it is impoffible to frame 
throne, he had long commanded the Bri- a regular hiftory of them. We muft there- 
tijh armies under Ambrofius. fore be fatisfied with a certain number of 
As foon as it was rumoured in Germany facts tranfmitted to us ; by the help where- 

z6 The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

of, the thread of the hiftory may, in fome fuccoured by his countrymen, by whom he 

meafure, be purfued. was envied and hated, he was intireJy 

The Bri- In the year 552, notwithftanding their routed by Aidan, his fon Curihzvin flain,, 

tains beat wea k eftate, the Britain* made an effort to and he narrowly efcaped. But the Britains, 

™™ Sali f recover part of their lands from Cenric king flufhed with this victory, and from thence 

of the Weft- Saxons, but were repulfed with imagining themfelves able to drive all the 

great lofs near Salijbury. Saxons entirely out of the ifle, vainly rifked 

Ida dies, The afbrefaid < ii/<3, who is agreed by all their all in another battle with their Over- 

hiftorians to have been an accomplifhed combined army, in which they were in- ^ omes the 

prince, died in the year 559, and was tirely routed ; and, convinced of their va- 

iucceeded by his fon Adda, as king of Ber- nity, came to an agreement to divide the 

nicia, or the northern part of the kingdom country with their conquerors; when 

of Northumberland; and by Alia, defcended Crida, of the race of Woden, with a great 

fromWo~den,in the fouthern part, or kingdom number of Angles arrived in Eajt-Anglia Crida ar- 

of D.ira. from Germany, and marching crofs that nv "' a "^ 

Cenric The next change in the Saxon affairs, was kingdom into the middle of the ifland, kin _ dom 

(ilc3 - the death of Cenric their monarch, who had and driving the affrighted Bri tains before of Mercia. 

reigned twenty-fix years with defire of new him into Wales, he fettled with his coun- Britain* 

h fuc- conqueils •, and was fucceeded by Ce- trymen in the country between the Humber, ^ c , up in 

ceeded by au n n his eldeft fon, both in his kingdom of Severn and Thames; all which tract of land 

Ceautip W'efiex and dignity of monarch. But his he erected into a kingdom, by the name 

difpofition was contrary to his father's ; and of the Middle- Angles, or Mercia, and was Kingdom 

Attempts afpiring to make all his countrymen his crowned the firfh king thereof in 584. of Mercia. 
abiolute vaffals, and to rule them with an arbitrary This concluded the Saxons conqueft, and The be- 

monaic y - power, he made extraordinary military pre- fhut the Britains up within the narrow It- ginning of 

parations to effect and fupport his defigns : mits of Wales ; and here we mult date the| a/ e c/ ^y 

Which, tho' they much alarmed both his division of South- Britain into England and govern- 

Britijh and Saxon neighbours, wrought the Wales. And now we may alfo date thement. 

defired effect ; for tho' he was oppofed by prefent name of South-Britain, when the 

Ethelbert king of Kent, which is the firlt Anglo-Saxons, rinding themfelves in full po- 

civil war among the Saxons, he overcame feflion of the whole, agreed to call their 

the young king, made him his own con- feven kingdoms by one general name, 

ditions of peace, and looking upon all the England, or country of the Angles ; and fo 

reft as his lubjects and vaffals he turned his looking upon themfelves but as one peo- 

arms; when Ujfa, in the year 571, the fur- pie, tho' compofed of Saxons, Jutes and 

vivor of the twelve chiefs that brought Angles, eftablifhed a form of government 

over the Angles, affumed the title as like as poffible to that, under which they 

Kingdom of king of the Eafi- Angles, calling his had been educated in their own country, 

of the kingdom Eafi-Anglia. This was the fixth This confent produced the Wittena-gamot Wittena- 

Ea ^- kingdom founded by the Saxons, and all or ajfembly of wifemen, of which our EngliJh gamo ^ 

erefted ^ s f ucce flo r s to that kingdom were called parliament is the furviving offspring ; as 

Uffings. for their monarch, it was a title or dignity, 

Routed by Ceaulin is faid to have frequently defeat- which they had before among them, ever 

Aidan. ed the Britains, but in the end, not being fince they began to increafe in this ifle. 

C H A P. V. 

Containing the ancient State of England, efpe daily during the Heptarchy of the 

An g l o-Sax ons. 

Britain * | 1 H E Britains being quite driven out tarchy -, and to preferve their mutual con- 

djyided J^ of their Englijh poffeffions into Wales, quefts, they appointed & general in chief, or 

kinedo Ven feitghftd was divided into feven kingdoms ; a monarch, to be chofen by the unanimous 

four of them, Kent, Ejfex, Sujjex, Weffex, confent of the feven kingdoms. Then as 

were poffeffed by the Saxons and Jutes -, to their civil government, they agreed on a 

Mercia and Eaft-Anglia by the Angles alone ; General Ajfembly, to confift of the principal 

but in Northumlerland, they were mixed members of the feven kingdoms •, in which 

with the defcendents of Qcla and Ebufa, great council, ftiled the Wittena-gamot, 

Saxof?s who firft had poffeffion of the fhould be confidered what regarded the 

country north of Humber. whole nation only, to whofe refolutions 

Their Thefe feven kingdoms,confidered as one and acts they were all obliged to fubmit ; 

policy, body and one ftate, as they all had but one tho' each kingdom had a particular parha- 

intereft to promote, was called the Hep- ment, to deliberate on affairs before they 


£0 England and Scotland. 



were brought before the General Affembly. 
But how well contrived foever this muft be 
allowed to be, in order to cement the union 
among thefe conquerors, it was not long 
before the monarch ufurped too much fo- 
vereignty, to the oppreflion of his fellow 
kings, and that nation rofe up againft na- 
to fubmit 

tion, refufing 

to their general 

li The kingdom of Kent contained l 
the county of 3 

affembly ; which ended firft in the de- 
ft ruction of fome of the {even kingdoms , 
that were annexed to others, and at the 
lad in the union of them all, under the 
government of one fingle perfon. 

The names of thefe feven kingdoms* Their 
with their extent and iuridiclion, were as nam e?{ 
follows : "J? 1 ' ., 

and jurii 


2. The kingdom of the South-Sax- 
ons contained the counties of 

3 . The kingdom of the Eaft- A ngles 
contained the counties of 



4. The kingdom of WefTex, or of 
the Weft-Saxons, contained the 
counties of 






Cambridge, with the ijle of Ely. 








f Lancafter, 
V York, 
1 Durham, 

5 . The kingdom of NorthumberJ Cumber f and 
land contained the counties of \ Weftmoreland 

Northumberland, and Scotland to 
the frith of Edinburgh. 


6. The kingdom of the Eaft-Saxonsc Effex, 
contained the counties of \ Middlefex, andpart fl/Hertfordfhire. 









7. The kingdom of Mercia contain-] Huntingdon, 
ed the counties of ^ Bedford, 


Chefter, and the other part of 

After thefe general remarks, I now pro- The kingdom of KENT was not above Kingdom 

ceed to the particulars of each of thefe fixty miles in length, and thirty in breadth, of Kent, 

kingdoms. Its capital was Dorobern, or Canterbury 5 

Vol. I. Z and 

* And, till the reign of 08a, the counties ofEfftx and Middlefex, 


The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

Its kings. 









and Rochefter, Dover, Sandwich, Deal, 
Folkpne, Reculver, &c. were confiderable 
for their fituation and harbours. It con- 
tinued a kingdom 372 years or thereabouts, 
and had eighteen kings, viz. 

1. Hengist, who arrived in England 
in 449, afllimed the title of king of 

Kent in 455, and died in 488. 

2. Esc us fucceeded his father Hengift, 
and died without glory in 512. 

3. Oct a fucceeded his father Efcus, 
and could not prevent Effex and Middle- 
fex being difmembered from Kent, to form 
the kingdom of the Eaft-Saxons. He died 

in 534. 

4. Hermenric, fon to Vela, fucceed- 
ed, and reigned thirty years. He before 
his death affociated Ethelbert his fon. 

5. Ethelbert was of an afpiring 
genius ; and was the firft Saxon king that 
embraced chriftianity. And tho' at firft 
he was worried ; yet at length he defeated 
Ceaulin, who (abufing the monarchical truft 
repofed in him) had attempted to make the 
whole nation his vaflfals ; is himfelf declared 
monarch, runs into the fame excefs, and 
obliges the Saxons to fubmit to his yoke. He 
married Bertha, daughter to the king of Fo- 
reigner! 52 years, and died in 616. 


6. Ed bald, his fon, fucceeded him. He 
firft turned heathen, and then married his 
mother-in-law ; and fo degenerated from 
the glory of his father by his vices, that 
he became the fcorn of the other kings : 
but at laft he repented ; married Emma 
the daughter of the king of Francs, and 
died a good chriftian, after a reign of 23 

7. Ercombert, tho' the younger of 
Edbald's fons, was by the affiftance and 
appointment of his father made his fuc- 
ceffor on the throne. He ordered the 
temples of the falfe gods to be razed to 
the ground, and the idols to be broken 
in pieces ♦, and died in 664. 

8. Egbert, fucceeding his father Er- 
combert, endeavoured to fecure his title by 
putting to death the two fons of his fa- 
ther's elder brother Ermenfred. He died 
in 673, and was fucceeded by his brother 

9. Lothair having feized the crown, 
in wrong of Edric and Widred, his bro- 
ther Egbert's fons, endeavoured to fecure 
it for his (onRicbard -, for which end have- 
ing reigned ten years, he took him part- 
ner in the government : which Edric his 
nephew refenting, afRfted by Adelwalch 
king of Suffex, he entered Kent, and van- 
quifhed Lothair, who died of his wounds. 

10. Edric, having vanquifhed Lothair, 
was crowned without oppofition ; but he 
enjoyed it only two years, leaving his 
crown to his brother Widred, 

11, 12. Widred and Swabert : Thtw : d>ed 
Kenfifh men refufing to acknowledge PVi-^ nd S™ a ~ 
drediox their king, he was obliged to af-^ r/> 
fociate Swabert, the principal of the rebels, 
into the government. In their reign, 
Cedwalla, king of the Weft-Saxons, de- 
ftroyed the whole country with fire and 
fword, and reduced Kent to a very low 
eftate, which it never recovered during 
the Heptarchy. Swabert died in 695, and 
JVidred'm 725. 

13, 14. Ethelbert and Edbert, Ethelbert 
two fons of Widred, reigned together, till and Ed- 
Edbert died in 748, then Ethelbert having hert > 
reigned 36 years, died alfo, and left the 
kingdom to his brother Aldric, his own 
fon Ardulph being dead. In this reign 
Canterbury was burnt. 

15. Aldric had frequent wars with hisJldric. 
neighbours, efpecially Offa king 0$ Mercia, 
who wanted to augment their own with 

his kingdom : but they did not fuCceed. 
He affociated his fon Alemund into the go- 
vernment; but they both died without ifTue. 

16. Edbert-Pren was elected king£^, r ,_ 
on the death of Aldric. In whofe time p re n. 
Cenulph king of Mercia ravaged Kent, 
took him prifoner, carried him into Mer- 
cia, and ordering his eyes to be put out, 
made Cudred king in his ftead. 

17. Cudred was tributary to the king Cudred. 
of Mercia. He reigned eight years, and 

died in 805. 

18. Baldred the fon of Cudred was Baldred. 
permitted to fucceed his father as tributary 

to the king of Mercia : bus in his time 
Egbert, king oiWeJfex, conquer*d Kent, and 
diflolved the heptarchy. 

The kingdom ofSUSSEX,or of the &?#/£- Kingdom 
Saxons, was about fifty miles long and forty ofSujfcx. 
broad ; its capital was Chichefier. It in- 
cluded the counties of Suffex and Surrey ; 
and continued a kingdom only about 113 
years under five kings, viz. 

1. Ella, who arrived in* Britain in Kings. 
476, and affumed the ftile of king of Suffex Ella. 
in 491. He fucceeded Hengift in the 
command of the Saxon armies, and have- 

ing got much renown, died in 514. 

2. Cissa fucceeded to his father's throne, Ciffa. 
and reigned feventy-fix years; who dying 
without iffue, Ceaulin king of Wejfex 
feized on his kingdom ; which remained 

to the kings of JVeJfex till the year 684. 

3. Adelwalch was fet on the throne jjgj. 
by the South-Saxons, but his reign wasw«/^- 
much troubled with the invafion not only 

of the king of Mercia, but alfo of Ced- 
walla, a JVeJl-Saxon fugitive prince, who 
flew Adelwalch in battle ; and was fuc- 
ceeded by Authun and Berthun his generals, 
who oppofed and ftopt Cedwalla's pro- 
gsete to the throne of that kingdom. 

4> 5- 

to England and Scotland. z$ 

Authun ^ c )% Authun and Berthun : Berthun Northumberland ; in which expedition they 

and Ber- was j-j a j n in b att l e ov Cedwalla, who had were both flain. 

obtained the kingdom of Wefjex; and 9. Adelwald was brother to Ethelric: Adehwald. 

Authun became his tributary : but, after he did nothing memorable, and died in 

many ftruggles for their liberty, the South- 664. 

Saxons were united intirely to the kingdom 10, 11, 12,13. Aldulph, Alfwald, Aldulph. 

of WejJ'ex. Beorna, and Ethelred, fucceeded each Alfwald. 

other, but have left nothing to record their | "££' d 

Kingdom The kingdom of EAST- ANGLI A con- praife to pofterity. 

ofEaft- tained the two counties of Norfolk and Suf- 14. Ethelbert: This is the prince, Ethelbert. 

Anglta. foik^fa^ttfQambridgejhire.j^ux eighty whom Offa, king of Mercia, put to death 

miles long, and fifty-five miles broad. Its in 792, who feized on his kingdom, and 

chief towns were Norwich, Thetford, Ely, united it to his own. 
and Cambridge. It was firft founded un- 
der twelve chiefs, the furviver of whom, The kingdom of WESSEX, or Weft- Kingdom 

Uffa, afiumed the title of king of the Eaft- Saxons was fituated on the fouth of the river of ^ r ej[ex x 

Angles. It continued a kingdom about Thames, in breadth about 70 miles from 

292 years, under fourteen kings, viz. the Thames to the Britijh channel, and in 

Kings. 1. Uffa affumed the title of king in length 1501 meafuring from the frontiers 

W a - the year 571. He atchieved nothing re- of Sujfex, to the river Tamar. It was 

markable after his feizing on the throne, chiefly inhabited by Saxons and Jutes, tho' 

and died in 578. a great many Bri tains ftill continued in the 

Vitilus. 2. Titilus, his fon, fucceeded him, city of Winchefter, its capital, as alfo in 

and died in obfcurity, in 599. Southampton, Port/mouth, Salijbury, Dor- 

Redowald. 3. Redowald was the fon of Titilus, chejler, Sherbourn and Exeter. It took its 

and proved the mod illuftrious not only name from its fituation, which was weft 

of all the Eaft-Anglia kings, but of the of the kingdom of Kent. The ifle of 

whole Heptarchy : he died in 624. Wight, which was inhabited by the Jutes, 

Erpwald. 4. Erpwald loft his father's glory; was alfo dependent on this kingdom, which 

and tho' he retained the title of king, his continued 544 years, under twenty kings 

kingdom became fubject to Edwin king of and one queen, viz. 

Northumberland. He was affaflinated in 1. Cerdic arrived in Britain in 495, Kings. 

633, when fucceeded an inter-regnum of but was not crowned king till prince Ar- Cer ^- 

three years. thur furrender'd to him Hamp/hire and 

Sigebert. 5. Sigebert, brother to Erpwald by Somerfetfhire, in 519; the whole then of 

the mother's fide,had been banifhed by him that kingdom: And upon the yielding to 

into France, where he embraced the chrifti- him Berk/hire, Wiltjhire, Devonjhire and 

an faith. He was recalled, and made their Dorfetjhire by Modred, in 532 or 533, he 

king three years after the death of Erp* was crowned again at Winchefter, and died 

wald; but he refigned his crown, and re- foon after in 534, leaving his crown to his 

tired into a cloifter, as foon as he had fon Cenric. 

brought his fubjects to the knowledge of 2. Cenric, tho' renowned for his vg,. Cenric. 

the true God. lour and conduct in his father's time, pre- 

Egric. 6. Egric, coufin to Sigebert, received ferred a peaceable and quiet life, and only 

the crown from him. In his reign Penda, had recourfe to arms when attacked by the 

king of Mercia, invaded this country •, and Britains in 552. He died in 560, and 

nothing could perfuade them, but that was fucceeded by his eldeft fon Ceaulin. 
victory would be on their fide, provided 3. Ceaulin was elected the Saxon mo- c ^ a/k 

Sigebert would lead their army. He con- narch ; but fo abufed that dignity, as to 

fented, but both he a and Egric were killed, draw the reft of his nation upon him : he 

Annas. 7. Ann as, fon of Ennius, nephew of was vanquifhed by the king of Kent -, and 

Redowald, fucceeded, and proved an illuf- ended his days foon after in obfcurity. 

trious king j but by aflifting Cenowalch to See what has been related of him before, 
recover his kingdom of WejJ'ex from Penda, 4. Ceolric was nephew to Ceaulin >,Cedrh. 

he drew the Mercian king upon his own nothing memorable is recorded of him : 

country, and was killed in a battle with dying in 598, he left the kingdom to 

Penda. his brother Ceolulph. 

Ethelric. 8. Ethelric, the brother of Annas, 5. Ceolulph was continually employed Ceolulph. 
fucceeded,and bought his peace withPmfo, in wars with the Britains, Scots or Picls-, 
with a fum of money, and an engagement and dying in 611, left his crown to Cam- 
to affift him with all his forces to invade gifil, fon of Ceolric* 

6, j, Cini- 

Who only carried a fwitch in his hand. 

50 The Voy age of Don Gonzales, 

CinigifiU 6, 7, Cinigisil and Quicelm. Cini- in Cornwal, and with the kings of Kent, 

and ^«/- J"^ divided his kingdom with his brother South-Saxony, and Mercia. He is alio fa- 

cr// *' %uicelm, who turned chriftian a little be- mous for being the founder or rebuilder of 

fore his* death, in 636. Thefe brothers Glajfenbury monaftery; and for being the 

were very fuccefsful in their wars. Cini- publifher of the Weft-Saxon laws. He vi- 

sifil became a chriftian in 635, and died fited Rome, where he built a large college 

j n g- for Englijh ecclefiafticks, &c. and a (lately 

Cenowalch 8. Cenowalch was the fon of Cinigifil: church ; and having endowed this foun- 

his reign was much troubled with his wars dation with a tax of a penny, called Rome- 

againft the kings of Mercia. He was at- [cot, or Peter-pence, to be levied on the 

tacked by Penda, for divorcing his fitter ; inhabitants of the kingdom of Weffex and 

and driven to feek refuge, for three years, Suffix, he put on the habit of a monk at 

in the kingdom of the Eaft* Angles, where Rome, and his queen Ethelburga became a 

he was converted to chriftianity. Having nun at Barkin. 

recovered his kingdom, he warred with 15. Adelard, though called to the Addard. 

fuccefs againft the Britains ; but loft Suffex throne, and fixed thereon by the confent of 

and the Tile of Wight, to Wulphur, king of the of embly general, was oppofed by Ofwald, 

Mercia. He died in 672. who was defcended from Ceaulin ; and was 

§e*hurga. 9. Sexburga fucceeded her hufband not fecured of his poffeflion till Ofwald 

Cenowalch ; but though all hiftorians agree died. This king died in 740, and was 

that fhe was every way capable of govern- fucceeded by his coufin Cudred. 
ment, they alfo inform us, that fhe only 16. Cudred. In the beginning of his Cudred. 

reigned one year, and was depofed by the reign he obtained a fignal victory over the 

nobles, who thought it difhonourable to Cornifh Britains-, but was obliged to drop 

be governed by a woman. the purfuit of that advantage, to fuppreis 

Sexburga being removed, the nobles a rebellion in his own kingdom, headed 

fharedthe government, as venerable Bede by one Ethelun, 2l Weft-Saxon lord; whom 

records, for the fpace of about ten years. he not only overcame in a defperate battle 

Cenfus. 10, 11, 12. Cenfus, Escwin, Cent- at Burford, in Oxford/hire, but received 

Efcwin. WIN# Cenfus, who was defcended from him into favour, as a reward of his cou- 

Centunn. k j ng Q r ^ an( } had been at the head of rage and conduct ; and then he again turned 

the & nobles, at iaft feized upon the throne, his arms againft the Cornifh men, part 

He firft affociated his fon Efcwin, and then of whofe country he conquered and united 

was forced to admit Centwin to part of the to Wejfex, and died foon after, 
kingdom, who was brother to the late 17. Sigebert was nephew to Cudred, Sigebert* 

king Cenowalch. Efcwin loft a battle, but very unlike him in his actions : for he 

which he fought at Bedwin in Wilt/hire, was fo arbitrary and cruel, that his fubjects 

with Wulphur king of Mercia, in ' 675. publickly depofed him. His crown was 

Cenfus died in 677, and his fon Efcwin given to Cenulph, fon of Melard. Sige- 

foon after; fo that Centwin was fole reg- bert, in this diftrefs, fled into the foreft of 

nant, and was very profperous in his wars Andredfwall, where he 'was killed by a 

againft the Welch, in 682 : but was much fwine-herd, belonging to the late count 

vexed with the rebellion of Cedwalla, a Cumbra, whom he had ordered to be put 

prince of the royal blood, whom he had to death in his prefence, for admoniihing 

ordered to depart the kingdom. He died him of his vices and cruelties. 
m 686. 18. Cenulph was famous for his many Cenulph. 

Cedwalla. 13. Cedwalla, the rebel, fucceeded to victories over the Britains. After 30 years 

the throne. He was much addicted to war, reign, he grew jealous of Cunehard, bra- 
very courageous, was declared monarch of ther of Sigebert, that he afpired to the 
the Anglo-Saxons, and had great fuccefs in throne, and refolved to difpatch him out 
his arms ; refolved to mafiacre or execute of the way. Cunehard, coming to the 

all that would not turn chriftians, but was knowledge of this intention, found means 
diiTuaded from that falfe zeal, by Widfrid, to murder the king, before he could get 

biftiop of Selfey in Suffex. He went to any afliftance ; but as foon as his domeftics 
Rome, and was baptized by pope Sergius II. came and found him dead, not regarding 
by the name of Peter ; where he died in Cunehard's large offers to make him king, 
688, and was buried in St. Peter's church, they flew him alfo on the fpot. 
His fons being infants, Ina his coufin fuc- 19. Brithric was admitted to the Britbric. 
ceeded him. crown of his father Cenulph. At the be- 

Ina. 14. Ina was one of the moft illuftrious ginning of his reign he grew jealous of 

of the Heptarchical kings, and was de- Egbert, who was royally defcended from 
clared monarch in the firft year of his reign. Ceaulin, and much admired by the Weft 
He warred fuccefsfully with the Britains Saxons ; and therefore banifhed him his 


to England and Scotland* jt 

kingdom. In 798 the Danes made their clared openly for the rebels, and foon be- 

firft defcent at Portland, in this king's do- came mafter of Mercia, tho' not without 

minions j and he being poifoned by his much bloodfhed ; and at laft confented, by 

queen Edburga, the Weft-Saxons, before the mediation of Siward, abbot of Croy- 

they proceeded to the election of a new land, that Witglaph mould, on condition 

king, made a law, prohibiting the wives of paying homage and becoming tributary 

of their kings to be called queens, &c. to the conqueror, be reftored to his king- 

Bgbert. 20. Egbert was the fon of Alcmund, dom. The Eaft- Angles fubmitted to him 

Efa, Eoppa, Inigifil, Cenred, who was the upon the fame terms ; as did the Northum- 

fourth from Ceaulin. This young prince had brians alfo, at the approach of Egbert's vie- 

fo gained upon the affections of his coun- torious arms. Wherefore Egbert is juftly 

trymen, that king Brithric ordered him to called the firft monarch of all England. 
depart the kingdom : upon which, retiring 

to the court of Charles the great of France ', NORTHUMBERLAND, tho* it was Kingdom 
he was kindly received, and entertained 1 2 the firft intire province, was the laft made a°f N V" 
years by that monarch ; in which time he kingdom •, and was fo called from its fitua- ^ er 
much improved himfelf in all policy, and tion north of the Humber. It was divided 
render'd himfelf capable of executing the into two parts by the names of De'ira and 
grand defign of uniting the feven king- Bernicia. BemiciawasCitimteon the north of 
doms of the Anglo-Saxons under himfelf. Severus's wall, extending in a point to the 
Upon the death of Brithric, he was ho- mouth of the Tweed: De'ira was the coun- 
nourably intreated to accept of the king- try from Severus's wall to the Humber. 
dom of WejJ'ex. He was then at Rome Thefe two parts at one time made two 
with the emperor Charles the great, who was kingdoms, but were united. The kingdom 
gone there to receive the imperial diadem, of Northumberland meafured 160 miles in 
How he His firft ftep to univerfal monarchy over length, and 100 in breadth; containing 
plotted to the Anglo-Saxons, was, to gain the loVe and the cities of York, Dunelme or Durham, and 
attam to efteemofhisfubjeds.Then in 809 marching Carlijle, and the towns of Hexham or Ha- 
monarchy. againft tne Cornijh Britains, he reduced all gulftadt, Lancafter, and others of lefs note. 
Cornwal to his obedience in one cam- It continued 357 years, under 24 kings, 
paign. Next year, under a pretence that 1. Ida was the firft king •, which title Kings, 
they had aflifted the Cornijh, he attacked he affumed in 547. But upon his death lda - 
and at laft fubdued the kingdom of Vene- in 5$g, his kingdom was divided into 
dotia or North-Wales. In the year 819, Bernicia and De'ira -, which were again unit- 
being elected monarch on the death of ed in Adelfrid the fon of Athelric, the fifth 
Cenulph, and obferving the many dhTen- fon of Ida, and lord of Bernicia, in 588. 
tions among the five kingdoms, that then 2. Adelfrid, who fucceeded his fa- AdelftiL 
only remained out of the feven, he refolved ther in 590, became very formidable to 
to endeavour the uniting all thefe king- his neighbours the Scots and Picls, and 
doms under himfelf. His project was fore- alfo to the Welch. But in the midft of 
ken by the king of Mercia, and had been his fuccefs and conquefts, being too pre- 
How like prevented had not Egbert defeated his fumptuous of his own ftrength, and de- 
to have army near Salijbury. Thus as Bemulph daring war againft Redowald, king of the 
vented' 6 ' was the a §>&~ effor -> Egbert improved his Eaft- Angles, for harbouring Edwin, fon of 
victory by another over Baldred, Bemulph' s Alia, late king of De'ira, he was himfelf at- 
tributary king of Kent, by which he be- tacked byRedowald,a.nd (lain in the field of 
came mafter of that kingdom •, which being battle; andEdwin was proclaimed their king, 
united to Wejfex and Sujfex, he faw him- 3. Edwin was alfo chofen monarch of Edwin. 
felf poffeffed of all the country that lies on the Anglo-Saxons ; but not without much 
the fouth of the river Thames. Then he oppofition : and he ftretched the preroga- 
found means to feize on the kingdom of tive of that dignity far beyond its juft 
Effex. After this, taking the advantage of bounds. He married Ethelburga, a chriftian, 
the animofities which fubfifted between and fifter to the king of Kent. He 
the Mercians and Eaft- Angles, who only was a juft and impartial prince over his 
waited an opportunity to free themfelves fubjects. He brought the Welch to pay 
from their haughty mafters, he fpread a re- him tribute ; and turning chriftian, made 
port that he would favour their intentions, it his great care to convert his fubjects alfo. 
They accordingly took up arms, (lew Bcr- He was attacked by Penda, king of Mer- 
nulph, and defeated his army. cia, and the brave Cedwalla, king of Wales, 
The Mercians chofe another king, and killed in a battle at Hatfield, in the 
named Ludican, who died in his march Weft- Riding of Torkjhire \ having reigned 
againft the Eaft- Angles ; and they fetting 16 years. 

Witglaph upon the throne, who was noted The conquerors immediately entered 

for his courage and conduct, Egbert de- Northumberland, and ravaged the country 

A a in 


The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

'Ofric and 





in a moft cruel manner. This confufion 
ended in the choice of two kings -, Ofric 
for De'ira, and Anfrid for Bernicia. 

4. Osric and Anfrid being called to 
the throne, apoftatized from chriftianity, 
in 63 3. But God did not leave them long 
unpunifhed; being both (lain in battle 
within the year, by the famous Welch king 
Cadwallo, or Cedwalla, in 634. 

Cadwallo again entered their kingdoms, 
and feemed incapable of being fatisfied 
With lefs than the entire deftrudtion of 
that miferable nation. But the Norihum- 
hrians h headed by Ofwald, the brother of 
Anfrid, flew him, and gained a compleat 
victory over his forces at Heofen, now 
called Haledon ; or (according to Bede) at 
Denifefburna, which is Dilfton. 

5. Oswald being victorious, feized on 
both the kingdoms of the Northumbrians. 
He was a pious and courageous prince, and 
was chofen monarch. He was attacked 
in the midft of his endeavours to propagate 
chriftianity, by Penda, king of Mercia, 
and was (lain by him in battle, at Ofwef- 
tree in Shropjhire ; and Penda behaved with 
his ufual barbarity. 

After this misfortune the kingdom of 
Northumberland was again ruled by two 
kings j Ofwy in Bernicia, and Ofwin in 
De'ira. Ofwy foon picked a quarrel with 
Ofwin, and having got him into his pof- 
feffion, ordered him to be murdered. This 
produced a new eleftion in De'ira, when 
in 652 Adelwalt, nephew to Ofwy, was 
chofen. This new prince entered into a 
league with Penda againft Ofwy (who 
gave them battle at Leeds in Torkfhire) but 
were both flain, and their army entirely 
routed. Ofwy marched dire&ly into, and 
feized upon the kingdom of Mercia, which 
he held three years, and united again the 
two kingdoms of Northumberland. 

6. Oswy having united Bernicia and 
De'ira, did alfo divide it again in favour of 
his baftard Alfred, whom he made king 
of De'ira -, and whom the inhabitants, on 
the death of Ofwy, which happened in 
670, dethroned, fetting up Egfrid alone. 

7. Egfrid was fon to Ofwy, and both 
efteemed and feared by his fubje<5b and 
neighbours. He often defeated the PicJs, 
and took part of their country. He de- 
feated the Mercians, and obtained the mo- 
narchy. In 684 he made an unfuccefsful 
attempt upon Ireland-, and loft his life by 
invading the PicJs. By this misfortune 
Northumberland loft part of Bernicia to 
the PicJs ; and the Welch poffeffed them- 
felves of the two provinces that formerly 
compofed the kingdom of Areclnte, which 
they ere£ted into the kingdoms of Lenox 
and Cumberland. 

.§. Alfred was in Ireland when the 

throne became vacant in 685 *, and, when 
recalled, and fettled on the throne, had 
much ado to defend his difmember'd king- 
dom from the infults of his neighbours. 
He died in 705. 

9. Osred was fon to Alfred, and, being O/red. 
only 8 years old at the death of his father 
was oppofed, and befieged in Bamborough 
caftle, by one Edulph, who got a party to 
acknowledge him their king. But brithric, 
to whom Alfred had left the guardianship of 
his fon, fo managed as to gain overEdulph's 
forces, and in two months time took the 
ufurper and beheaded him. After Ofred 
grew up, he fell into a leud and debauch- 
ed life, and fell out with the clergy, who, 
to be revenged of him, encouraged Cen- 
red and Ofric, defcendents of Ogga na- 
tural fon of Ida, to afpire to the crown ; 
which they effected •, for having flain Ofred 
in battle in 716, Cenred was immediately 
proclaimed king. 

10. Cenred reigned but two years, Cenred. 
died in 718, and was fucceeded by Ofric. 

11. Osric reigned eleven years; did Ofric. 
nothing remarkable, and left his crown to 
Ceolulph his coufin. 

13. Ceolulph turned monk in the Ceolulph. 
8 th year of his reign, in the monaftery of 
Lindisfarne -, and was fucceeded by Edbert. 

13. Edbert was obliged, foon after Edbert. 
his acceffion to the throne, to march all his 
forces againft the Pitls ; upon which oc- 
cafion the king of Mercia invaded the 
fouth parts of this kingdom, and carried 

off great booty in 740. Having made 
peace with the Pitls, he recovered the city 
Areclute or Dunbritton, the capital of the 
kingdom of Lenox ; and retiring into a 
monaftery, he left his crown to his fon 

14. Osulph was afiaflinated in the firft ofulpb. 
year of his reign by one Mollon Adelwald, 

who feized upon the throne. 

15. Mollon Adelwald not being of Motion A- 
royal blood,his election was the caufe of frefh dehvald. 
troubles •, fuch as proved the utter deftruc- 

tion of the kingdom. Every noble, after 
his example, thinking it lawful to afpire 
to the throne, made continual parties for 
that purpofe ; and at laft Alcred, defcended 
from Ida 9 ?, natural fon Alaric, enfnared this 
king, put him to death, and feized the 

16. Alcred, as foon as Mollon- 's party Alcred. 
recovered their Superiority, was obliged to 
feek refuge by flight among the Picts ; by 
which he made way for Ethelred, Motion's 


17. Ethelred was raifed to the throne Ethelred. 
in 774, which he endeavoured to fecure 

to himfelf and family, by putting to death 
or banilhing the heads of thofe that op- 
pofed his father. But his enemies (landing 


to England and Scotland* 33 

in their own defence, beat him in two chriftian, built St. Paul's London, died in 

battles, drove him out of the kingdom, 616, and wasfucceeded by his three fons. 
and fet up Alfwald, fon of Ofulph, and 4. 5, 6, Saxred, Seward, and Sige- Saxred, 

grandfon of Edbert. bert with one confent apoftatized from^^ 

18. Alfwald I. reigned eleven years chriftianity ; and in the eighth year of^ tge " 
Alfwald w ith much juftice and moderation ; but their reign were all Jlain in battle by the 

L - was at laft afiaffinated by the contrary fac- king of WeJJ'ex. 

tjon ; and his followers honoured him as 7. Sigebert the little, the fon of Se- Sigdert 

a faint. ward-, called the little on account of hlstbe Htt/e* 

19. Osred II. the fon of Olered, was little credit among his fubjects, who de- 
chofen in xht room of Alfwald. He began pofed him, and fet up Sigebert the good, 
his reign fo badly, that his fubjects confined grandfon to a brother of king Sabert. 
him to a monaftery, and recalled Ethelred 8. Sigebert the good reftored th&Sigebere 
from his twelve years exile in 789. chriftian religion ; but was afiaffinated \yy the good. 

20. Ethelred being recalled put Of- two counts his relations, in 655, becaufe 
reftored. red to death, and alfo difpatched Alphus he would not take their part againft bifhop 

and Alfwin, the two fons of the good king Cedd, who had excommunicated them. 
Alfwold. In 794, the Banes invaded this 9. Swithelm was Sigebert the good'sS-witbelm. 
kingdom, and burnt the monaftery of brother. He has left no memorable acti- 
Lindisfarne ; and returning the next year ons, and was fucceeded by Sebba and Siger. 
pillaged Tinmouth monaftery; but being 10, 11. Sebba and Siger. Sebba wasSeMa 
repulfed, they were almoft all deftroyed, the fon of Seward, and Siger, his grand- ^dSigen 
in a ftorm, on the Englifh coaft. After fon by Sigebert the little. Thefe, to fecure 
this, falling into his old cruel politics to to themfelves the crown, became tributa- 
murder or banifh his oppofers, after two ries to Wulfur king of Mercia. Siger re- 
years civil war, he was afiaffinated in 796. turned to idolatry, and died in 683. Sebba 
But his party was powerful enough to turned monk in 694, and left his crown to 
place Ofbald on the throne. Sighard and Senofrid his fons. 
CJbald. 21. Osbald, by fome called Ofred, 12, 13. Sighard and Senofrid both sighard 
was dethroned twenty-feven days after died in 705, and were fucceeded by Offa,zx\a Set- 
his election, and was fucceeded by Ardulph. the fon ol Siger. f rui > 

22. Arditlph, dreading the contrary 14. Offa became a chriftian, and goingq^ 
faction, which he perceived inclined to to Rome, received the tonfure from the 
favour Alemund, the fon of king Alcred, pope ; and, becoming a monk, refigned 
put him to death. This brought the fac- his crown to Seolred in 707. 
tion upon him •, and though he put them 15. Seolred or Selred, was fon to Sige- Seolred. 
to flight, and flew their general, he was bert the good, and after a reign of thirty- 
at laft obliged to leave the kingdom and eight years, was fome how murdered : he 
fly to Charles the great. was fucceeded by his fon Swithred, in 746. gwitbred- 

23. Alfwald II. who chafed his pre- 16. Swithred was the laft king of 
decefTor away, was proclaimed king; he Ejfex, which he enjoyed feventy-eight 
enjoyed the crown about two years ; when years. There is nothing recorded of 
dying a natural death* he left it to Andred. him worth obfervation, which perchance 

24. Andred: In this reign, Northum- may be owing to the imperfection of the 
berland fubmitting to the dominion of Eg- hiftory of Effex, which of all the other king- 
bert, king of Weffex, it never had any doms of the heptarchy is moft imperfect, 
king of its own afterwards. 

The kingdom of MERCI A,by fome call- Kingdom 
The kingdom of theEAST-S AXONS, ed Mediterranei Angli, or Midland-Englifb,of Mer- 
or Effex, extended in length feventy-five alias Middkfex, meafured one hundreds- 
miles, and in breadth thirty-eight : whofe fixty miles in length, and about one hun- 
principal cities were London and Colchefter. dred in breadth ; and contained the fol- 
It continued 282 years under 1 6 kings, viz. lowing cities and chief towns, Lincoln* 

1. Erchenwin: This country was ex- Nottingham, Warwick, Leicefter, Coventry \ 
tor ted from V or tiger n, by Hengift, after Lichfield, Northampton, Wore eft er, Glou- 
his mafTacre of the Britijh lords, but was cejler, Derby, Chejler, Shrewfbury, Stafford, 
not governed by a feparate king till Er- Oxford, and Briftol. By which it appears, 
chenwin aftumed the title in 527, and that this was the moft confiderable of all 
reigned to 587, in all 60 years. the heptarchical kingdoms. It had eigh- 

2. Sled da, fon of Erchenwin, fucceeded, teen kings, and continued upwards of 
and dying in 599, was alfo fucceeded by two hundred and two years, 
his fon Salcrt or Saba. 1. Crida, as mentioned before, ar- K, ' n g s - 

3. Sabert was the firft chriftian king rived in Britain in 584. who, meeting with Cr,da ' 
of EJjix. He was a pious and zealous great fuccefs, drove out the Bri tains into 


^4 The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

Unties, made this large fettlement, took both received the tonfure from the Pope, 

the title of king in 585, and died in 593. Upon his return he took the habit of a 

After Crida's death Ethelbert king of monk, and refigned his crown to Ceolred, 

Kent, and monarch of the Anglo-Saxons, fon of Ethelred. 

feized upon the kingdom of Mcrcia ; but 8. Ceolred began his reign in 709, Ceolnd. 

reftored it upon certain conditions to JVib- and maintained a bloody war with Ina, 

ha, the fon of Crida, referring to himfelf king of the Weft -Saxons, without any fuc- 

the fovereign power of chufing the king, cefs on either Side. He was fo great a 

Wibba. 2. Wibba, having reigned 19 years, violater of the monadic privileges, that 

left a fon called Penda •, but Ethelbert he drew upon himfelf their moft invete- 

not approving the fucceffion of his fon rate afperfions, who among other abu- 

Penda, preferred Cearlus, Wibba's coufin- fes have not (luck to affert that he re- 

german, to the throne. figned his laft breath blafpheming and 

Cedrius. 3. Cearlus, on the death of Ethel- talking with the devil, which happened 

bert in 616, delivered Mercia from the in 716. He was fucceeded by Ethelbald 

fovereignty, &c. of Kent. He died in grandfon of Eoppa, brother to Penda. 
624, and left the throne to his coulin 9. Ethelbald was one of the moft Ethelbald. 

Penda. illuftrious of the Mercian kings ; who be- 

Penh. 4.. Penda delighted much in war, tho* ing chofeh monarch of the Anglo-Saxons ■, 

he was fifty years old when he obtained took Somerton, defeated the IVelfh, and 

the crown. He was continually at war made all the kings and provinces of Eng~ 

with his neighbours, efpecially with Ed- land (fouth of Humber) acknowledge him 

win, Ofwald, and Ofwy, kings of Northum- for their fovereign : which ufurpation was 

berland ; and with the kings of Weft and revenged at laft by the kings of Northum* 

Eaft-Anglia. He in 653 caufed his fon berland and Weffex, who made war jointly 

Penda to be proclaimed king of Leicefter. againft him, and vanquifhed his army in 

He was flain in battle by Ofwy in the 752, either at Burford in Oxford/hire or at 

80th year of his age, and lived and died Hereford. He was at laft flain by his own 

a pagan. foldiers at Seckington in Warwick/hire, who 

Upon the death of Penda, Ofwy king mutiny'd by the advice of lord Beorn- 

of the Northumbers, feized upon Mercia, red ; who thereupon was proclaim'd king 

and kept it three years : tho' he did in his ftead in 757. 

not meddle with the little kingdom of 10. Beornred's election was fo dif- Betrttrei. 

Leicefter, till Penda was poifoned by his pleafing to the nobility of Mercia (he not 

wife, and then he held it with the reft of being of the royal family) that they 

Mercia. immediately oppofed his ufurpation, by 

tVulfut. 5. Wulfur, the fecond fon of Penda, placing Offa, nephew of the late king, up- 

difdaining the ufurpation of his right on the throne ; who raifing an army went 

by Ofwy, found means to wreft his fa- in purfuit of the ufurper, gave him bat- 

ther's pofTefnons out of his hands : Af- tie, flew him, and routed his army, 
ter which he warred with his neighbours ir. Offa began to reign in y$y. Heq^» 

with various fuccefs. He was an idola- conquered the kings of Kent, Weffex and 

ter when he afcended the throne, but was Northumberland, and beat the Welfh in 

foon after converted. He died in 6y$, many engagements ; and being declared 

and left a fon called Cenrid. monarch, he improved every opportunity to 

Ethdred. £ # Ethelred, brother to V/ulfur, af- eftablifh an independent power over his 

fumed the royalty in prejudice to his ne- fellow kings. He threw up a rampart, 

phew Cenrid ; and, in favour of his bro- call'd Offa's-dike, reaching from the mouth 

ther MeroWald, difmember'd Herefordfhire of the Dee, to the place where the Wys 

from Mercia, and erected it into a fepa- runs into the Severn, in length 24 miles, 

rate kingdom, which continued fo to the to prevent the incurfions of the Welch, 

death of Merc elm, who was the youngeft, In 786 he took his fon Egfrid to be part- 

and fucceeded his brother Merowald. ner with him in the government ; and af- 

He warred fuccefsfully againft Kent and terwards ftaining his reputation with the 

the Northumbrians, obliging the latter to murder of Ethelbert, king of Eaft-Anglia 9 

reftore to Mercia what had been taken his gueft, and with feizing his kingdom, he 

from it in the reign of Wulfur. fell into a deep melancholy, which he en- - 

His wife Oftrith was affafimated by the deavoured to remove by a journey to 

South-humbers, or Mercians fouth of Trent. Rome, to be abfolved by the Pope. 
He in 704 turned monk in Barney mona- This journey was improved by the Pope, 

ftery, and refign'd his crown to Cenrid his who taking advantage of the king's remorfe 

nephew. and opinion of his power, obtained from 

Cenrid. 7. Cenrid reigned four years, and go- him the extending the tax of Peter-Pence, 
ing to Rome with Offa king of Effex, they which 

to England and Scotland. 


which before his time was only levied in 
tVeffex, all over this king's dominions. 

He built a monaftery at St. Alban's ; 
erected Lichfield into an archbifhoprick, 
publifhed the laws of the Mercians, and 
died in- 796. 

EgfriJ. '2. Egfrid furvived his father only 
four or five months ; which time he em- 
ployed in nothing elfe but enriching the 
monasteries, particularly at St. Alban's. 

Ctnulpb. 13- Cenulph, defcended from Wibba 
by another branch, being called to the 
throne, declared war againft Edbert-Pren 
king of Kent, defeated his army, took him, 
carried him into Mercia, put out his eyes, 
and made Cut bred king in his Head. He 
died in 819, and left a fon, Cenelm, very 
young, and two daughters. 

14. Cenelm was affaffinated foon after Cenelm. 
his father's death by the procurement of 

his eldeft filler Quendrida, who thereby 
thought to gain the kingdom ; but the 
Mercians fet her afide, and chofe Ceolupb. 

15. Ceolulph was uncle to the late Ceolulph: 
king, and was depofed after a year's 
reign, by Bernulpb, a principal lord of his 

16. 17, l8. BERNULPH, L,UDICAti,Bernu!pf>. 

Witglaph, fucceeded each other with £»<#«<». 
a fpeedy fucceflion, and did nothing re- Wit & la pb- 
markable, but what tended to reduce the 
kingdom to a date of anarchy, and to 
difpofe it for the union of the heptar- 
chy under the firft Britijh monarch Eg- 


Containing the ancient State of England; efpeciatty from the Time the Danes 
firjl invaded England to the utter Extirpation of them from this Nation. 

TH E Heptarchy being united in one 
dominion under Egbert, the firft 
king of England, in 827-8, and, it might 
be prefumed, rendered more formidable, 
and lefs fubject to foreign invafions, it 

Danes in-was not long before he was furprifed with 

vade Eng- t h e re t U rn of the Danes, who had invaded 
iW ' this land before in 789, and had, fince 
his acceffion, in 832, laid wafte the ifle of 
Sbeppey. They landed without oppofition 
at Charmouth in Dorfetjhire, and foon af- 
ter being met by the king, routed his ar- 
my, plundered the country, and returned 
to their mips. 

In 835 they made another defcent, were 
joined by the Cornijh Britains, and were 

Routed, overthrown by the king at Hengjlon-Hill 
in Cornwal. The remains of their army 
retired to their mips, and never returned 
more in the reign of the victorious king 
Egbert, who died in 838. See more of 
this king in the account of the kings of 

Ethelwulph fucceeded his father ; but 
he was fcarce fettled on the throne before 

JReturn. the Danes landed at Portland, and have- 
ing gain'd two victories over the Englijh, 
made fad havock, carried off" great boo- 
ties, and returned to their fleet, which 
confided of 33 fail. They landed the 
next year with like fuccefs, and fo con- 
tinued during this king's reign, who at 
laft refigned Kent, Effex, SuJJex and Sur- 
rey to his natural fon Athelfian, with the 
title of King of Kent, In 845 the Danes 

.Routed. rece i ve d fuch an overthrow near the river 
Parret in Somerfetjhire, that they returned 

Return. no more till the year 151; when, land- 
ing on the coaft of JVejfex, they commit- 
Vol. I. 

ed unfpeakable cruelties, but were entire- 
ly routed by Ceorle the Englijh general Routed, 
and earl of Devon/hire? at Wenbury, near 
Plymouth, as they returned laden with boo- 
ty. Next year they returned with 3ooR eturn . 
fail, landed near London, and began their 
ufual plunderings and cruelties ; they fack- 
ed London and Canterbury, &c. marched 
into Mercia, beat Berthulph, who defend- 
ed his country, and would have over-run 
all England, had they not been obliged to 
give battle to Ethelwulph and Athelfian, 
in which they received fo great an over- Routed, 
throw at Okley in Surrey, that very few 
Danes efcaped. Soon after Athelfian died. 

Ethelwulph, become once more foleTythes of 
king of England, and, at prefent, free from al j ^ is do - 
immediate apprehenfions of another Da- ™ imons 
nijh invafion, purfues his natural bent tof™ c ^ e hyE . 
church affairs, and, by the advice of Swi- thefaulpk. 
thin bifhop of Wincbefier, granted to the 
church the tytbes of all his dominions. 
In 853 he fent his youngeft fon Alfred to Goes to 
Rome, then only about five years old, for*'*"- 
the pope's blefling ; to which city he 
himfelfalfo travelled in 855. The con- 
fequence of which journey was, his rebuild- 
ing the Englijh college founded by Ina, 
and extending Peter -Pence all over his 
dominions -, and his promife to fend year- 
ly to Rome 300 marks, viz. 200 for wax- 
tapers to be ufed in the churches of Sr. 
Peter and Paul, and 100 for the pope's pri- 
vy purfe : After a year's flay he returned ; 
but in his way was hurried home with 
advice that his fon Ethelbald had confpired 
with fome of his nobles to dethrone him. 
At his arrival he, for the fake of peace, Refigns 
refigned to his fon the ancient kingdom Wf JJ'<*** 
Bb, f hii ton. 



The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

"Daves re- 

of Weffex, and died two years after, and 
was mcceeded in Kent by his fon Ethel- 

We hear no more of the Banes till 
Ethelbald was dead, when Ethelbert reign- 
ing alone was invaded by them, who, land- 
ing at Southampton, marched to Winchef- 
ter, and reduced it to ; and tho' 
the king beat them at this time back to 
their mips, they returned in the autumn, 
landed, and refolved to winter in the ifle 
of Thanet. The Kentijhmen not liking fuch 

the Northumbers had advanced to be their 
king, threw himfelfupon xht Danes, pray- 
ed their affiftance, and having, affured 
them of the great probability of fuccefs, 

870. Whofe king Edmund being routed 
in battle, and taken, he ordered him to be Murders 
fhot at with arrows, and then beheaded •, their king. 
becaufe he refufed to become tributary to 
the Danes. The town of St. Edmund's 
Bury takes its name from his being buri- 
ed there. By this victory Ivar became Becomes 
matter of all Eaft-Anglia, made Godrin mailer 
or Gothurn governor thereof, proceed- ereo ' 
ed to invade Weffex, and fought within Invades 
one year nine pitched battles with Ethel- Wejfex. 
red its king, with various fuccefs, till he 
neighbours, offer'd them a fum of money at laft killed the king, in 872. 
to depart, which they accepted •, but not- Alfred the great, and brother to Ethel- Makes 
withftanding they rufhed into Kent, and red, within a month of his poffeffion ofP e *«witii 
meeting with no oppofition, deftroyed it the throne, was worfted by the Danes at 
with fire and fword ; then returning to Walton in Sujfex ; neverthelefs he put him- 
their mips, were no more heard of till earl felf immediately into a condition to give 
Bruen-Bocard, who was admiral of the them battle again ; and the Danes being 
fleet appointed to guard the coafts againft much leffened by the late encounters, a 
the Danes, refolving to revenge the rape peace was concluded between them, on 
of his wife, committed by OJbert, whom condition that they mould march out of 

his dominions ; provided he would not 
moleft them in any other part of England. 

Thus fecure from king Alfred, the Enters 
Danes enter Mercia ; and tho' Buthred, the Mercia. 
piloted them into the Humber, before the king thereof, fought a fecond time to 
Englifh had the lead information of their divert them from his dominions by a 
intentions. They landed without oppofi- large fum of money, they firft took the 
tion, under the command of king Ivar money, marched a little way towardsiW/£- 
the Dane, and their arms were attended humberland, and then returned, plundered, The king 
with fuch fuccefs, that in a fhort fpace and deftroyed wherever they came in Mer- ^ t0 
of time they routed Ofbert's army, and cia. The king fled to Rome, and the ' 
killed him in the retreat. Immediately kingdom became a prey to the Danes ; by doI ^ fl ]£ g " 
York gates were opened to the conquerors ; which they were now matters of half Eng- mits to 
who, foon after overthrew the army of land, and feemed to be fatisfied. But, the Daw* 
king Ella, who at that time fhared the Alfred did not enjoy this face of peace Returns 
-Get pof- kingdom of Northumberland with OJbert, long; for, in 875, Half den a Danifh gene- to Weftx. 
ieflion of an d killed the king alfo at Ellefcroft, alias ral, or his brother, arriving with frefh. 
tne king- £n a » s Overthrow ; and fo the Danes took troops, invaded Wejjex, and took Warham 
'Nortbum- poffeffion of the kingdom of Nor t hum- Caftle by furprife. Alfred, not able to repell 
berland. berland, in 868. them by force, agrees for a large fum 

The Danes, having got fo good a fet- with the Danes to depart his country, 
tlement in the ifland, refolved to purfue They accept the money, but, as ufual, 
their conqueft, marched as far as Notting- broke their engagement, and feized Exe- 
ham in the kingdom of Mercia, plun- ter. Alfred buys them off again, and they 
-dering and cruelly ravaging every place depart. But in the next year Rollo ap- Ro n 
•they came to. pears upon the coaft with a formidable pears on 

It was on this occafion that the nuns of fleet, which turned off to France. the coaft. 

CoUing- Coldingham, to fcreeri themfelves from the Thefe continual invafions prompted Al- Aif re d 
*f"" cucc outrages they were threatned with, were fred to equip a fleet of Men of War, to equips a 
nofes. perfuaded by their abbefs, as the Danifh give the Danifh tranfports battle before fleeta " 
army approached, to cut off their nofes they came on more ; which fcheme prove- f^d s 
and upper lips. The foldiers in return ed fo fuccefsful, that imagining he had 
fet fire to the nunnery, and burnt them cut off all means of their receiving any 
alive. fuccour from abroad, he attacked and 

Buthred, who then governed Mercia, drove the Danes out of Weffex in 877. 
a fum of money bribed the barba- Tho' they regained it the next year j and 


Nuns of 

r m- 


vades the with 

Ea/t An 


rous enemy to vacate his country. Af- 
ter this, Ivar, leaving his brother to main- 
tain his new conquefts in Northumberland, 
embarked with the beft of his troops, 
made .a 

the revolt was on this occafion fo general, 
that Alfred, finding himfelf left alone, i s routed 
concealed himfelf with one of his neat- and lies 
beards in the ifle of Athelmy, in the 7//^ concealed, 
defcent on the Eaft-Angles in of Nobles, near Taunton in Somerfttfhire, 


to England and Scotland. i 37 

till Hubba, \nva.d'ingDevon/hire with fire and numbers, for they occupied almoft one 

fword, was (lain by the garrifon of Kin- half of England, nor lb iteady in their al- 

with-Caftle in that county, who fallied legiance, as not to be ready when oppor- 

out fword in hand ; which accident ap- tunny ferved to attempt their freedom t 

pearing favourable, Alfred dreffed himfelf therefore when Edward was oppofed by r s p po . 

Spies the like a harper, and went into the Danijh Ethelward, fon to Alfred's eldeft brother, fed by E* 

Danijh camp, which finding unguarded and care- they took part with him againft Edward, tbekuard. 

camp in ai e f s jy f ltuate d, he with all privacy affem- and proclaimed him king. But being con- 

drelsT S ^ ec ^ ^is friends, attacked them undifco- vinced that Edward would be too power- 

vered, and gained a compleat victory •, and ful for them, they abandoned Ethelward for 

£ ffei jV in fourteen days obliged the remainder that this time, and ordered him to depart their 

friends; had mut themfelves up in a caftle, to ca- country, having loft feveral ftrong holds 

attacks pitulate either to be baptized, or to leave in Mercia to Edward. Yet Ethelward re- 

and beats tne kingdom. They gave hoftages for the turning in 904 with a powerful aid from 

tw,f ' performance thereof ; and all the Danes France, they ventured to break the peace, 

Alfred nz- foon after acknowledged Alfred for their fo- and to make a diverfion in his favour, till 

know- vereign -, which dignity he maintained Ethelward was flain in battle, and their who was 

ledge- fo- ever a f terj though often attacked with new forces wafted confiderably •, and then the flain in 

invafions, by means of a good fleet at fea, peace was renewed, on condition the Danes batcle - 

and his ftrong fortifications by land. would acknowledge Edward their fove- 

Regulates Alfred, enjoying a perfect tranquillity, reign in the fame degree with his father, 
the go- f et hi m f e lf to regulate his government for ' The Danes in 9 10 broke the peace again, The 

'the good of his fubjects. His firft care who were not only worfted in two battles, Daties re- 
was to form a body of laws •, then he took but quite drove out of their king- b r e11, an( ? 
fuch meafures for their due execution, that dom ; and, after many battles, were com- e ^. W ° r 
44 J ud g es he executed 44 judges for male-prattices pelled to fubmit to Edward's, greater policy 
cxecuted - within a year. So that finding none of his and power in 922. He founded the uni- UmVer- 
fubjects were proof againft corruption, he verfity of Cambridge in 9 1 5, and after fub- % of 
Juries in- inftituted juries of 12 men in all criminal duing the Welch, admitting the Cumber - Camhri ^ e 
ftkuted. caufes, to be a check upon the judge, who land Britains under his dominion, and re- founded - 

was to give fentence according to their ceiving homage from the king of Scot- 
England verdict. And that criminals and vagrants land, he died in 925. 

fn V, fh -d mi & nt k e t ^ ie f° oner difcovered, and Athelftan, natural fon to Edward, was Athelftan 
^■> ires, brought to juftice, he divided all England preferred to the crown in prejudice to Ed- reigns. 
into ihires or counties, counties into hun- ward's legitimate children, then under 
dreds, and hundreds into tythings •, and age. This election was difpleafing to 
ordered that every perfon fhould belong many lords, who combined to dethrone Difcovers 
to fome tything, or be deemed a vagrant ; him, and to affert the right of Edwin, Ed- a P lot ' 
and that every houiholder fhould be re- ward's eldeft legitimate fon; but their n "^ p n " 
fponfible for their families. He alfo in- plot was discovered, and the heads of the the con- 
Sheriffs, ftituted fherirTs, under- iheriffs, and original confpiracy punifhed. trivers 
&f f . in- writs, &c. The next thing was to regu- The Danes expecting a civil war on this thereof - 
uute " late the militia, and to appropriate a fund occafion, improve the opportunity, and ?*"" re ~ 
to maintain his fleet. His next care was to unite to endeavour their deliverance from a r e beat. 
promote trade ; for which purpofe, he at their vaffalage. Here alfo Athelftan proved 
, his own expence built many fhips, and victorious, and obliged them to return 
let them out to merchants, who are faid quietly home, and to their allegiance ; who 
Settled an to have traded as far as the Eajl-Indies, remained good fubjects till they leagued 
Jktrade ^ Ut ^ w ^ at aut hority I know not. After with Confiantine king of Scotland. This 
'"'""" this he endeavoured to introduce the libe- brought the king's indignation upon them, 
ral arts and fciences, by inviting feveral who increafed the yoak of the Northum- 
learned men into his kingdom, and found- Brian Danes, after he had beat them and 
Founded ing the univerfity of Oxford in 886: and, their allies at Bromford near Bromridge in 
umveTfit *° r *" S own P art i cu ^ ar ne lp> he conftituted Northumberland. He died in 94 1; and was 
Um '" iy the cabinet council, the council or privy fucceeded by Edmund, the eldeft of the le- 
c ° nflltu " council, and the general council or affem- gitimate fons of Edward the elder. 
cabinet, ^y of the nati °n, now . called tne ?*rlia- _ The beginning of Edmund's reign was Edmund. 
privy, lament. Having thus fettled the Englifh difturbed by an invafion from Glaus king A • 
general monarchy, he died in the year 900, and of Norway, who pretended to aflift An- f ;0 n by" ' 
thenation^^t his crown to his fon Edward. laff the fon of Sithric, late king of the OJaus. 
Edward' When Edward the elder afcended the Northumbers, to recover that kingdom. 
x^TeTder. tnrone of England, it muft be remember'd The Danes fettled in the north rife in their xhe con- 
that, tho' the Danes had been awed by his favour •, and, after a doubtful battle, peace 
father, they were neither fo defpicable for was. concluded upon Edmund's yielding up thereof. 

° all 

38 7be Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

all the country north of Watltng-fireet to been raifed to the throne by the monks and 

the Danes Danes, proved a great favourer of the for- 

This peace did not continue long ; for mer, and was never difturbed by the lac- 

Edmund havine; been forced to it, and the ter. He died in 9J5, leaving two fonsj 

Danes afterwards quarrelling among them- Edward, of a doubtful marriage, and 

felves, being diffatisfied at their new king Ethelred, by his beautiful queen Elfrida. 
Anlaff, who^ loaded them with taxes, to Edward II. furnamed the martyr, in Edward 

pay the debts he had contra&ed in Ncr- oppofition to the nobility, was efpoufed by H. 

way ; Edmund in 94.4. marches into their Dunfian, then archbifhop of Canterbury, 

Edmund country, furprifes them, and, having drove (and the other bifhops) who anoints him 

drives the their kings out of the ifland, obliged the king by his own authority. But he did 

Damjb a tQ Jay down the j r armSj an d received not enjoy this government long, for in 979, 

of n Se° Ut tneir allegiance. He fpent the reft of his as he returned from hunting, calling 

Ration, life in promoting the good of his people, by upon his mother-in-law Elfrida, in Corf- stabbed 

compiling and enacting good and wholefome Cafile, in the ifland of Purbeck in Dorfet-by his 

Ismur- laws. He was murdered by one Leolf, a no Jhire, me ilabbed him through his back, nwther- 

dered. torious robber, who having been baniflied as he was drinking a glafs of wine on horfe- in " aw ' 

the kingdom for his crimes, dared to back. 

come and feat himfelf at one of the tables Etbelredll. fucceeded to his brother. Etbtlred 

in the hall where the king was folemnize- His reign began with frefh wars with the H- 

ing the feaft of St. Augufiine, at Puckle- Danes, for in 980 the foreign Danes medi- 

Church in Gloucefterjhire. For the company tated a new invafion; and they no fooner ap- Is difturb- 

being all drunk, and the king fpying this pearedon the coaft, than they were received ed b Y 

criminal, he took him by the hair of the kindly, and joined by the Englijh Danes. thcDaf!et ' 

head, and was ftabbed by him with a dag- So that in the year 981 and 982, they 

ger, as he endeavoured to drag him out plundered Southampton, the ifle of Thanet, 

of the hall. Chefler, Portland, and the adjacent coun- 

■Edred. Edred fucceeded his brother Edmund, by tries ; where they flew or carried captives 

reafon of the minority of his two fons. almoft all the inhabitants : and thus the 

Is trou- xhe Danes, as ufual, prepared for a revolt ; whole kingdom became a fcene of murders, Who ex- 

b ' ed b y but were timely discovered and punilhed. burnings, plunderings, and other devafta- erc 'k 

*"* J 'But as foon as they thought he was returned tions, during the firft ten years of his g j^ at c ™" 

home, they recall Anlaff, in 949*, which reign. In 991, having refted two years, f eve ral 

Whom he revolt concluded their ruin-, for having the Danes invade England again, under the times, 

.beats. again depofed Anlaff, and chofen one En- command of Jujiin and Guthmund, who, 

ric, Edred in 950 defeated all their enter- after their ufual devastations and cruelties, 

prifes, and having diverted Northumber- were by a fum of money engaged to re- 

land and its king of all their royalty, he tire: but in 993 they returned again into 

Reduces reduced it to a province, and made earl the Humber, beat the king's army, and 

Nortbum- Ofulf the firft governor thereof. After carried off great booty. Next year, Sweyn 

erlatid to t £j^ ^ j^g gj ves hj m f e if up to religious king of Denmark, and Olaus king of 


affairs, and is fo influenced by Dunfian, Norway, entered the Thames with a nu- 

abbot of Glajjenbury, that had he lived merous fleet, and landing near London, 

much longer, the monks were in a fair ravaged Kent, Hampjhire, and Sujfex ; and 

way of carrying all before them, and of though bribed by a great fum of money 

getting all the ecclefiaftical benefices into from Ethelred to return home, Sweyn 

their own power. He died in 955. (topped at the Severn, and continued his 

JSdwy. Edwy, eldeft fon to Edmund I. fucceeded ravages till the year 999. 

his uncle. His firft ft ep was to difgrace In 1001 thefe Danes, having been to 
Dunfian, whom he found in the treafurer's afiift Richard II. duke of Normandy, re- 
An enemy office ! then he reverfed whatever had been turned, ravaged Cornwal firft, then enter- 
monk 6 ( * one * n ^ avour °f the, monks : the monks ing We flex, took Exeter, got pofTefiion of 
were turned out, and the fecular priefts the ifle of Wight, Hampjhire, and Dorfet- 
Who ex- recove red their benefices. The monks, in Jhire ; and in the mean while the northern 
cite re- revenge, excite rebellion, and having per- Danes plundered the northern Englijh. 
bellion. fuaded Edgar, the king's brother, to head This brought on that intolerable tax of 

their party, they feize upon Mercia. Danegeld, or money for the Danes ; at firft The ori- 

Upon this occafion, the Danes of Nortbum- only to raife 30,000 pounds, but continued gin of 

berland and Eafi-Anglia joined with the long after by thofe in power for other pur- Dane i eld - 

rebels, and Edwy making no oppofition, pofes, to the great injury of the fubjeft. 
Andde- E d g ar is proclaimed king of Mercia. But This money being paid, the bulk of 

throne it is fuppofed that thefe things broke Ed- the invaders returned home ; but fome 

him. W y*s heart, who died in 959. preferred England to their native foil, and 

Edgar. Edgar, furnamed the peaceable, who had taking up their abode among the Englijh, 


to England an4 Scotland. 39 

fo increafed the ftrength of the Englijh nation,for the fum of 4 8,ooo^ ; which was 

Banes, that they, by their oppreifionsj paid them accordingly, in the year 10 12. 

lord- foon obtained the name of Lord Banes. But thefe were fcarce gone, before Sweyn, 

Danes. The flavery of the Englijh being brought after eight years abfence, entered the Hum- Sweyn re- 

to this crifis, that they now were reduced ber in 1013, threatning ruin to the whole turns, 

to be fervants and labourers to the Lord nation. He immediately feizes upon Nor- 

Banesi and the king, by a fecond mar- Cumberland, and all the country lying 

riage with Emma, fifter to Richard II. duke north of Watling-Jlreet ; then leaving his 

of Normandy, being, as he thought, out fon to command his conqueils, and taking 

of danger of any future invafion, con- hoftages of the principal towns, he marches 

trives and orders by private letters, that fouthward, frights Ethelred over to Nor- Conquers 

The maf- there mould be a general maffacre of all mandy^ and by that means found himfelf J e ^hole 

fecre of the Banes, on the thirteenth of November, in poiTefiion of London, and the whole a ^ g a f m ' 

thc w "" f *ioo2, which was mod barbaroufly exe- kingdom of England; of which he pre-f um es the 

cuted. This news no fooner arrived in fently caufed himfelf to be proclaimed title of 

Sweyn's Benmark, but Sweyn vows revenge ; and king: But he enjoyed this dignity not long, kin S- 

invafion having gained to his party earl Hugh, a dying fuddenly in 10 14, not without fuf-Dies. 

to revenge pj orman ^ an d governor of Cornwal, he picion of poifon. 

failed with three hundred (hips, landed Ethelred,notmthft:a.nd'mgCanute,Sweyn , s E f / je j re j 

a numerous army in his government, fur- fon, was proclaimed king by the Banes atreftored. 

prifed Exeter, put the inhabitants to the his father's death, being recalled by the 

fword, and reduced the city to afhes : The Englijh, regained his kingdom ; for Sweyn's 

like cruelties were executed where-ever he younger fon Harold, taking the advantage 

came ; and having collected an immenfe of his brother's abfence, ufurped the crown 

booty, and wrecked his revenge with the of Benmark on the news of his father's 

blood and deflruction of the inhabitants, death, in prejudice to Canute ; wherefore 

and places through which he marched, Canute left England to Ethelred, having 

he returned to Benmark to winter ; but firil cut off the hands, nofes, and ears of Canute's 

came back in the fpring, landed in Eaji-An- the hoftages abovementioned, whom he crue j t y 

glia, took and burnt Norwich and Thetford fet on fhore at Sandwich, in that deplora- *° 

to the ground; accepted a fum of money to ble condition. However, Canute havins J ' 

depart, but continued ravaging the coun- gained pofieffion of the crown of Benmark, 

Departs, try till a famine obliged him to retire. returned in 10 16 to England, with a nu- Returns 

Danes re * n I00 5 tne Danes returned again, land- merous army, lands at Sandwich, and with*™ 1 ' 1 ® en ~ 

turn. ed at Sandwich in Kent, committed many great rapidity recovers all •, for, being fa- mar ' 

outrages, plundered all before them, and voured by Eric Streton, duke of Mercia^ 

(winter coming on) retired to the ifie he prefently became mailer of Mercia, 

of Tfamet ; from whence, about Chriflmas, and of moil of the counties of Wejfex ; 

they fallying forth, plundered Hampjhire and foon perceived he was in a fair way to 

and Berk/hire, as far as Reading and Wal- reduce the whole kingdom : for though 

lingford, and had proceeded farther, had not Edmund the fon of Ethelred, at the death 

the king given them 30,000 pounds. This of his father, which happened in 10 16, 

fatisfied them till the year 1009, when found means to be proclaimed king, and 

two Banijh fleets appeared on the coafl, was a valiant prince; yet the biihops, ab- 

one commanded by Turkil, who landed in bots, and many of the Englijh nobles, be- 

Ea(t-Anglia, and another by Heming and fides the Banes fettled in England, came 

Anlaff, who landed on the iile of Thanet ; on this occafion to Southampton, where 

but they united their forces in Kent, and they voluntarily abjured the race of Ethel* 

notwithstanding they were bribed to depart, red, chofe Canute their king, and fwore I s ; chofen 

they continued their depredations and con-^ fealty to him* who on his part fwore to be kin § Ir ? 

Conquefts quells of EJfeXi Middle/ex, Hertfordjhire, their faithful lord in matters tcchJiaJtical^Mmiaut. 

by the Buckingham/hire, Oxford/hire, Bedford/hire, and civil. 
Danes. Cambridgejhire, Huntingdon/hire, Northamp- This produced five battles between the They 

tonjhire, Kent, Surrey, Sujfex, Hampjhire, two kings in one year with various fuccefs ; fi S ht Wltl1 

VJ\voh\xxr\WiltJhjre 2x\<S.BevonJhire. They burnt Ox- however, Canute, being ilrengthened by^, an °r S 

Oxford, ford, lb that all ftudies ceafed there till 1 1 3 3 . the revolt of Eric, in the time of battle near 

They murdered Alphage, archbiihop of AJhdon, which is near Walden in Ejfex, 

Cruelty at Canterbury, becaufe he would not ranfom quite ruined the Englijh forces; for, tho' 

Canter- his life by an unreafonable fum of money : Edmund immediately raifed a more numer- 

**?• And they proceeded with the fame cruelty ous army, yet he confented to divide the Divide the 

towards the monks and burghers of Can- kingdom of England with Canute, rather kingdom. 

terbury, whom they put under a decima- than to hazard the lofs of the whole by a 

tiori; fo that they murdered nine out of battle. By this treaty of partition, which 

ten. At lail they agreed to evacuate the was concluded and ilgned in the ifle of 
Vol. I. C c Alney, 


The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

Almy, Edmund was to enjoy peaceably all 
that part, which lies fouth of the Thames 
with London : and Canute was to be fatisfied 
with the kingdom of Mercia i Northumber- 
land and Eaft-Anglia. But Edmund was 




Harold dying in 1039, anc ^ leaving no Bardica- 
iffuej Hardicanute, who had juft before nute. 
failed to Bruges, to concert meafures for re- 
covering WeJJex^ paffed over into England 
with what forces he had, landed at Sand- 
foon after affaffinated by the procurement wich eleven days before Midjummer, and 
of his brother-in-law, the traitor Eric was received with great demonftrations of 
S tret on-, who bringing word thereof to joy among both the Englijh and Banes. 
Canute, the furviving king promifed he He was proclaimed king 5 and his firft 
would 'reward his fervicesj by exalting him action was to dig up his brother's corps Digs up 
above all the peers of the realm*, which he and throw it into the Thames. Then he his bro- 
after wards performed according to the impofed a very heavy tax to pay nis ther ' s 
traitor's deferts. a Dani/h forces, which was not collected with- corps ' 
Canute found means to get himfelf pro- out fome difturbance, efpecially at Wor-Bums 
claimed and received king of all England, cejler, for which he ordered that city to be fFurce P r - 
ed king of although Edmund Ironfide had left two plundered and burnt. He died without 
zllE, '£- legitimate fons, Edmund and Edward, and ifiue, in peace, in 1 041, at the nuptial 
a natural fon, Edwy -, and he ftrove with feaft of a Danijh lord at Lambeth, in a 
all policy to keep the people in fub- drunken fit, to which he was much ad- Dies 
jection: which he managed fo fuccefs- dieted. , drunk, 
fully, that no foreign power durft aid the Edward, furnamed the Confejfor, <who Edward 
diftreffed young princes*, and he fb ma- was the fon of Ethelred the Jecond, being in the Con- 
naged the temper of the Englijh, that England at the death of Hardicanute, and/^ r - 
they lived in due obedience all his days* clofing with Goodwin and his party, ob- 
which ended in 1036, and accepted of his tained the crown. This fucceffion was at- 
choice or appointment of his fon Harold, tended with a refolution of the Englijh to 
furnamed Harejoot, to be his fucceflbr •, expell the Danes, which was put in execu- 
though there was a party that declared for tion forthwith by a general maffacre-, and The 
his fon Hardicanute, in whofe right earl from this time we hear no more of a Dane Danes de- 
Goodwin feized upon Wefjex ; but on great in England: nor of any new invafions,^ ^^ 
promifes, &c. (and Hardicanute^ who was but fome few piratical defcents. And thus mfff"cre. 
then in Denmark, delaying his coming) the I conclude the hiftory of the Danes in 
faid earl delivers up all to Harold, who England. 
lived not long after. 







Containing the Hijlory of England from the Conquejl by William Duke of 
Normandy, to the Ref oration of King Charles II. 

Reafons f Apprehend it may be objected here, 
for fetting Ml that I have omitted one of the Englijh 
Harold kings Harold II. as fome authors ftile him. 
afide. B ut j mu fl. a u ec }g e j n m y own favour, that 

I was inftructed by my tutor to account of 
him no more than of a mere ufurper, who 
had neither hereditary, teftimentary nor 
parliamentary right or title to the crown 
of this realm ; and without fome of thefe 
titles no one ever reigned a lawful king 
in England, as I am informed. There- 
fore fetting Harold afide, I mail begin this 
epocha with William the conqueror, duke 
of Normandy. 
King William the jirjl, by fome called the 

William conqueror, was baftard fon to Robert duke 

of Normandy, and after his father's deceafe 
fucceeded him in that dukedom : A nd 
upon the death of Edward the Confejfor, 
he laid claim to the crown of England-, to 
obtain which, he prepared a thoufand mips 
fumifhed with men, horfes, and all warlike 
provifions, and failing for England, landed 
on the coaft of SufJ'ex ; and after a bloody- 
battle at Hajtings, obtained the victory 
over king Harold, with the (laughter of near 
feventy thoufand men on both fides ; where- 
in Harold himfelf being flain, duke Wil- 
liam came to London, was received and 
crowned at Wejlminjler, by Aldred, arch- 
bifhop of York. He ufed his victory ty- 
rannically, difpofTeffing moft of the Eng- 

a Eric coming on a certain occafion to upbraid the king for depriving him of the earldom of Mercia, 
alledging how ferviceable he had been in his conquefts, and particularly in difpatching Edmund out of the 
way, Canute, without more delay, ordered him to be beheaded in his prefence for fo doing ; and avowing 
fb black a treafon (rightly iufpe&ing that fuch a traitor might fometime att the fame part by him) 
ordered his body to be caft out of the window into the lhames, and his head to be fixed upon the 
kigbejl tower in London. 

to England and Scotland. 


lifh of their lands, and giving them to the 
Normans: for which opprefllons he was 
continually molefted ; fometimes with the 
Danes, then with the Welfh, and at other 
times with the Scots out of Ireland \ be- 
fides his troubles in Normandy amongft his 
own people. He deftroyed and laid wafte 
all the country between York and Dur- 
ham, for the fpace of fixty miles ; and in 
Hampfhire pulled down thirty-fix churches, 
and deftroyed many towns and villages 
for the fpace of thirty miles, to make a fo- 
reft for wild beafts. And having reigned 
over England twenty years* ten months, 
and odd days, he died at Roan in 
Normandy, September the ninth, 1087, aged 
fixty-four years ; and was with fome dif- 
ficulty buried at Caen in Normandy •, having 
left the dukedom of Normandy to his eldeft 
fon Robert, and the kingdom of England 
to his fecond fon William, who fucceeded 

Duke William being coufin-german to 
king Edward the confeiTor, did after 
the death of that king pretend, that the 
right of the crown truly devolved upon 
him ; and not only fo, but alfo that the 
faid Edward had defigned him for his fuc- 
cefTor, and by his laft will had bequeathed 
the kingdom to him : and this was con- 
firmed by the confent of the nobility, and 
principally of Harold himfelf ; who had 
fworn to him, that he would alTift him in 
the obtaining of the crown of England, 
if ever Edward died without ilTue. But 
it feems oaths are but little regarded,when a 
crown is in the way j for king Edward be- 
ing dead, Harold (inftead of affifting duke 
William) fet the crown upon his own 
head ; which the duke hearing, fent over 
an ambalTador to him, requiring him to 
remember the oath he had made to the 
faid William in the time of his extremity 
(for he was then his prifoner in Normandy) •, 
but Harold being now at liberty, and in 
poffefTion of the throne, return'd for an- 
fwer, That as for him to take an oath to 
deliver up the inheritance of any realm, 
without the general confent and allowance 
of the fenate and people, could not but be 
a piece of great prefumption ; yea, although 
he might have jujl title fo to do : Where- 
fore it was an unreafonable requefi of the 
duke now to require him to renounce the 
kingdom, in which he was fo well fettled, 
to the good liking and content of the peo- 
ple. Upon the receiving of this unkind 
return from Harold, by way of anfwer to 
his demand, the Norman duke (that 
he might not be altogether his own 
judge) refers himfelf to the pope (who 
at that time was Alexander the fecond) to 
decide the matter, and fo refolved that 
the infallible chair mould determine who 

had the jufteft right to the crown and 
kingdom, Harold or himfelf: and the 
Roman pontiff (like a good old gentleman, 
who would not be behind-hand with him 
in civility for fo great a kindnefs, as 
the appealing to him, and thereby flat- 
tering him with a judicatory power over 
princes) was very eafily induced to pro- 
nounce fentence in duke William's behalf: 
who being thus ftrengthened by a three- 
fold claim, viz. his iticceeding to king 
Edward in the kingdom by right of in- 
heritance, the bequelt of the crown to 
him by the confeiTor, and the pope's defi- 
nitive fentence in his favour, he refolved 
to try what he could do to gain the pof- 
fefiion of it by force of arms ; for Harold, 
it feems, regarded not all thefe pretences. 

The duke having gotten the battle at 
Hajlings on the 14th of October 1066, was 
the Chrijlmas following crowned at Weft- 
minfter, by Aldred archbilhop of Tork 
(Stigand archbifhop of Canterbury not be- 
ing held to be canonically inverted in his 
fee). At his coronation, the excellent 
and molt famous laws of St. Edward being 
fhewed to himj and he being afked, Whe- 
ther he would govern the realm by thofe 
laws ? he anfwered, he would : the arch- 
bilhop then afked the Englifh people, If they 
would alTent to have the duke to be their 
king, and if he fhould then be crowned ? 
To which they all with an unanimous con- 
fent anfwered, Yea, yea. Whereupon 
he took the corOnation-oath j the knie 
of which take as follows. 

■ This fcepter I molt thankfully receive* 
and with it do molt folemnly promife and 
fwear to govern both church and ftate 
in peace. And I vow to rule my fub- 
jecls with that juftice and prudent care, 
as becomes a good king. I will (with 
the advice and confent of my great coun- 
cil) enact right laws ; which done, be 
witnefs all ye faints, that to the utmoft 
of my power I will myfelf religioufly 
obferve and keep them : For what can be 
more vain and inconfiftent with the 
common reafon of all mankind, than 
for a prince publickly and folemnly to 
ordain a law, and the next moment af- 
ter to break and abrogate it in his 
clofet ? All rapines I will forbid, and 
all falfe judgments : No illegal or arbi- 
trary acts, under the pretence of the 
prerogative royal will I fuffer or per- 
mit, to the opprefiion of my Englijh 
fubjects, between whom and my 
Normans I will adminifter equal right. 
And that God, angels, my Normans, 
and you may all be witneffes and par- 
ties to the fincerity of my heart, 
that I will not take the Englijhmens in- 
heritances by injuftice, or thruft them 

1 out 

41 7he Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

* out of their paternal pofleffions by wrong •, he oftentimes lhewed uncommon generofi- 
■ that I have not, and will not pretend to ty, pardoning the fame offenders two or 
« have any ablblute or defpotical power over three times over, earl Wdtheoj being the 
' their lives liberties and eftates -, nor vio- only nobleman that was put to death in his 
< late break* or alter the fundamental reign. 

* rights of the kingdom (as tyrants do He had iffue by Maud, daughter of His mar- 
' who only defign to enflave their people) Baldwin earl of Flanders, i. Robert, his. r ^ and 
' I do here folemnly promife and fwear, eldeft fon, to whom he gave the duke- 

* in the prefence of all the mighty powers, dom of Normandy. 2. Richard, his fecond 
« inviolably to obferve and keep the facred fon, who was killed in New-Foreft. 3. 

* laws of St. Edward my kinfman. William, commonly called Rufus, to whom 
e d Which being faid, the archbimop of he gave the kingdom of England. 4. 

by°the C Fork fet the imperial crown upon William's Henry, who fucceeded his brother William 
arch- head: And thus of a duke of 'Normandy, in the kingdom of England. 5. Cicely, his 
bilhopof ^ e was createc i ki n g of England. And eldeft daughter, who died a nun. 6. Con- 
TorL however he acquired the pofTefiion of the fiance, married to Alan earl of Britain. 
His cha- throne, he maintain'd it as all wife princes 7. Alice, contracted to Harold the ufurper, 
rafter. ever have done •, that is, he labour'd by but died unmarried. 8. Adela, married 
all methods to continue himfelf in it. In to Stephen earl of Blois, by whom fhe had 
which he induftrioufly difplay'd both his Stephen, afterwards king of England. 9. 
wifdom and his valour, having to en- Agatha, who died unmarried, 
counter not only the troubles raifed by a William the fecond, (furnamed Rufus, William 
difcontented kingdom, and a rebellious by reafon of his red colour) was fecond lL 
dukedom, but alfo the whole power of fon to William the firft, and was crowned 
France, Denmark* Scotland, and Wales -, king of England at Wefiminfier, by Lan- 
all which he bravely furmounted with an frank archbifhop of Canterbury, his elder 
uninterrupted courfe of profperity : So brother Robert being duke of Normandy* 
that fcarce any prince ever made a greater who likewife claimed the crown, but was 
figure in hiftory. As to his bodily per- pacified by the mediation of king William's 
feftionsj he was well proportioned, of a friends, and the promife of three thoufand 
vigorous and healthful conftitution, of a marks a year. Robert having left Eng+ 
ncJle prefence fitting or Handing -, of a land, foon after Malcolm king of Scots 
mafculine beauty, in which there was a invaded it, burning and fpoiling as far as 
mixture of majefty and feverity ; and had Chefter : And no fooner was there a peace 
fo great a ftrength, that few of his court made between king William and Malcolm, 
could draw his bow. As to thofe of his but he and his brother Robert fell out a- 
mind, he was both wife and active, pene- gain, and were again reconciled : Upon 
trating in his defigns, daring in his enter- which Malcolm, king of Scots, made ano- 
z £rifes, and fteady in the profecution of ther inroad into England -, but being en- 
them. All agree that he was chafte and countered by Robert Mowbray earl of 
temperate, pious, valiant, and great in all Northumberland, the king and his fon were 
his actions, efpecially in i'uch as expreffed there both flain. William and his brother 
his royal ftate and dignity. His paftimes Robert falling out the third time, are, af- 
were chiefly hunting and feafting, in the ter much trouble, again reconciled by the 
latter of which he always difplay'd his mediation of Philip king of France ; and 
grandeur, annually keeping the feaft of there was afterwards that entire confi- 
Chrifimas at Gloucefter, that of Eafter at dence between thefe brothers, that Ro- 
Winchefier, and that of Whitfuntide at bert mortgaged his dutchy of Normandy 
Wefiminfier. To which places he fummoned to him for 10000 marks, and left him in 
all the great men of the kingdom, both pofTefiion of it during his voyage to the 
. clergy and laity, that foreign ambafTadors Holy-Land ; fo that he did not only inhe- 
rnight be witneffes of his extraordinary rit the crown by the donation of his fa- 
magnificence •, at which time, he was more ther, but by the confent of his brother for 
eafy of accefs, and fhewed great inftances much the greater part of his reign. And 
of his bounty and indulgence to all men : Edgar Atheling was fo little apprehended 
Yet, among his many virtues, he is much to have any defign upon the crown during 
accufed of being of a covetous, rapacious, his reign, that Rufus made him general 
and cruel difpofition, which produced in- of an army, that he might fettle his ne- 
numerable ads of injuftice and oppreffion, phew upon the throne of Scotland. 
which others think were rather the effects He may be juftly ranked among theHjscha- 
of his policy, the neceflity of his affairs, worft kings that England ever had. He rafter, 
and the inconftancy and frequent rebellions wanted the piety, chaftity, humanity, and 
of thofe fubjects who had fworn allegiance wifdom of his rather j yet feveral quali- 
to him. But in the profecution of fuch, ties he porTeffed were both valuable and 


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A General Chart- ^<*< -Sea Coa*t ^f 

E UROPE , Arm C A <Jc 

According -to I ."WrigJtri or ~M<r*ator's 
J?roj*£ticn. . 3y H.Moll G-toyraphtr . 

to England and Scotland. 


admirable, as his courage, bravery and 
magnificence, in which he was fo vigorous 
and daring, that he was never dejected 
in the greateft extremity, and very rarely 
failed of fuccefs. He was liberal to his 
friends, and efpecially to the foldiers ; 
magnificent in his retinue and buildings, 
and expenfive in his cloaths, as appears 
from the common ftory of breeches or 
hofe, which he refufed to wear becaufe 
they coft but three fhillings, ordering his 
chamberlain to bring thofe of a mark price, 
who fufRciently pleafed him, by bringing 
the fame again after the king's price was ' 
fet upon them. He was a prince of lit- 
tle or no faith, haughty, fevere, covetous, 
and prophane upon all occafions. When 
fifty Engli/h Gentlemen, who had been 
accufed of hunting and killing deer, had 
by the trial of Fire- ordeal efcapzd condemn- 
ation, he paflionately declared, That he 
could not believe that God was a jufi judge 
in fuffering it. Notwithstanding his fe- 
vere and covetous temper, there are acti- 
ons that fhew he had fometimes a fenfe 
of generofity, juftice, and good-nature ; 
particularly when a great abbey became 
vacant, and two rich and ambitious monks 
came to purchafe it of him, according to 
his fimonical method, he obferved a third 
monk at a distance, and afked him, What 
he would give him ? receiving anfwer, 
That he would give nothing, for that it was 
againfi his confcience ; he immediately 
fwore his ufual oath, That he alone deferved 
it, and fhould have it for nothing. This 
king's revenues were in all probability the 
fame with his father's •, yet his expences 
being greater, he raifed more unreafonable 
taxes : And to augment his revenues, he 
frequently kept feveral bifhopricks and ab- 
bies vacant, and took the profits to himfelf ; 
and at the time of his death he had in his 
hands the archbifhoprick of Canterbury, 
the bifhopricks of Winchefier and Salijbu- 
ry, and twelve rich abbies ; yet he gave 
the new church of St. Saviour's in South- 
war k to the monks called De Char it ate ; 
and alfo founded an hofpital in Tork to 
the honour of St. Peter. 

Many fearful things happened in this 
king's reign, as earthquakes, dreadful 
lightning, apparitions, blazing comets, in- 
undations and deluges, to the destruction 
of the people ; and much land was over- 
whelmed by the fea, never to be reco- 
vered, among which were earl Goodwin's 
lands, now called Goodwin fands. When 
he had reigned near thirteen years, he 
Killed, was flain by an arrow in New-Foreji, by 
Sir Walter Tyrrel a French knight, on the 
2d of Augufi, in the 44th year of his age, 
and the 13th of his reign, without iffue. 

Vol. I. 

The men that were nearest him (efpe- 
cially Sir Waller Tyrrel) galloped away, 
fome being amazed, and others thro' fear : 
but fome few collecting themfelves, when 
their fear was a little over, turned back 
again, and taking up the royal body, laid 
it upon a collier's cart with one horfe, 
which happened to come by that way, and 
fo conveyed it to Winchefier, bleeding very 
much all the way, by reafon of the jolting 
of the cart ; which going through a miry 
way, it broke in the middle, and the 
king's body fell down into the mud : and 
the next day, without any extraordinary 
funeral pomp, it was interr'd in the ca- 
thedral church of St. Swithin, being laid 
in the quire, under a plain marble stone. 
But afterwards his bones were tranflated, 
and laid by the bones of king Canutus. 

To fum up in a few words the whole . 
of this king's reign : He did not only op- 
prefs and fleece this nation, but rather, 
with importunate exactions, did as it were 
flay off" their fkins : His chiefeft conforts 
were effeminate perfons, ruffians, and the 
like ; and himfelf delighted in continual 
adulteries, and the company of concubines, 
even before the fun : None thrived a- 
bout him but ufurers, collectors, and pro- 
moters : He fold all church preferments, 
and took fines of priests for fornication. 

Henry the firfl was the youngeft fon of Henry I. 
William the conqueror, and fucceeded his 
brother William in the kingdom. 

Henry being in New-Forefl when his 
brother king William was kill'd, flayed 
not for compliments of condolance to be 
paid him upon that unhappy accident ; 
but rode straight away to Winchefier, and 
there feized upon his brother's treafure. 

He was a prince of great wifdom and 
learning, and for that reafon was called 
Beauclerk. He mitigated the feverity of 
his father's and brother's laws, and fwayed 
the fceptre with more moderation than 
either of them : But his eldeft brother, 
Robert duke of Normandy, being offer'd 
the kingdom of Jerufalem, and hearing his 
brother Rufus was dead, refufed that king- 
dom, in hopes of obtaining the kingdom 
of England, which was already pofTesTed by 
his youngeft brother : Notwithstanding 
which, he claimed the crown, landing ac 
Portfmouth ; but by the advice of the no- 
bles on both fides, it was agreed that king 
Henry fhould pay to duke Robert 3000 
marks yearly : tho' this agreement lafted 
not long, new diffentionsarifing again be- 
tween them, till at laft they broke out in- 
to an open war -, Robert being no longer 
able to bear the injuftice and infolence of 
his brother, and Henry refolved by any 
means to enflave his brother Robert, and 



44 The Voyage of Bon Gonzales, 

to add the dukedom of Normandy to the This king added much to its ftrength and 

' r -c „„]„„,] glory, notwithstanding feveral fevere op- 
crown or England. ; - Xw , . & ~ j c i Vf '■ \ M j L * 
■ j Robert left the tnglijh court Full of an- preffions ; defended the land by numerous 
bkbrT ger and difdain, having told his brother garrifons, and built many forts and caftles 
tier- the king not to truft too much upon his befides twenty five towns and cities •, in all «w« 
own ftrength; for that, altho' his forces which he mamfefted his extraordinary parts cj13ra " er ' 
were not equal to the power of England, and abilities. He has been celebrated by fome 
no arm is to be ejleemed weak, that firikes for the three glorious felicities of wifdom, 
with the /word of necejjity andjuftice. Hen- victory and riches ; and condemn'd by o- 
ry concluding from hence, that his brother thers for three notorious vices, avarice, 
Was gone home to defend and right him- cruelty and luft : The firft three being 
felf by the force of arms, followed him manifested in his obtaining, keeping, and 
immediately into Normandy, tried all means improving the kingdom; and the laft by 
to corrupt his council and his army, and at his hard taxes, his feverity to his brother 
laft the two armies meeting near the ca- and others, and his numerous illegitimate 
file of Tenechbray, after an obftihate fight, hTue. As to hisperfon, he was of a mid- 
wherein many of both fides were (lain, die ftature, ftrong, and well jointed, cor- 
king Henry obtained a conipleat victory, pulent, of fine eyes, and an amiable coun* 
Robert and the duke, with many of his lords, were tenance ; in his humour he was affable, 
made pri- ta k en prifoners and brought into England: and of a pleafant conVerfation ; and his 
foner ' And he that once flood fair for two crowns, mind was inridiM with many virtues, be- 
loft both, and his dukedom too, and was ing a follower of juftice, a lover of reli- 
confined a prifoner in Cardiff caftle. Now gion, fevere againft robbers, temperate in 
tho' this war was very hard upon the duke, eating, and never drinking but for thirfr, 
and very unnatural in the king, yet we vigorous and valiant in battle, and very 
may obferve a very evident divine neme- circumfpect, chufing rather to win by con- 
fis in this revolution ; for the battle of duel than effufion of blood. 
tenechbray, in which Normandy was fub- Henry I. having appointed his daughter Dies, 
dued by England, was that very day forty the emprefs Maud his fucceffor, died in 
years on which England was fubdued by Normandy on the 2d day of December, in 
Normandy at the battle of Hajlings. the 78 th year of his age, and 36th of his 

There is no doubt to be made but reign, A. D. 1135. 
duke Robert was very uneafy under his He had ififue (by Maud, daughter of His iffue. 

confinement, tho' his reftraint was at firft Malcolm king of Scots, and Margaret his 

fomewhat favourable ; and yet perhaps queen, niece to Edgar Atheling) only one 

this was not defign'd him as a kindnefs fon, named William, who was drown'd in 

by the king, but either by the negligence his pafTage from France ; and one daugh- 

or corruption of the keeper, or elfe, that ter, named Maud, married to the empe- 

by letting him have fo much liberty as to ror Henry V. and afterwards to Henry 

endeavour an efcape, the king might have Plantagenet, earl of Anjou, by whom fhe 

the better colour to confine him ftricter : had iffue Henry, afterwards king of Eng- 

And that this was the defign, appears, by land ; and two other fons, viz. Jeffery and 

that which follows, to be very probable : William, who died without iflue. 
For duke Robert, by that liberty which Stephen (earl of Mortaign and Bulloign, King Ste- 

was allow'd him, being tempted to make the fon of Stephen earl of Blois and Cbam-P*>**- . 

his efcape, took hold of the flattering op- paign, by Mela, daughter to William the His m,e - 

portunity, and fled for his liberty, as if it firft) being a valiant and warlike perfon, 

had been for his life j but was quickly was for that reafon fear'd and acknow- 

purfued, and as foon taken again, fitting ledged by the people, and crown'd by 

on horfeback, his horfe's legs being lock'd William Corbel archbifhop of Canterbury, 

faft in deep and miry clay. And now at Weflminfter, on St. Stephen's day (for 

the unnatural king, for this attempted the aufpice of it) anno 1135. taking the 

efcape, not only commits him to a clofe government upon him byufurpation, con- 

and ftric~t prifon, but barbaroufly caufes his trary to his oath made to king Henry the 

Has his e Y es t0 De P ut out, that he might not fee firft, in behalf of Maud the emprefs •, for 

eyes put 

his mifery, and a fure guard fet upon ' which caufe his reign was full of troubles, 

him. During the long reign of this prince, and continually harrafs'd with wars; in 

the nation fcarcely felt any foreign inva- which he was fometimes victorious, and 

fion or domeftic infurre6lion, except fome fometimes overcome ; till in the conclu- 

inconfiderable incurfions of theWelch ; by fion an agreement was made between Maud 

which continued peace during three reigns, the emprefs, and king Stephen, on condi- 

England became a place of refuge, and a tion, that Stephen mould ordain Henry the 

fanctuary to the afflicted and diftreffed of fon of the emprefs, his heir, to enjoy the 

foreign nations., kingdom 

to England and Scotland. 4<j 

kingdom after him : And thereupon peace body by Gratian, and published by pope 

was eftablifhed. This king reigned eighteen Eugene in the year 1151. 
ies. years, eleven months, and twenty days; King Stephen died within lefs than anisdeath. 

and was buried at Fever/ham. Various year after the treaty concluded between 

were the fubjecls pretences for breaking the him and prince Henry concerning the fuc- 

oath they had taken to the emprefs, and ceffion, viz. on the 25th of Qtlober, in 

adhering to Stephen. the 50th year of his age, and the 19th of 

The bifhop of Salljbury declared, that his reign, J. D. 1154. He had iiTueuTue, 
they were abfolved of their oath to the three fons, viz. Baldwin, Euftace and Wil- 
emprefs, becaufe me had married out of Ham, of whom, William furvived him, but 
the realm, without the confent of the no- was excluded from fucceeding to the 
" bility. That condition, he faid, they un- crown by the abovefaid treaty. King Ste- 
derflood to be implied, when they took pben had alfo two daughters, viz. Maud 
the oath to her, viz. fhat Jhe fhould not and Mary. 
. marry out of the realm without their confent. King Henry the fecond, furnamed Henry II. 
But that which is faid to have induced Short-mantle (becaufe he was the firfl 
many of the lords to fubmit to Stephen, that brought the ufe of fhort cloaks out 
is the oath that Hugh Bigot, fteward to of Anjou into England) was a prince of 
the late king, made before the archbifhop, great valour and large dominions ; for 
viz. That king Henry, upon his death- his ftile was, king of England, lord of Ire- 
bed, adopted Stephen to be his heir and fuc- land, duke of Normandy and Aquitain, 
ceflbr, having taken fome offence at the earl of Poicliers and Anjou : He came to 
conduct of his daughter the emprefs. And the crown with univerfal applaufe, and 
how falfe and improbable foever the tale was three ' times crowned ; firft at Weft- 
was, the archbifhop gave, or pretended to minjler, by the hands of Theobald arch- 
give fuch credit to it, that he proceeded bifhop of Canterbury ; next at Lincoln j 
to place the crown upon Stephen's head •, and thirdly at Worcefter. In his reign, 
and almoft the whole nation fubmitted, Owen, prince of North Wales, infefted Eng- 
and fwore allegiance to him. And Ste- land, but was repulfed by him, tho' not 
phen having feized that prodigious trea- without great lofs and danger. After 
fure the late king had amafs'd together, which, the king failed into Normandy. 
and brought over an army of foreigners, Lewis the French king and he, being up- 
fo fecured his pofTefTion, that he met with on the point to bid each other battle, a 
little oppofition the two firft years of his peace was concluded between them. The 
reign. king makes Thomas Becket archbifhop of 
is cha- He had undoubtedly many princely Canterbury, who in requital becomes a 
&er - qualities, as valour, affability and genero- plague to the king ; and being upheld by 
fity both to his friends and enemies ; but the pope, brought the whole realm into 
at the fame time he was unmeafurably much confufion : till in the end, Becket, 
ambitious, refolving to be no flave to his having been fufpended by the king, and 
word or oath, which brought vaft calami- appealing to the pope, makes a feigned 
ties upon him and others ; yet he fhew- fubmiffion to the king, then in Normandy ; 
eligious ed fignal marks of devotion, particularly and fo Becket returned into England again* 
.unda- { n tne founding the abbies of Cogfhall in where by his haughty carriage fomenting 
Effex, of Furnefs in Lancafhire, Fever/ham new troubles, he is flain in his cathedral 
in Kent, and the nunneries of Carew and church of Canterbury by four knights ; 
Higham. Setting afide his ambition and for which, the king is accufed, but deny- 
unjuft title, he was an excellent prince, ing all knowledge thereof, does notwith- 
none burthening their fubje&s with fewer {landing afterwards do penance at his 
fovem- taxes, nor governing with greater clemen- tomb. The king caufes his eldeft fon 
"'■"'■ cy. And notwithstanding the many in- to be crowned king of England-, by which 
furrections, he is faid never to have put means, and the young king's infolence, he 
one man to death. The cuftom of hold- creates himfelf new troubles* till the young 
ing the fplendid affemblies, or Curia, at king dies, repenting of his former folly. 
the three great feflivals, which in the for- He conquers Ireland by the hands of Rich- 
mer reign began to languifh, by reafon ard Strongbow earl of Pembroke ; and go- 
of the unfettled times, was now wholly ing thither afterwards himfelf, reduces 
laid afide. Thefe times of confufion al- that country to peace and civility. The 
fo gave the pope and clergy great oppor- king's love to his concubines is made a 
tunities to incroach upon the regal power, pretence for his queen and fon's raifmg 
Nation- and to introduce new laws, ufages and arms againfl him ; who are joined by the 
iw now cuftoms •, particularly the pope's canon- king of France, with whom the king makes 
rought * aw was . now foft brought into the na- an agreement : and after 'having reigned 
no Eng. tion, -which was compiled into a code or thirty four years, nine months, and five 
™d. days, 

The Voyage of Don Gonzales,. 

Death days he die! at Chinon in France, July loufy had furmmed her with fuch a pierce- 

6th 'i 189, and was buried at Fonteverard ing eye, as could find out a way through 

in Normandy. the moft mtricate mazes) found a way to 

IT The beginning of this king's reign come to her by this accident. The fair 

rate. *" promifed all happinefs to himfelf and peo- Rofamond, fitting to take the air, let fall 

pie He .was arrived at a mature age, out of her lap a clue of filk ; which fun- 

and endowed with fuch qualifications as ing from her, the end of the filk faften»d 

are requifite to fupport and adorn a to her foot, and the clue ftill unwinding, 

throne. And as his dominions were larger remained behind ; which the queen efpy- 

than any of his predeceffors, he had the ing, followed, till fhe had found what me 

good fortune to poffefs them without a fought. It is generally faid, that when the 

r | va j queen came to Rofamond, fhe prefented 

As XungStephen's title could not be fup- her with a dagger and a cup of poifon, How poi . 
ported without foreign troops, and he had and bidding her take her choice, fhe tookfoned. 
therefore introduced many thoufands of the latter, wherewith fhe foon expired. 
Flemings; thefe the king difmiffed from King Henry the fecond died in the fifty- His death, 
their warm feats, and fent them home in fixth year of his age, and the thirty-fifth 
the beginning of his reign. He refumed of his reign, in the year 1189. He had 
alfo the crown-lands and rents that had iffue by his wife Eleanor, fole daughter and fffuc. 
been alienated by the ufurper, and razed heir of William earl of PoicJou, and duke 
the numerous caftles that had been erected of Aquitain (who had been divorced from, 
during the ufurpation. And obferving the Lewis the feventh, king of France, as 
incroachments that had been made on the being too nearly allied to him) 1. William, 
prerogative by the clergy in thefe tumul- his eldeft fon, who died an* infant. 2. 
tuous times, he caufed his grandfather's Henry, his fecond fon, who at the age of 
laws to be revived, and confirmed at Cla- four years was contracted to Margaret, 
rendon, from whence they obtained the only daughter to Lewis, king of France. 
The con- name of the Conftitutions of Clarendon. [In the fifteenth year of his age this prince 
ititvitions Thefe were fwom to by all the peers, fpi- was by his fathers direction crowned king; 
bf Cforen- Y i tu2L \ anc i temporal, and even by Thomas and three years after, his match with the 
don ' a Becket, archbifhop of Canterbury': but Frencbpr'mcdsMargaret was consummated, 
he afterwards refufed to fubferibe them and he was crowned a fecond time with his 
with the reft ; and appealing to the pope, queen Margaret, at Winchefter. Henry, 
was adjudged and declared a traitor. And the father ftill looking on his fon but as his 
as thefe conftitutions of Clarendon fhew viceroy, and the fon afTuming a power 
how our forefathers oppofed the exorbi- equal, or fuperior to his father, occafioned 
tant incroachments of the fee of Rome in a war between them, which continued till 
thofe days of ignorance, I have here fet the death of his fon, in the year 11 82.] 
them down. 3. Richard, who fucceeded him in the 
That there mould be no appeal to the throne. 4. Jeffery, who was killed in a 
apoftolick fee, without the king's leave. tournament at Paris, in the year 11 86. 
That no archbifhop or bifhop mould [This prince had iffue by Con/lance, daugh- 
go out of the realm, but by the king's ter and heirefs to Conan, earl of Britain, 
permiffion. one fon, named Arthur, afterwards duke 
That no bifhop fhould excommunicate of Britain, and earl of Richmond. He 
any who held of the king in capite ; or was taken prifoner, and fuppofed to be 
interdict any official of his, without the murdered by his uncle king John, his far 
king's leave. ther's younger brother : Jeffery had alfo 
That clergymen fhould be liable to fe- iffue one daughter, named Eleanor, who 
cular judgments. was likewife imprifoned by her uncle king 
That laymen (as the king, and others) John, and died in Briftol caftle, being un- 
fhould handle the caufes of the church, married, about the year 1241.] 5. John, 
tithes, and fuch like. the fifth fon of Henry II. furvived his fa- 
Fair Ro- He kept a concubine called Rofamond, ther, and was afterwards king of England. 
Jatnond. ( or the rofe of the world) from her fur- King Henry II. had alfo three daughters, 
pafiing beauty : fhe was daughter ofWal- Maud, married to Henry duke of Saxony ; 
ter lord Clifford ; whofe face and features Eleanor, married to Alphonfo, king of Ca- 
fo dazzled the eyes of king Henry, that by Jlile ; and Joanna, married to William* 
his gifts he got this paragon of beauty to king of Sicily. 

his bed •, and to hide her the better from King Richard the firft, furnamed Coeur de Rkhardl. 
his Juno's eye, he built a moft intricate Icon, or Lion's-heart, was crowned at Weft- 
labyrinth at Woodftock^ ; into whofe clofet, minfter, by Baldwin, archbifhop of Canter- 
for its inexplicate windings, none could bury, and foon after his coronation, have- 
approach. ■ But queen Eleanor (whofe jea- ing raifed a prodigious fum of money, he 


to England and Scotland, 47 

committed the government of the realm to ftill their crying children, by telling 

to William Longcbamp (who was the pope's them that king Richard was coming for 

legate, and chancellor of England) and them ; but withal, he was fearlefs, vio- 

then failed with his navy (in company lent, and impetuous; he was very witty 

with the French king, and the duke of and eloquent, but with too great a mix- 

Burgundy) towards the Holy -Land; and in ture of pride and arrogance-, magnificent 

his pafTage thither, fome of his fhips being and liberal to excefs, which occafioned him 

fhipwreck'd, and feveral difperfed by a. at other times to be as covetous and rapa- 

temped, near the ifle ot Cyprus, and Ifacius cious. He was noted for pride, avarice, 

king of Cyprus refufing to harbour or re- and luxury, which were called his three 

lieve him, but on the contrary pillaging daughters; and being once urged to part 

and abufing him, king Richard conquered with them, he in raillery declared, ' he 

the ifland, carrying him and his daughter ' would difpofe of the firft to the tem- 

away prifoners ; and leaving the kingdom s plars, the fecond to the monks, and the 

of Cyprus under two viceroys, put to fea ' third to the prelates.' 

again : then conquers Ptolemais, and goes Though he had many noble qualifica- England's 
to Jerufalem. But the French king and tions, yet England fufFered feverely under dutrefs _ 
the duke of Bungundy, envying his honour, his government, through the conftant oc- under hls 
turned back, and left him; by which cafions he had for money, and the great mem"" 
means the king was forced to make a truce rapacity of his judiciaries during his ab- 
with Saladine, the emperor of the Turks, fence from England, where he never fpent 
And then returning in difguife, like a above eight months of his whole reign : 
merchant, was diicovered, taken by So that his fubjects felt all the inconveni- 
Leopold, duke of Auftria, and kept prifo- ences of his courage, without being much 
foner 1 5 months, and then delivered by the better for that, or his other good qua- 
paying a great ranfom. lities in time of peace. 

During his abfence, his brother John It is obfervable, that he who had re- 
attempted to ufurp his dominions, but was vived the ufe of that fatal engine the crofs- 
defeated in his defigns by the regency, bow, and had difpatched fo many with it, 
However, king Richard leaving no chil- perifhed likewife himfelf by the fame in- 
dren, by his will appointed his brother ftrument. 

John to fucceed him in his kingdom of In this king's reign the city of London London 
England, and all other his dominions ; began firfl to receive the form and date of !10W firft 
palling by the children of his brother Jef- a commonwealth, and to be divided into Jt J^ * om _ 
fery, who were his immediate heirs, ac- companies and corporations, as at this day. panies. 
cording to the lineal fuccefiion. King John fucceeded his brother Ri- ~ , 
'o whom This king Richard was contracted in his chard, though the right of fuccefiion was 
^traded infancy to a daughter of Raymond, count in Arthur, who was fon to Jeffery duke 
of Barcelona-, which marriage not taking of Britain, John's elded brother: How- 
effect, he was afterwards contracted to ever, John was crowned at Wejiminfter, by 
Adela, the daughter of Lewis the feventh; Hubert, archbifhop of Canterbury; and 
but this match was never confummated afterwards in a battle furprifing his enemies, 
neither : And he was at lad married to and taking among the prifoners prince Ar- 
Berengaria, daughter of SancJio the fixth, thur, commits him to prifon ; where he 
king of Navarre, in his journey to the foon after dies, not without fufpicion 
illed. Holy-Land. He was killed by an arrow at of being murdered by king John's privity : 
the fiege of the cadle of Chalons, the 6th His principalities in France are feized on 
of April, in the 41 d year of his age, and by the French : Wales is in a combudion : 
the 10th of his reign, in the year 1199, Ireland in an uproar: Scotland preparing 
and left no iflue behind him. againd him: England in confufion; the 
[ia cha- This prince had fomewhat of the fierce- king, the peers, the prelates, and com- 
& er - nefs and brutality of the lion, as well as mons, at perpetual divifion. The pope 
courage and bravery of that creature ; whofe thunders out excommunications againd the 
difloyalty to his father was punifhed with king, and all that obey him; and inter- 
innumerable troubles in his reign; and diets the whole realm. The king goes 
whofe voracious temper met death itfelf. into Ireland, and makes up the breaches, 
As to his perfon, he was very tall, of a and cements the divifions there ; and re- 
fair and comely vifage ; his eyes blue, and turning into England, Lluelwyn, prince of 
fparkling with fire ; his hair between red North Wales, invades the marflies of 
and yellow; his limbs drait; of a noble England, but is encountered and conquer'd. 
and majedick mien, that feemed worthy of The pope gives the kingdom of England 
empire ; his courage and prowefs was great, to Philip of France ; but king John make- 
beyond exception; and fo formidable to ing peace with the pope, furrendered his 
the Saracens, that it is faid they were wont crown to Pandulphus, the pope'i legate, 
Vol. I. E e and 

1 mar 


48 The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

and for money and good words is ab- their means abroad, they began to think 

folved and receives it again. Philip of of preierving what was left at home ; 

France attempts to invade England ; but which, by their martial freedom, and the 

his fleet is beaten, fcattered, and taken by privileges of the kingdom (which now 

king John. Lewis the dauphin of France neceffity drove them to look more nar- 

lands at Sandwich, comes to London* and rowly into) they were the more encou- 

takes the oath of allegiance of the barons raged to attempt, in regard they faw 

and citizens at St. Paul's church -, and yet themfelves and the kingdom brought al- 

is afterwards forfaken of the Englijh lords, moft to ruin, being perpetually harrafs'd 

King John, being freed from invafion and at the king's will ; which was againft their 

foreign aflaults, is poifoned by a monk in right, his violence and corruption, having 

Swinjled- Abbey, having reigned feventeen no right to prefcribe upon them : tho' it 

years and feven months j ending his reign muft be acknowledged, that their caufe 

the 1 8th of Otlober 1216, (being the was better than their prolecution ; for 

fifty-firft year of his age, and eighteenth whilft they ftrove to recover what they had 

of his reign) and was buried ztWorcefter. loft, and the king to keep what by the 

The caufe. So many and fo great were the impofi- advantage of the time, and the people's 

of his tions laid upon the nation by this king, fuflferance, he had gotten* many unjuft and 

wars with £ j iat at i en g t h tne y refufed to pay any infolent courfes were ufed on either fide* 

more ; and the archbifhop of York having But there were fome particular inftances of 

folemnly curfed the receivers thereof, fe- king John's violation of the laws and liber- 

cretly withdrew himfelf out of the king- ties of the realm, which fecretly influenced 

dom. The barons alfo being fummoned the lords to demand the reftitution of their 

to attend the king into Prance, they all, rights at this time : one of which was, his 

by a general confent, fent him word, that endeavouring to banifli the earl of Chefter, 

unlefs he would reftore to them their only for advifing him to leave his cruelty 

rights and liberties* they would do him no and incontinence. Another was, that he 

fervice out of the kingdom. And this endeavoured to debauch a daughter of 

was the beginning of a miferable breach Robert Fitzwalter, called Maud the fair ; 

between the king and the people, both but fhe not confenting to the king's luft, 

being out of order ; the juft ligaments of a mefTenger was fent to give her poifon in 

command and obedience, that mould hold a potched egg, whereof me died. A third 

them together, being disjointed : the re- was his cruelty to the family of William de 

ducing whereof into juft proportion again, Braufe, a nobleman ; the ftory is this : The 

coft more noble blood than all the foreign king, to prevent the defection of his fub- 

wars fince the conqueft : for this conten- jects (which his own confcience fecretly 

tion ceafed not (though it often had fome told him he had given reafon enough for) 

fair intermifiions) till the great charter, to fends with a military power to all the po- 

keep the beam right betwixt fovereignty tent men of the kingdom, to require 

and fubjection, firft obtained of this king pledges for the aflurance of their fidelity ; 

John, and afterwards of his fon Henry III. wherein many of them fatisfied the king's 

(though never truly obferved by either) will, fending fome their fons, fome their 

was in the maturity of a judicious prince, nephews, and others the neareft of their 

Edward I. freely ratified, in the twenty- kin : among the reft, William de Braufe, a 

feventh year of his reign, which was above nobleman, being defired to deliver in his 

fourfcore years after. pledge, his wife, preventing her hufband's 

This being the firft civil diffention we anfwer, tells the commiflioners, ' That 

find fince William the firft, between the f the king fhould have none of her fons 

king and his nobles, of this nature, it will £ to keep, who was fo ill a keeper of his 

not be here amifs to fearch into the fecret * own brother's fon Arthur .' For which 

grounds and caufes thereof; and fo we rafh and inconfiderate fpeech the baron 

lhall be the better able to judge of the fharply reprehending his wife before the 

occafions given and taken for the rife of it. king's fervants, told them, ■ He was 

It was now about one hundred and forty ? ready, if he had offended, to fatisfy the 

years fince William the firft had planted * king, without any pledge, according to 

and fettled here the Norman nobility, whdfe * the judgment of his court, or that of 

iffue being now become mere Englijh, were \ his peers, at any time or place whatfo- 

grown to be of great numbers and means, ' ever.' Upon the report of this anfwer, 

and of great fpirits, ever exercifed in the the king fends down fecretly to apprehend 

wars of France ; where moft of them were the baron; but he either having private 

commanders of caftles, or owners of other notice, or doubting what would follow, 

cftates, befides what they held in England: fled with his wife and children into Ire- 

and being now, by this violent and un- land ; where, afterward, this affli&ed lady 

fuccefsful king, fhut out from action, and is feid to have fent queen Ifabel four hun- 


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M A R A N O 1ST 

A or of the 

M A Z O "N S 

Geogi-aphicaMy desci-ii'd /^ Samuel 
YxxXXjHifiL&ne/rori the, Said Tliu-er. king, fhut out from attion, and is faid to have lenr'quccu jjamp i«« t *.«.. 


to England and Scotland. 4$ 

dred kine, and a bull : which yet could * the nobility, gentry, and commons, he 
not obtain her pardon, nor pacify the ■ repaired to Swinfied- Abbey, where he 
king's wrath ; for fhe was afterwards taken, c was poifoned, leaving three baftards be- 
with her two fons (her hufband efcaping ■ hind him.* His character is fummed 
into France) and was fent to the caftle of up in a few v/ords by a late hiftorian, with 
Windfor, where fhe and her two innocent which I fhall conclude all I have to fay 
children were famifhed to death. And of him j which is, « That he was neither 
now I am fpeaking cf innocent children, ' fit for profperity, nor adverfity ; for 
I cannot omit to mention another bloody e profperity made him infolent, and ad- 
action of this wicked king •, which is, 6 verfity dejected him.* 
that at his return out of Ireland, palling This king, by his great and arbitrary 
through Wales, he there fubdued certain taxes, was a fevere oppreffor j yet, in fe- 
rebels, and took twenty-eight children of veral refpects, he was no bad governor : The firft 
the beft families, as pledges of their future for he was the firft or chiefeft who ap- that , 
loyalty ; but not long after, hearing that pointed thofe excellent forms of civil go- f ^"ter^ 
they grew mutinous, and rebelled again, he vernment in London, and molt cities and 
was fo incenfed againft them, that he would incorporated towns inEngland,and endowed 
not go to dinner till he had feen thofe twen- them with the grea-teft immunities : The Coin'd 
ty-eight children all hanged before his face ; firft who caufed fterling money to be here fterling. 
which was done accordingly : thus cau- coined : The firft who ordained the ho- Created 
fing the innocent to fuffer for the guilty. nourable ceremonies in the creation of earls. 

But what elfe could be expected from earls : The firft who fettled the rates and Settled 
fuch a prince* who made his own will meafures for wine, bread, cloth* and fuch rates an< * 
the grand meafure of all his actions, like necefiaries : The firft who gave to J^ a "£"_ 
and who, to gain his own ends, was the cinque-ports the privileges and cuf- flons# 
ready to renounce chriftianity itfelf, and toms they now enjoy : And the firft whoprivi- 
turn mahometan ; for being in fome planted Englijh laws and officers in Ireland, leged the 
diftrefs, he fent Thomas Hardington and enlarging the royal ftile with lords of that cin( l" e " 
Ralph Fitz-Nichols, Knts. to Miramuma- country, making by this fome amends forpi an t' e d 
Urn, king of Africk and Morocco, with an his lofTes in France. In this reign we find Englijb 
offer of his kingdom to him, upon condi- the prices ofYeveral commodities ; parti- laws an 4 
tion he would come and aid him ; and that cularly, that wheat at the higheft was once ^^ m 
if he prevailed^ he would himfelf become fix millings the quarter, and eighteen vvheat 
a mahometan, and renounce the chriftian pence at the loweft rate. The price of 6 s. per 
faith. And the truth is* considering how wines was once fix*d thus : Rochelle wine q uarter - 
he acted, it was no matter what faith he at twenty millings the tun ; the wine of de * me 
was of; and moft think he had none at Anjou at twenty-four millings the tun; 2 6*. a 
all, for fome exprefiions of his favour very and no other French wine at above twenty- tun. 
much of atheifm ; witnefs, that after he five the tun, unlefs it were of fome extra- 
had been reconciled to the pope, and re^ ordinary goodnefs, which might be fold at 
ceived an overthrow in France, he very twenty-fix (hillings and eight pence the tun. 
paffionately faid, ' That nothing had pro- King John was firft contracted to Alice, His mar- 

* fpered with him fince he had been re- eldeft daughter of Humber earl of Mauri- riage and 

* conciled to God and the pope.' Not enne or Savoy ; but fhe died before the ' ffae - 
much unlike to which was another expref- marriage was confummated. His fecond 
fion he had upon the opening of a fat wife was Hawife, youngeft daughter of 
buck : ' See, faid he, how this deer hath William earl of Gloucejler ; by whom he 

' profpered, and how fat he is ; and yet, had no iffue. His third wife was Ifabel, 

4 I dare fwear, he never heard mafs.' the daughter and heir of Aymer earl of 

* Of this king (fays one) we cannot rec- Angolefme, by whom he had ifilie, 1. Henry 
1 kon fo many impieties as he had : un- his eldeft fon, who fucceeded him in the 
' natural to his own blood, to the wife of throne , and, 2. Richard, afterwards king 
' his bofom ; bloody to the nobility and of the Romans. He had alio three daugh- 

* clergy ; notorioufly guilty of perjury, ters, Joan, Eleanor, and Ifabel. j^^. 

' often lwearing, but never keeping his King Henry III. was the eldeft ton of Henry 111. 

' word ; betraying his crown and king- king John, by Ifabel, daughter of Aymer 

* dom to the pope, and, rather than want earl of Angolefme. This Henry was bom 
' his will, would ruin both church, nobles, at Winchefier, and firft crowned at Glou- 
' and the whole nation : he fent an ambaf- cefter by Peter bifhop of Winchefier, and 

fador to a Moori/h king in Africa, to Joceline bifhop of Bath ; and after apree- 

tender him the kingdom of England, to ment with his lords, he was again crowned 

hold it from him as his fovereign lord, at Weftminfter by Stephen Langton, arch- 

and to renounce Chrifl, and receive bifhop of Canterbury •, Gualo the pope's 

; Mahomet. In the heat of his wars with legate, the bifhop of Winchefier, and Wil- 


The Voyage of Don Gonzales. 

Mm Mar/hall earl of Pembroke, being the 
protectors of the king and realm, the king 
being but nine years old •, by whofc pru- 
dent government, Lewis the dauphin or 
France, with all his French armies, were 
expulfed out of the land. The king for- 
gave all the laity that had taken part with 
Lewis, but made the clergy pay great 
fines. Then king Henry went with a great 
army into Britain, againft Lewis king of 
France, and fpoiled the country ; till at 
laft a peace was concluded. Richard earl 
of Comwal, the king's brother, was made 
king of the Romans. But he was no fooner 
out of their hands, than he quickly began 
to mew himfelf, and to let the world know was to weigh thirty-two wheat-corns taken 

the commons into his intereft, and thereby 
fupport his ufurped authority. 

In the forty-third year of his reign, Coin'd 
this king coined a penny of pure gold, of the firft 
the weight of two fierlings, and command- pi< j?° f 
ed that it mould pafs for twenty-millings. % lg / l au ^ 
"Which was the firft piece of gold we find 
coined in England. 

In this reign alfo it is recorded, that the 
ftealing of cattle, which before was but 
pecuniary, was now firft made a capital 
crime : and in regard to weights and mea- The ftan- 
fures, this king ordained in parliament, dard oi a 
that an Englijh penny, called a fterling^^^ 
mould be round, and without clipping 


that his fubje&s were not beholden to him 
Falls out for that eafe and quietnefs they enjoyed in 
with the t he firft years of his reign : for he no fooner 
barons. came tQ ta j^ e ^ government upon him- 
felf, but he was fecretly laying foundati- 
ons for raifing up the late demolifhed 
ftructure of arbitrary government and ab- 
folute rule ; heaping up one grievance 
upon another, till the whole frame of 
government was again unhinged : for the 
king loft all his lands in France, except 
the dutchy of Aquitain ; an infurreclion in 
Wales, Ireland in rebellion, England in con- 
fufion. The king entertains Poiclovines 
out of France, and gives them places of 


out of the midft of the ear ; and that 
twenty pennies mould make one ounce, 
twelve ounces one pound, eight pounds 
one gallon of wine. 

This king was fo variable and uncer- His cha ■ 
tain, that it is hard to give a juft ac- 
count of him. We find that he was na- 
turally wilful and paflionate, eafily pro- 
voked to anger, and as eafily appeafed ; 
fickle and inconftant both in his love and 
hatred •, for he never had fo great a fa- 
vourite but he threw him into difgrace ; 
nor fo great an enemy but he received 
him into favour. It was the ufual way of 
this king, when he wanted money, to 

great honour in the kingdom ; which made promife to redrefs grievances, and confirm 
the Englijh barons raife arms againft the the people's liberties ; but no fooner was 

his own turn ferved, but he forgot all his 
promifes, and inftead of redrefling, in- 
creafed the number of their grievances : 
But what the temper of thofe times was, 

king. The earls of Leicejler and Glou- 
cejler took the king at the battle of Lewes. 
The lord chief juftice was killed in Wejt- 

But thefe contentions between the king and what reputation the king had with his 

and the barons were of infinite advantage fubjecls, will beft appear by the following 

to the common people of England, who paffages, not commonly to be met with ; 
till then were in a condition little better 

than flaves to the barons and great men. 
Commons The barons, in order to ftrengthen them- 
when firft felves, granted great liberties and immu- 
ifo™"J! ar * nities to their vafials and tenants, and en- 

franchifed many of them. And in this 


which I have therefore the rather infert- 


During the time of the parliament, in 

which the king was hot upon undertaking 

the crofs, and going to the Holy-Land ; 

Ijabel countefs of Arundel, widow, came 
reign the commons were firft reprefented to the king about a ward detained from 
in parliament by knights of mires, and her, in regard of a fmall parcel of land 
burgeffes from the corporations ; for the held in capite, which drew away all the 
parliament which Simon Montfort, earl of reft ; and the king giving her a harm an- 
Leicejler, called in the king's name, when fwer, and turning away from her, the 
he had him priibner, was the firft that was countefs took it unkindly, and thus ad- 
fo conftituted : and very probably Mont- drefied herfelf to him, ' My liege, why 

fort complimented the commonalty with 
thefe privileges, in order to eftablifh his 
dominion as well againft his confederates 
the rebel lords, as againft the royal fami- 
ly •, for, finding that feveral of the moft 
confiderable barons forfook him, and went 
over to the king's party, upon' his refufing 
them a fhare in the government, and that 
they had difcover'd his intentions of ufurp- 
ing the fovereign power himfelf, he, by 
this ftratagem, endeavoured to wheedle 

turn you away your face from juftice, The coun- 
' that we can obtain no right inyourtefsof 
« court ? You are conftituted in the midft, f™^* 

_, , , . . , Ipeech to 

' betwixt God and us ; but neither govern the j^g. 
1 yourfelf nor us difcreetly, as you ought : 
c You fhamefully vex both the church 
' and nobles of the kingdom by all the 
c means you may.' The king having 
heard her, difdainfully replies, ' Lady 
' countefs, have the lords made you a 
* charter, and fent you, becaufe you are 

1 an 

to England and Scotland* 


k an eloquent fpeaker, to be their advocate 
'■ and prolocutrix ? ■ ' No, Sir^ (reply'd 
the countefs brifkly) they have not made 
any charter to me ; but the charter which 
your father and you made, and fwore often 
to obferve, and fo often extorted money 
from your fubjects for the fame, you un- 
worthily tranfgrefs, as a manifeft breaker 
of your faith : Where are the liberties of 
England fo often written, fo often grant- 
ed, fo often bought ? Myfelf (though a 
woman) and with me all your natural and 
faithful people, appeal againft you to 
the tribunal of that high judge above ; 
and heaven and earth mall be our witnefs, 
that you have dealt moft unjuftly with 
us : and the Lord God of revenges a- 
venge us.* The king being disturbed 
at her words, afked her, £ If fhe expected 
no favour from him, being his kinfwo- 
man ? How fhall I hope for favour, 
faid me, when you deny me right? I 
therefore appeal before the face of Chrift, 
againft thofe counfellors of yours, who 
(greedy of their own gainj have be- 
witched and infatuated you.' But fome 
fay, that he was by nature eafy and merci- 
ful ; fo that if he acted too rigoroufly in 
any thing, it is to be imputed to his chief 
minifters, who had a full afcendant over 
him ; for he was fcarce ever fui juris, be- 
ing always under the government of others, 
and too often of ftrangers : And indeed it 
may be juftly faid of him, that he was a 
much better man than a king and gover- 
nor ; for though he oppreffed his fubjects 
with unreafonable taxes, often broke his 
coronation oath, and as often violated his 
own charters (for which he never miffed 
of puniihment) yet he was neverthelefs 
remarkable for devotion towards God, 
charity towards the poor, and chaftity as 
to himfelf. 
His mar- In the year 1236 he married Eleanor, 
mge and fecond daughter and co-heir of Raymond 
Berenger, earl of Provence -, by whom he 
had iffue, 1. Edward his eldeft fon, who 
fucceeded him on the throne, 2. Edmund 
his fecond fon, furnamed Crouchback, after- 
wards earl of Lancafter, and from whom the 
houfe of Lancafter derived their title, under 
pretence that Edmund was the eldeft fon of 
Henry III. King Henry III. had alio 
three daughters by queen Eleanor-, viz. 
Margaret, Beatrice, and Katharine. 

After all thefe broils, the king died in 
peace, having reigned fifty-fix years, 
and one month-, ending his reign the 
1 6th of November 1272, and was buried 
at Weftminfter. 

King Edward I. fon of Henry III. was 

thirty-five years old when he began to 

reign : who being, at the time of his father's 

death, in the Holy-Land, and having ref- 

Vol. I. 




cued the great city of Aeon From being 
furrender'd to the Soldan ; out of envy to 
his valour, one Anzazim, a defperate Sa- 
racen, who had often been employed to 
him from their general, being (on pretence Stabbed 
of fome fecret meffage he had to deliver W, P^ a , 
to him) admitted alone into his chamber, ^it™ 
on a fudden, with a poifoned knife, 
gave him three wounds in the body, 
two in the arm, and one near the armpit ; 
which were fo dangerous, that his phy- 
ficians concluded them mortal, unlefs fome 
human creature would fuck away the em- 
poifoned blood out of the wounds ; at the 
fame time declaring that fuch perfons 
would run a defperate hazard of loling their 
own lives : Upon this, the life of the king 
being fo effential to all their fafeties, the 
thing was propofed to feveral of the cour- 
tiers : but they all waved this dangerous 
piece of loyalty -, and as well as they pre- His poi- 
tended to love the king, they loved their f° ned 
own lives better; and therefore with a^°? n J 
compliment declined it : Which when the b y his 
virtuous queen perceived, and that the queen, 
king muft die for want of fuch a kind af- 
fiftance, fhe, with a bravery worthy of her, 
declared fhe was refolved herfelf to under- 
take this cure, and venture her own life, 
to fave the king her hufband's -, and ac- 
cordingly fucked all the poifonous matter 
from the wounds, and thereby faved the 
king (and heaven, which infpired her with, 
that generous refolution, preferved her too, 
as a reward of her great conjugal affection) 
who however returned not home till the 
next year. He was of ftature higher than 
ordinary men by the head and moulders, 
and was for that reafon furnamed Long- 
flanks : He was crowned at Weftminfter the 
14th day of December, in the fecond year 
of his reign, by Robert archbifhop of Can- 
terbury, and (tiled himfelf Edward the firft, 
duke of Aquitain and Anjou, lord of Ire- 
land, and king of England. 

King Edward being returned home and Clips the 
crowned, by the obfervations he had made power of 
of things in his father's time, found that rsy * 
the power of the clergy was too predomi- 
nant ; and therefore fecretly determined 
to clip their wings, both to keep them 
from further growing, and to reduce them 
to more moderation ; which he thought 
beft to do by degrees : And therefore, 
for a trial of their patience, foon after 
his coronation he had a tenth granted 
him of the clergy for two years, and a fif- 
teenth befides of them, and the temporal- 
ly : And in the fixth year of his reign he 
deprived many of the chief monasteries 
of their liberties ; taking from the abbot 
and convent of Weftminfter the return of 
writs, granted them by the charter of his 
father. And the next year after, he got 
Ff to 

t% 7he Voyage of DonGonZAL£$ y 

firft uort to be enacted the ftatute of K^, once fold for twenty pence a quarter, and 

£*4 (or the WM which was an effectual in fome places for flxteen pence. 

whyenaa-L^ t0 hinder the increafe of their tempo- He was alfo an excellent governor ; yet His cha- 

ed - ral ooffeffions • For the king confidering, his vigour and ambition did fometimes o- raaer. 

that the clergy, attending fick and dy- verflow, and bear hard upon his fubjects •, 

ins Derfons in their laft moments, cafily fo that his valour and power was more for 

uerfuaded them to give their eftates to the the grandeur, than the quiet of England ; 

church that their fouls might be prayed and never any king before, or fince him, 

out of purgatory, thought (by this means) fhed fo much chnftian blood within the 

the moft part of the lands in the nation ifle of Britain, as this chriftian warrior did 

might become the lands of the church ; in his time, with what he occafioned af- 

which in the conclufion would be a lofs to terwards. He advanced the fovereignty 

the king and kingdom: For, it often hap- of the crown of England over the king- 

pened that temporal eftates, for want of dom of Scotland, more than any of his pre- 

heirs, fell to the king, and fometimes to deceffors : But leaving the work not fully 

the lord-, but if it was given to the church, finifhed, from henceforth the dominion 

it could never be refumed again, but it of the kings of England over that realm 

was held as it were by a dead hand, which became lefs and left, till at length it was 

never lets any thing go. Hence this law diminifhed to nothing, 

was made to prohibit perfons from giving As this Edward was the firft fon of a 

their lands to the church ; thereby pro- king of England who differenced his arms 

viding that all fueh lands mould be for- with a file, fo he was the firft king of 

feited to the king. England who bore his arms upon the ca- 

Subdued He brought Wales wholly into fubjec- parifons of his horfe, as may be feen by 

VVaUs. (ion to the crown of England, eftablifhed his royal feal. 

peace, caufed all corrupt judges and offi- King Edward I. had two wives, w'z.Hismar. 

cers of note to be exemplarily punifhed Eleanor his firft wife, fifter to Alphonfo riages and 

with fines, imprifonmentand banifhment. king of Caftile, and daughter to Ferdi- 

With a navy of fixty mips, he overcame nand III. to whom he was married, in the 

and took three hundred fhips of France, thirty-ninth year of his father Henry III. 

He created his fon prince Edward (an in- His fecond wife was Margaret, fifter to 

fant) the firft prince of Wales of the Eng- Philip IV. king of France, fumamed the 

lijh blood. The Scots made war upon Fair, and eldeft daughter of Philip the 

king Edward, who at the battle of Feu- Hardy, to whom he was married, anno 1299, 

kirk (lew feventy thoufand Scots in one in the twenty-feventh year of his reign, 

day •, and the wars between England and By Eleanor, his firft queen, he had if- iffiie. 

Scotland continued fo violently, that there fue John, Henry, and Alphonfo, who died 

were more than one hundred and thirty young : Edward, his fourth and youngeft 

thoufand men flain on both fides. fon by this queen, fucceeded him on the 

The con- From the twenty-fecond year of this throne. He had alfo iflue by queen Elea- 

ibtution of reign we have an uninterrupted feries of nor nine daughters, viz. Eleanor, Joan, 

tteBngiifo parliaments down to our own times, in Margaret, Berenice, Alice, Mary, Eliza- 

men?" fummotiitiones ad parliament* , by Sir William beth, Beatrice and Blanch. _ 

Dugdale -, and in his time the prefent con- By Margaret his fecond wife, he had iflue 

ftitution of the Englijh parliaments was two fons, viz. Thomas of Brotherton, af- 

fo far eftablifhed, that by a law folemnly terwards earl of Norfolk ; and Edmund of 

publifhed, as an addition to Magna Charta, Woodflock, afterwards earl of Kent ; and on- 

with excommunications, it was enacted, ly one daughter, named Eleanor. He 

that no tax fhould be levied without the reigned almoft thirty-five years, died in, 

confent of the knights and burgeffes in Scotland in the fixty-eighth year of his 

An order parliament.- In the twenty-feventh year age, on July the 7th, 1307, and was bu- 

concern- of his reign, an order was made concern- ried at Weftminfter -, leaving behind him 

mg the j n g ^ price f victuals ; a fat cock to be this black character: He governed his 

vlauals. *°ld at three half-pence, a fat capon for will by his power, and fried more blood in 

two- pence half-penny, two pullets for three this kingdom than any of his predeceflbrs ; 

half-pence, agoofe for four pence, a mal- he counted his judges but as dogs; and 

lard for three half- pence, a partridge for died as full of malice, as he lived full of 

three half-pence, a pheafant for four mifchief. 

pence, a heron for fix-pence, a plover for King Edward II. furnamed Carmryani Edward 

a penny, a fwan for three (hillings, a crane becaufe born in Carnarvan-Caftle in Wales, II. 

for twelve-pence, two wood-cocks for three was crowned at Weftminfter by the hands 

half-pence, a fat lamb, from Chriftmafs to of William bifhop of Winchefter, (as de- 

Shrovetide, for fixteen pence, and all the puted by Robert archbifhop of Canterbury, 

year after for four pence. Wheat was then in exile :) He was a prince extreme- 

to England and Scotland. 


with his 

Is made 


by parlia- 

His fon 
king in 
his Head. 

The hypo 
crify of 
the queen 

ly addicted to follow the counfel of light 
and vain perfons : He loved Pierce Gave- 
fton to that excefs, that he thereby dif- 
gufted the nobility, and broke the oath 
his father on his death-bed caufed him to 
take, never to recall him. Gavejion was 
by birth a mean gentleman of France, of 
good parts, but always ill applied •, by 
which means he became the caufe both 
of his own destruction, and of that of 
the king, whom he had mifguided. This 
Gavejion was three times banifhed, and up- 
on his third return, Guy earl of Warwick 
took him, and caufed him to be behead- 
ed in IVarwick-CaJlle * which fo inraged 
the king, that he vowed revenge upon all 
that were the caufe of his death. Robert 
Bruce king of the Scots, gives the king a 
great overthrow at Bannackjbourn, where 
the Englijh and their confederates loft fifty 
thoufand men, the king himfelf being in 
great danger of being taken. Famine, 
fword and peftilence, afflict England at once, 
fo that the living were fcarce able to bu- 
ry the dead. The king prepares for re- 
venge againft his lords, raifes the Spencers 
from a mean eftate, and prevailing againft 
the barons, caufes twenty- two of them to 
be executed in divers parts of the king- 
dom ; but in the conclufion, he and the 
Spencers are taken •, and thefe were hang- 
ed upon a gallows fifty foot high, where- 
on was written, Quid gloriaris in malitia ? * 
But the king was conveyed to the caftle 
of Kennelworth, where he continued till 
Candlemafs following ; at which time a par- 
liament was held at London, wherein it was 
adjudged, ' That Edward the fecond was 
' no longer fit to wear the crown ; and 
' for his male-adminiftration of the royal 
* authority, was therefore depofed, and his 
c fon to be elected king. To this the bifhops 
confented, and the archbifhop of Canter- 
bury (preaching upon this occafion) chofe 
for his text, vox populi vox Dei. 

The queen, with a counterfeited forrow, 
when fhe heard of the heavy fentence of 
depofing the king her hufband, feemed to 
fink under the weight that he was to 
bear ; and fo to act the part of a good 
wife, in fharing the misfortune of her huf- 
band : But fhe who had by force fo ea- 
gerly purfued him, till fhe had brought 
him into that condition, could hardly now 
with counterfeited tears and feigned la- 
mentations, perfuade any to believe that 
fhe really deplored it •, efpecially confi- 
dering that unlawful pafllon for Morti- 
mer, which had fo long fince and violent- 
ly governed her. However, her pretend- 
ed grief had that real effect upon the 
prince her fon, that he declared he would 

never accept the crown but by his father's 
confent : Upon which, commiffioners from 
the parliament (or convention) were fent 
to the king, to declare to him the elec- 
tion of his fon, and to require of him the 
renunciation of his crown and royal digni- 
ty : The king was firft privately acquaint- 
ed with this meffage by the bifhops of 
Hereford and Lincoln, who alfo went to per- 
fuade him to refign the crown ; alluring 
him he mould live more happy than before, 
and that he fhould only refign his cares, 
enjoying an undifturbed quiet and plenty : 
threatning withal, that if he were vainly 
obftinate, not to grant what the people 
were relblved to take, and which was de- 
fired of him to fatisfy the prince his fon, he 
would not thereby prevent his own fate, but 
only bring a misfortune upon his pofterity ; 
for in that cafe the people would choofe a 
king who had no relation to his blood* 

The commilTioners being arrived who 
were to receive his refignation, the king 
came forth before them in a mourning 
robe (fuch as beft fuited with that fad fo- 
lemnity) and, at the firft fight of them, 
the bufinefs about which they came 
ftruck fuch a damp upon his fpirits, that 
he immediately funk down ; which cre- 
ated fome compaffion in moft of the be- 
holders : But being in a little time revived, 
the bifhop of Hereford delivered the sub- 
ject matter of their commiiTion ; which 
was, ■ That the commonwealth had 
' found his government to be grievous 
' and oppreffive, which had been proved 
' by many particulars before the general 
c affembly of the ftates of the kingdom 
' at London, for which they had refolved 
' he fhould be no longer king over them : 
■ But yet they were willing to elect his 
' fon to wear the crown ; which, if he 
' fhould refufe to refign to him, they 
' were refolved not only to reject him, 
' but would chofe a man who might be 
* proper for the fupport of the govern- 
'ment, and defence of the kingdom, 
' without any consideration of being re- 
' lated to his blood.' 

After the king had thus heard the refo- 
lutions of the general affembly at London 
delivered to him, he received the heavy 
tidings with a grief proportionable to its 
caufe. But fearing left his denying to 
refign his crown, fhould involve his fon 
and his pofterity in his own hard fate, he 
told them, * That he fubmitted.' But 
thofe that had taken away his crown, were 
not fatisfied whilft he lived, I mean his 
queen and Mortimer \ who, confulting 
with their oracle, the bifhop of Hereford, 


The refo- 
lution-s of 
the parlia- 
ment no- 
tified to 
the king. 

How he 

His fub- 

His death 


111. i. 

^4 7be Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

caufed him to be removed from his kinf- Edward III. was born at Windfor, and E ~T* 

man, the earl of Leicefter's, where they being ele&ed king of England, after his 

thought he was ufed too kindly, and father king Edward II. was depofed, was 

committed him to the cuftody of Sir Tho- crowned at Weftminfter, by Walter Reig- 

jnas Gurney, and John Matravers, with a nolds, archbifhop of Canterbury, being but 

commiffionto carry him where they would, fifteen years of age. In his reign the fol- 

and probably to deftroy him how they lowing particulars are worthy of note, 

pleafed ; being befides encouraged by a viz. A difhonourable peace is made with 

dark fentence, wrote by the forementioned Scotland ; a parliament meet at JNotting- 

bifhop, viz. ham, wherein Mortimer is arraigned for 

high-treafon, condemned, and executed, 
Edvardum Regem Occidere Nolite time- being brought to London, drawn to Ty- 
re bonum eft. burn, and there hanged. King Edward is 

fummoned by Philip de Valois of France to 

I Which not being pointed, at once gave do him homage. After great contentions 

dered. * an encouragement to them, and conceal- between England and Scotland a peace is 

ed an excufe for himfelf. For foon after concluded, and David le Bruce, the young 

the receipt thereof, they brought him to prince of Scotland, is married to Jane, king 

Berkley- Caftle, where he was wickedly Edward's fifter. The king marries Philip- His mar- 

murthered by them, with a hot iron thruft pa, the earl of Hainault's daughter, at ria g e - 

through a pipe behind into his bowels, that 2 r ork, with whom he lived forty-two years. 

the marks of their violence might not be A great battle at Hailidown Hill, in which 

perceived. were (lain of the Scots eight earls, four 

And yet as cruelly as he was murdered, hundred knights and baronets, four hun- 

his death was not perhaps more miferable dred efquires, and thirty-five thoufand 

or grievous to him than his life ; being common foldiers. The king lays claim 

forfaken of all his fubje&s, friends and al- to the crown of France, and with two hun- 

lies in general ; and particularly of his dred mips engages with three hundred ConfK- 

own wife, fon, and brother; and even fhips of the French, and kills thirty-three tutes the 

of himfelf too, confiderinsr with what thoufand of their men.' He firft inftitutes° rderof 

ftrange abjection of fpirit he firft refigned the honourable order of the garter ; fights ten 5 

His cha- k* s crown, and then his life. He was the famous battle of Crejfey in France, in 

rafter. the firft that caufed the royal blood of which the king of Bohemia, and ten other 

England to be fhed upon a fcaffold, in the princes, with many knights, baronets, ef- 

perfon of hiskinfman, Thomas earl of Las* quires, and thirty thoufand foldiers of the 

caller , and fhed more blood of the no- French were flain. After which, the Scots 

bility by publick executions, than all the were defeated by the queen, and David 

kings that were before him fince William I. king of Scots taken prifoner. The king TakesDa- 

No wonder therefore he mould lofe foon after befieges Calice, and at laft^'^ingof 

his kingdom, even before it was taken takes it; and the Black Prince, king Ed-j ^^ 

from him ; fince by betraying himfelf ward's fon, beats the French army at Poic- J p r anfa 

firft, he taught others to do it afterwards, tiers, and takes John king of France, and prifoners. 

He was a man given up to his pleafures, his fon Philip, prifoners ; with a vaft 

and obftinately wedded to his own will : flaughter of noblemen, knights, efquires, 

Under apprehenfions of danger, he would and common foldiers ; after which, the 

vow and fwear to any thing ; and when king goes over into France with a great 

he thought the danger was over, he would army, fubdues many places there, and 

break all his oaths and promifes with the quarters the arms of France with thofe of 

fame facility as he had made them ; yet he England. David king of Scotland, after 

left fome remains of charity and piety be- eleven years imprifonment, is fet at liberty; 

Works f ^* nc * mm > nay i n g founded Oriel-College, paying one hundred thoufand marks fter- 

charity° anc * &• Mary-Hall in Oxford, and built a ling for his ranfom ; and fo likewife is 

church for friars at his manor of Langley. John king of France, after four years im- 

Marriage King Edward II. married Ifabel, the prifonment, upon a peace concluded, and 

andifTue. daughter of Philip IV. king of France, by a million paid for his ranfom. Edward 

whom he had iflfue, Edward his eldeft fon, the Black Prince dies, leaving his fon 

who fucceeded on the throne ; and John, Richard behind him ; who was by his 

furnamed Eltham, his fecond fon, who was grandfather created earl of Chejier and 

afterwards created earl of Cornwal. He had Cornwal, and then prince of Wales, and 

alfo two daughters, viz. Joan his eldeft, afterwards fucceeded to the crown, 
married to David, the eldeft fon of Robert King Edward had by his queen Philippa IfTae. 

Bruce, king of Scotland ; and Eleanor, his feven fons and five daughters, viz. i . Ed- 

fecond daughter, married to Reynold, ward, afterwards called the Black Prince ; 

duke oiQelders. 2 . William, furnamed Hatfield; 3. Lionel, 


^England and Scotland. 



His cha- 


Wat Ty- 
ler's re- 


furnamed Antwerp, afterwards duke of 
Clarence; 4. John of Gaunt, afterwards 
duke of Lancaster ; 5. Edmund of Langley, 
afterwards earl of Cambridge, and duke of 
2'orki 6. Another William, furnamed 
Wind/or, from the place of his birth j and 
7. Thomas of Wood/lock, afterwards duke 
of Gloucefter. King Edward had alfo five 
daughters by his queen Philippa, viz. 
1. Ifalel, married to Ingelram, earl of 
Bedford-, 1. Joan, efpouled to Alphonfo, 
king of Caftile and Leon, but died before 
the folemnization of the marriage -, 3. 
Blanch, who died an infant; 4. Mary, 
married to John Montfort, duke of Bri- 
tain-, and 5. Margaret, married to John 
Ha(tings, earl of Pembroke. 

This king, after a reign of fifty years, 
died at his manor of Sheen (now Rich- 
mond) in Surrey, the twenty-firit of June, 
1377, in the fixty-fourth year of his age. 

Waljingham tt\\s us, that God had never 
raifed up a king in England fo valiant, ge- 
nerous, and fortunate as himfelf. For 
monuments of his charity and munificence, 
he founded Eajlminjler abbey, near the 
'tower of London, a nunnery at Deptford, 
King's-Hall in Cambridge, fince part of 
Trinity College, an hofpital for the poor at 
Calais, and St. Stephen's chapel at Weft- 
minfter ; he nobly endowed, and alfo aug- 
mented the chapel at Windfor with the 
provifions for church-men and twenty- 
four poor knights. His other buildings 
were great and numerous, as the caftle of 
Windfor, which he re-edified and enlarged, 
the caftle of ^ueenborough, the fortifica- 
tions at Calais, and many other places. 

King Richard II. was the fon of Edward, 
prince of Wales, commonly called the 
black prince \ and was known by the name 
of Richard of Bourdeaux, from his being 
born there. He came to the crown at ele- 
ven years of age, and was crowned at 
Wejlminfler by Simon Sudbury, archbifhop 
of Canterbury: foon after which, fifty 
French fhips arrived at Rye in Suffex, who 
burnt and fpoiled that town, and divers 
other parts of the kingdom ; coming as 
far as Gravefend, which they burnt and 
rifled: The commons arofe in rebellion in 
divers places, as Kent, Eff'ex, Surrey, Nor- 
folk, Cambridge ; and the Kentifh men (be- 
ing fifty thoufand) came to London, where 
they committed many barbarous outrages 
under the command of Wat Tyler and 
Jack Straw, who were animated thereto 
by oneJohnBall, an excommunicated prieft : 
and here it mud be allowed, the young 
king fhewed fuch courage and conduct, as 
are feldom found in princes of his age, not 
being then above fourteen years old. It 
feems he treated with the feveral captains 
of the rebels, at the head of their nume- 

VOL. I. 

rous bodies j one of which, by fair words, 
he perfuaded to difperfe. And Wat Tyler, 
who was more infolent and daring than his 
companion, he commanded to be arrefted, 
and (lain at the head of his mob : and 
when the rabble cried out to revenge his 
death, with an inimitable prefence of 
mind, the king brifkly rode up to them, 
and bid them not be concerned for the 
death of a traitor, but follow him, and he 
would be their leader ♦, which refolute be- 
haviour had fuch an effect upon them, that 
they were prevailed on to difperfe and go 
home, having before plundered wherever 
they came, beheaded Simon archbifhop of 
Canterbury, and the lord treafurer Sir Ro- 
bert Hales, and deftroyed all the rolls and 
records of chancery. 

This rebellion was foon followed by ano- Duke of 
ther of greater confcquence •, for the barons, <*/»««/"- 
headed by the duke of Gloucefter, the king's [£* 
uncle, and the earl of Derby, his coufin, 
advanced as far as Highgate, with 40,000 
men, under a pretence of redrafting the 
grievances of the nation : and when the 
king fent to demand what they would have, on what 
the duke of Gloucefter, the earl of Derby, account, 
and fome of the chiefs, attended the king 
at Weftminfter, and demanded nothing lefs 
than the difmifling all his principal mini' 
fters and judges. The king was not fo 
terrified by their numbers, but he fharply 
reprehended them for levying war againft 
their fovereign ; but the earl of Derby af- 
terwards defeating the king's forces under 
the command of the duke of Ireland, they 
in plain terms threatened the king to de- 
pofe him, and elecl: another, if he did not 
comply with their demands. They alfo 
compelled him to call a parliament, have- 
ing now a force fufficient to influence the 
elections, according to their own defire. 

In this parliament they procured the 
king's mini fters, the duke of Ireland, the 
archbifhop of Tork, the earl of Suffolk, 
chief juftice Treffilian, and others, whom 
they were pleafed to denominate evil coun- 
fellers, to be attainted of high treafon ; and 
feveral of them were executed. 

The following year the king in a great The king 
meafure refumed his authority ; he de- declares 
clared himfelf of age, and that he would ^ felfof 
no longer be under the tuition of the ba- 
rons, but place and difplace his fervants and 
officers as he faw fit. Still he feemed to be 
apprehenfive of his uncle, the duke of 
Lancafter's power and influence ; where- 
upon he made him duke of Gafcony, and 
the duke went over to take pofleffion of 
that duchy. The earl of Derby, the dar- 
ling of our hiftorians, went beyond fea, as 
they fay, to improve himfelf in the art of 
war, or rather for fear of being called to 
account for his former rebellion. 

G g The 

Seizes the 
city of 

The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

Goes into 

The duke 
of Lan- 

invafi on. 

The city" of London had been fo preju- 
diced againft his majefty by the popular 
barons, that they refufed to lend him a 
thoufand pounds, and almoft knocked a 
private citizen on the head for offering to 
lend the king that fum. For this and ano- 
ther riot their privileges were feized, and 
they were forced to buy their peace with 
15000^. The duke of Lancaster (the 
kind's uncle) being accufed by a Carmelite 
fryer of treafon, the fryer was cruelly mur- 
dered, and the duke (tho' not without 
fufpicion) cleared. Berwick was taken 
by the Scots, and retaken by the earl of 
Northumberland. King Richard raifes a 
great army to conquer Scotland, but his 
defign proved abortive. Differences arife 
between the king .and the peers. The 
Scots enter England under the command of 
Sir William Dowglas, and are met and en- 
countered by the lord Henry Hot [pur: 
Dowglas was flain, and Hotfpur (going 
into Ireland) rebelled. Richard goes into 
Ireland to reduce it •, and in the mean time 
Henry, fon to John of Gaunt, duke of 
Lancafier, accufing the king of mif-go- 
vernment, the king is depoled, and after- 
wards murdered. 

Walfingham tells us, that the duke of 
Lancafier taking advantage of king Ri- 
chard's abfence, thinks of coming for Eng- 
land to demand his inheritance, with Tho- 
mas Arundel, archbimop of Canterbury, 
and the fon and heir of the earl of Arundel, 
and a fmall company. He took fhip in 
France, and hovering a while about the 
Englijh coaft, to fpy whether there were 
any ready to refill him* at length landed 
at Ravenfpur in Torkjhire, where he* was 
feconded by Henry Piercy, earl of Nor* 
thumberland, and Henry his fon •, Ralph, 
earl of JVefimor eland, and other lords •, fo 
that in a Ihbrt time he had an army of 
60,000 men. They marched fpeedily to 
■■Brifiol, befieged the caftle, and took it, 
and within it William Lefcrop, treafurer, 
Sir John Bujfy, and Sir Henry Green, all 
the king's counfellers, who the next day, 
by the clamour of the people, had their 
heads ft ruck off. The duke of Tork, the 
king's uncle, and guardian of the king- 
dom, with feveral bifhops, noblemen, and 
the king's council, confulted how they 
might oppofe the duke, but could effect 

King Richard, when he heard in Ireland 
of his landing, fecured the fons of the 
duke of Lancafier and Gloucefier in Trim 
caftle ; and (in company with the dukes 
of Albemarle, Excefier, and Surrey, the 
bifhops of London, Lincoln, and Carlijle, 
and many others) fhipped hirnfelf with 
allfpeed, in order to raife fuch a force as 
might hinder the duke's progrefs. But 


when%e landed, and underftood that the 
people and greater part of the lords had 
foriaken him, and gone over to duke Hen- 
ry, he laid by all thoughts of fighting, and 
likewife difmilTed his family, giving them 
notice by his ftewa'rd Sir Thomas Piercy, 
that they might provide for, and referve 
themfelves till better times. The king Terms of 
fhifting up and down here and there for 
many days (the duke always following 
him with his army) at length fixed at 
Conway cattle, and defired to have dif- 
cour'fe with the archbifhop and earl of 
Northumberland, to whom he declared he 
would quit his government, if he might 
have his life fecured, and an honourable 
provifion made for hirnfelf, and eight 
perfons he mould name. Thefe things The king 
granted and confirmed, he went to Flint made pri-< 
caftle, where, after a fhort difcourfe with fontT - 
the duke of Lancafier, they mounted their 
horfes, and went to Chefier caftle that night* 
the duke's numerous army following him. 

At Chefier fummons were ifiued in king 
Richard's name for the meeting of a par- 
liament on the morrow of St. Michael, or 
thirtieth of September, dated there on the 
nineteenth of Auguft, in the twenty- third 
year of his reign. In the mean time the l"n the 
king was brought to and fecured in the tower of 
tower of London, until the parliament Londm < 
mould fit, by whom he was formally de- 

There were feveral perfons commiflioned Isdepofed 
to receive his refignation ; among whom b y P arlia " 
were lords, clergymen, and lawyers ; of ment# 
the latter fort were the two chief juftices 
Theminge and Markham. Thefe commif- . 
fioners being formally alTembled in the 
Tower, king Richard was brought out in 
kingly ornaments, that he might have 
fome enfigns of glory, formally to refign. 
In this condition he was placed in a chair His 
of ftate, in this laft moment of his royal- fpeech 
ty appearing moft like a king •, for he y° u J e at *" 
mewed no diforder of mind in this great tne notice 
and unprecedented action of his life ; tell- thereof, 
ing the commifiioners, with the greate'ft 
calmnefs, in this rather hurricane than 
ftorm of fortune, ' That he came to ac- 
' knowledge thofe errors which his youth 
"* had made ill counfellers capable of im- 
c printing in him ; and that he was only 
3 troubled that he had not time allowed 

* to repair thofe injuries he had done the na- 
c tion •, knowing now, from a clear fight, 
8 that he was both willing and capable of 
*■ performing fo happy an action : for tho' 
' he once was perfuaded he was fhot at 

* through his wounded minifters, yet he 
6 now faw that it was from them he re- 
' ceived his wounds : concluding, that he 
c rather chofe the lofs of a kingdom, than 
' to engage it in blood and confufion ; 

' defiring 

to England and Scotland. 


By whom 
the fen- 
tence of 
was pro- 

£ defiring only to enjoy that peace he had 
k merited in preferVing it for others •, and 
e that he was as willing to refign his 
£ crown to the duke of Lancafter, as he 
e perceived they were willing to receive 
« it from him.* 

After this, he read the inftrument that 
was prepared for him, and made two bi- 
mops his attorneys, to declare this his re- 
fignation in parliament j which was done 
the day after, and accepted by the lords 
and commons. 

After which ad million, it was publickly 
propofed, that it would befides be much 
expedient and advantageous to the nation, 
in order to take away all fcruples and 
finider fufpicions, that many crimes and 
defects ( committed by the faid king 
during the time of his government) for 
which, as confefTed in his ceffion, he 
might be worthily depofed, might be 
drawn up in writing, and publickly read 
and declared to the people. 

Thefe articles of male-adminidration 
were thirty-three in number ; but as to 
their purport, it is not very material ; for 
as no acts of the prince can juftify rebel- 
lion and ufurpation, fo neither will fub- 
jects ever want pretences, when they are 
determined to (hake off their allegiance. 

After a recital of the articles, the par- 
liament-roll goes on, and fays, * Becaufe 
it feemed to all the dates of the king- 
dom (it being fingly and in common 
propounded to and afked of them) that 
thefe caufes of crimes and defects were 
fufficient and notorious to depofe the 
fame king, his confeffion alfo, and other 
things confidered, contained, in his re- 
nunciation and ceffion ; all the dates 
aforefaid unanimoufly confented to pro- 
ceed to the depofition of him, for the 
greater fecurity and tranquillity of the 
people, and profit of the kingdom j and 
accordingly appointed certain commif- 
fioners, the bifhop of St. Afaph, the ab- 
bot of Glajfenbury, the earl of Gloucefter, 
the. lord Berkeley, Thomas Erpyngham, 
and Thomas Grey, Knts. and William 
Therninge judice, to pronounce fentence 
of depofition againd king Richard, from 
all royal dignity, majedy and honour, in 
the name, and by the authority of all 
4 the dates, as in like cafes, according to 
' the ancient cudom of fhe kingdom, had 
c been obferved.' 

After this com million had been exe- 
cuted, and all homage and fealty of the 
dates affembled, and the regal officers had 
been refigned by their agents or proctors, 
the duke of Lancafter, who till then fat as 

a member of that houfe, rifing from his 
feat, and danding fo right up that he 
might iufficiently be feen of the people, 
humbly eroding himfelf in his forehead 
and bread, firft calling upon the name of 
Chrid, challenged the kingdom of Eng- The duke 
land, being void, with the crown, andall ofi «*- 
its members and appurtenances, in his mo- cc ! J i er lays 

. / /• • \ ■ , • r claim 

ther-tongue (lingua materna) in this form to t h e 
of words: ' In the name of Fader, Son, crown, 
and Holy Ghod, I Henry of Lancafter 
chalenge this reaume of England, and 
the croune, with all the membres and 
the appurtenances, as I am defcendit by 
ryght lyne of the blode coming fio the 
gude lord king Henry therde, and throghe 
that ryht that God of his grace hath 
fent me, with helpe of my kyn and my 
frendes to recover it. The which 
reaume was in poynt to be ondone for 
default of governance, and undoying of 
the gude lawes.' 
After this claim, as well the lords fpi- 
ritual as temporal, and all dates there pre- 
fent, were afked, one by one, what they 
they thought of it, who, without any dif- 
ficulty or delay, unanimoufly confented th 
duke fhould reign over them : and imfae^- 
diately, fo foon as he fhewed the dates of 
the kingdom king Richard's fignet, which 
.he gave him as a token of his intention, 
the archbifhop, taking king Henry by 
the right hand, led him to the royal 
throne ; and when the king had kneeled and 
prayed a while before it, the archbifhop of 
Canterbury (the archbifhop of Tork abid- 
ing him) placed him therein, the people And pro- 
for great joy fliouting mightily. claimed. 

When the fliouting was over, the arch- 
bifhop of Canterbury made a fhort preachr 
ment or collation, as it is called upon 
the roll •, his text or theme was, Vir do- 
minabitur populo.* 

This was done on the 30th of September, 
and the fame was fignified to the depofed 
king the next day ; and on the 23d of 
Oclober, it was refolved that the king 
lately depofed, fhould be put into fafe and 
fecure guard, in a place where there was 
no concourfe of people; that he fhould The de- 
be kept by fure and fufficient perfons, P ole( J 
and that none who had been his fervant, j.^"!^^ 
fhould be about his perfon : And the men t. 
whole to be executed in the mod fecret 

The depofed king, after the fentence 
of his remaining in fecure and fafe cufto- 
dy, was immediately fent to the cadle of 
heeds in Kent, and from thence to Ponte- 
fraU cadle in Torlijlrin. 

^mm^mmmm * m, ■ ——»—■ «—»»»— »<«»^ ■ g. ^j upi ■ ■ w 


i Sa 


ix. 17. 



r8 The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

Hollimfhead tells us, That one writer being flail governed by them, he loft all \ 

(but names him not) who pretends to the efteem and affection the nation once 

know more of the king's death than had for him ; and this pecafioned great, 

others, reports, that one day king Henry, hardfhips, and very unjuftifiable ufage 

fitting at dinner, fetched a great figh, from his fubjects to him, befides the ruin 

andfpakethefe words : ' Have I no faithful of his moft beloved friends. He acted 

' friend that will deliver me of him, whofe as one of a revengeful fpirit, and was 

■ life will be deftruftion to me, and diftur- guilty of many breaches of faith i for which 

* bance to the kingdom?' Upon which he more than once received his punifh- 

fpeech, one Sir Pierce de Extone prefently ment from thofe who had not the moft 

\dt the court, and went with eight men, right to inflict it. As to his temper, he 

iMurder- all arm'd, to Pontefraft caftle, enter'd the was rather profufe than liberal in his gifts 

ed. chamber where king Richard was prifoner, and expences, keeping greater ftate and 

and beat out his brains. hofpitality than any of his predeceflbrs ; 

Mr. Camden, in his Britannia, fpeaking and though we find no publick act of 

of Pontefracl caftle, fays, Hie Richardus charity done by him, yet his rebuilding Built^V- 

II. rex Anglic, quern Henricus regno fpo- of Weftminfter-hall, in that noble manner minfter- 

liavit, fame, f rigor e, & inauditis tormen- it now ftands, fufficiently fhews that he Hall as it 

tis, federate fublatus eft, i. e. Here Richard had a magnificent tafte, and might havej|™ s 

II. from whom Henry IV. took, or robbed left more examples of it, had he not been 

him of the kingdom, with hunger, and fo much engaged in domeftick broils, 
cold, and unheard-of torments, was wick- King Henry IV. began his reign the Htnry IV. 

edly killed. Tho' *9th of September, 1399. He was the 

Froyfart, who was then writing his darling of the people, and every way a 

chronicle, fays he could not tell by what compleat prince : yet having a flaw in his 

means king Richard died. Yet title, his reign was uneafy, and full of 

The parliament-roll in the firft of Edward difturbance. On the day of his corona- 

IV. fpeaks thus : " That Henry IV. taking tion, he caufed it to be proclaimed, that 

" ufurpoufly the crown and name of king he challenged the crown of England', firft, 

of England, and lord of Ireland, and By conqueft : fecondly, Becaufe king Ri- 

not therewith fatisfied or content, but chard had refigned his royal eftate to him, 

more grievous things attempting, wick- and defigned him for his fucceflbr : and 

edly, of unnatural, unmanly and cruel laftly, Becaufe he was of the blood royal, 

tyranny, the fame king Richard anoint- and next heir male to king Richard : Hares 

ed, crowned and confecrated, and his malus, indeed ! cry'd Edmund Mortimer^ 

liege and moft high lord on the earth, earl of March, to fome of his familiar, 

againft God's law, man's allegiance, friends ; and fo is a pyrate to a merchant, 

and oath of fidelity, with utmoft pu- when he takes from him all that he has. 

nition, attormenting, murdered and de- He was crowned at Weftminfter, by Tho- 

ftroyed with moft vile, heinous, and mas Arundel, archbifhop of Canterbury, 

lamentable death. and was fcarce warm in his feat, before 

In the year 1382, king Richar d married the dukes of Exeter, Albemarle, and Surrey, 

the lady Anne, daughter of the emperor with the earls of Gloucefter and Salifbury, 

Charles IV. and lifter of WenceJJaus, em- confpired to kill him, and reftore king 

peror and king of Bohemia, who died Richard again to the throne ; but their 

without iflue. And in the year 1396, he plot was difcovered before it was ripe, and 

was married to the lady Ifabel, eldeft daugh- they thereby loft their heads. Soon after 

ter of Charles king of France, then about which, king Richard was murdered at 

feven years of age ; but this marriage was Pomf ret -Caftle -, and his corps being brought 

never confummated, fo that king Richard up to London, was publickly expofed to 

left no iflue. view in St. Paul's church, that the peo- 

His cha- This prince, as to his perfon, was the pie might be aflbred he was dead. Soon 

rafter. moft amiable and handfome that ever after king Richard*?, murder, Jeffrey Chau- 

reigned fince the conqueft, agreeable to cer, and John Gower (the two princes of 

the fon of fo beautiful a father and mother ; old Englifh poets) died. All thofe noble- 

and he might have proved an excellent men, who either favoured king Richard^ 

prince, had his education been anfwerable or were raifed by him, were degraded, 

to his natural difpofition ; for there appear- difinherited, or put out of the king's fa- 

ed in him many good inclinations, which vour. The French in Aauitain begin to His 

might have grown to perfect virtues, if rebell againft king Henry, but are pacified 

they had not been blafted by corrupt flat- by Thomas Piercy earl of Worcefter. The 

terers in his youth. Thefe taught him Welfh rebell under the command of their 

luxury, vicioufnefs, and the defire of captain, Owen Glendour ; to ^pprefs 

power ; fo that in a Ihort time, by his whom, the king went thither in'f>edbn, 













His mar- 


to England and Scotland. ?p 

and quieted them, though not without advifed in all his actions. He was ready 

lofs and danger. In the year 1403, the in imagination, forward in attempts, cou- 

terrible battle of Shrew/bury was fought be- rageous in execution, and generally for- 

tween the king and the earl of Wore eft er, tunate in the event. He could not eafily 

the earl Dowglas, the lord Henry Piercy, be drawn into any caufe, but was firm 

alias Hotfpur, and others ; where, after and conftant in a good one ; yet was more 

a boody battle, Piercy was (lain, buried, eafy to be either corrupted or abufed by 

taken up again, and quartered ; the earl flattering fpeeches, than terrified by any 

of Worcefter was beheaded, Dowglas threats. His great error was his mighty 

taken, and the king victorious. Owen thirft after human glory, which made 

Glendour again raifeth wars in Wales, and him too little examine the juft and religi- 

invades the marines of England. A coun- ous means of attaining it ; for which the 

terfeit king Richard is fet up, which gives vengeance of heaven feems to have met 

king Henry much trouble. One hundred his pofterity in the third generation, 
and forty mips came out of France, and In the ninth year of Richard II. he was 

arrived at Milford- Haven, to the aid of created earl of Derby, and married Mary His mar- 

Owen Glendour. The earl of Northumber- de Bohun, the younger daughter and co- ria S es and 

land, and the lord Bardolph, rebelling, heir to Humphry earl of Hereford, EJfex y lSlxe ' 

were both taken and beheaded. Thus and Northampton, and conftable of Eng- 

was king Henry's peace always interrupted, land. By this wife he had iflue, 1. Henry 

and his reign attended with continual of Monmouth, who fucceeded him in the 

troubles. throne by the name of Henry V. 2. Thomas 

Taxes. Thefe infurrections occafioned the levy- of Lancafter, afterwards created earl of 
ing heavy taxes to fupprefs them; and Albemarle and duke of Clarence ; 3. John 
even the parliament began to be out of of Lancafter, afterwards created earl of 
temper with their glorious hero. It was Kendal and duke of Bedford ; 4. Humphrey 
with difficulty they raifed him money; of Lancafter (the youngeft fon of Henry 
and had it not been more in regard to IV. and Mary de Bohun his firft wife) after- 
their own fears of what might happen wards created earl of Pembroke, and duke 
upon another change, than any fondnefs of Gloucefler. He had alfo by this wife 
they had for him, they had difcovered yet two daughters, viz. Blanch, married to 
greater uneafinefs. the duke of Bavaria ; and Philippa, mar- 
There were feveral acts of piety and ried to John king of Denmark and Norway. 
charity done in this reign, befides thofe King Henry buried his firft wife Mary de 
by the famous William of Wickham, in Bohun, anno 1394, being before he came 
naming of which we ought not to pafs to the crown. And in 1403, he married 

Whitting. by the excellent Sir Richard Whittington, Joan of Navarre, daughter of Charles II. 

/*/Afoun- mayor of London, who erected a college king of Navarre s and relict of Mont fort, 

JndThari in that city ' with lod g in 8 s and weekl Y duke of Brittany, by whom he had no 

ties. ''allowances for divers poor people. He iffue. Shefurvived him many years. He 

erected that gate of London called New- died the 20th of March, in the 47th Death. 

gate, which before was a loathfome pri- year of his age, and 14th of his reign, 

fon; and built more than half St. Bartho- anno 141 3, and was royally interred at 

lomew's hofpital in Smithfield, and the beau- Canterbury. 

tiful library in the Gray-Friars, now called King Henry V. called alfo Henry of Mon- Henn v 

Chrift's hofpital. He alfo built a great mouth, from his being born there, fuc- 

part of the eaft end of Guild-hall, and ceeded his father king Henry IV. being 

a chapel adjoining to it, with a library crowned at Weftminfter, by Thomas Arundel^ 

of ftone for the cuftody of the records of archbifhop of Canterbury, and proved a 

the city ; and in his laft will he mewed prince of great worth, being to this day 

the higheft marks of compaffion and chri- one of the greateft ornaments of the En- 

ftianity. glifh chronicles. He revived the Englifh 

Theking's He . had all . the purifications of a great title to the crown of France, and carried 

character, and mighty prince, and by his vigour and it at laft, though he lived not to poffefs 

management furmounted infinite difficul- the kingdom : But firft he had fought the 

ties, all arifing from the want of a juft battle of Agincourt, where with 13000 

title to the crown, which drove him to men he routed the French, who were 

wade through feas of blood, and to bring 52000 ftrong. 

vaft mifchiefs upon the Englifh fubjects. Upon the conclufion of the peace with His mar- 
As to his perlon, he was of a moderate France, Henry V. in purfuance of one of . ria 2 e and 
ftature, well proportioned and compacted ; the articles of that treaty, married the lady iffue " 
of great ftrength and agility of body; Katherine, daughter of the French king, 
fktlful in arms, and of a quick difpatch, Charles VI. on the thirtieth of May 1420, 
equally mewing himfelf both earneft and in the feventh year of his reign He had 
V()L - T - H h iffue 

Co He Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

iffue by her only Henry, furnamed Wind- his fucceffor, whofe education he left to 
for, from the place of his birth, who fuc- the cardinal of Winchefter ; the govern- 
ceeded him on the throne. Queen Kathe- ment of England, till he came of age, 
vine after the king's deceaie, married to Humphry, duke of Gloucefttr ; and the 
Owen Tudor, a Welch gentleman, faid to regency of France, to John duke of Bed- 
be defcended from Coel, one of the kings ford, both the king's brothers, 
of Britain; by whom fhe had iffue Ed- King Henry VI. commonly called Henry fj eK rj VL 
raund 'Tudor, earl of Richmond, the father of Wind/or, being born there, was the only 
of Henry earl of Richmond, who afterwards iffue of Henry V. and was but eight months 
enjoyed the crown of England, by the old at the death of his father ; wherefore, 
name of Henry VII. during his infancy, the kingdom was go- 
His cha- He had all the accomplishments of body verned by his uncles the dukes of Bedford 
rafter, and mind which are required to the finifh- and Gloucefier. He was firft crowned 
ing a great man. His ftature v/as tall and at Weftminjier, by Henry Chichley, arch- 
majeftick; his body, though lean and bifhop of Canterbury, 1429; and afterwards 
(lender, had all its limbs well proportioned at Paris, 143 1, by the cardinals of Tork 
and ftrongly framed ; his neck long, his and Winchefter. He proved a religious, but 
.hair black, and a manly beauty (hined in a weak and unfortunate prince-, in whofe 
his face, as well as fparkled in his eyes, reign began the fatal quarrel for the The be- 
His ftrength and agility. was admirable in crown, betwixt the houfes of Tork andS' nmn S of 
all the exercifes he performed, which was Lancafter ; which made England bleed ^^"^ 
continually preferred by his being tern- many years, and occafioned above twelve the houfes- 
perate, chafte, inured to all the hardfhips field battles in this and the next reign, of Tork 
of war, patient of heat and cold, hunger The firft that raifed this quarrel was Ri- &n ^ ***" 
and third, and moderate in fleep. He chard duke of Tork, who claimed thc ca ^ er ' 
was a nice obferver of juftice, pious in his crown as his right, by his mother's fide, 
religion, conftant in his devotions, a great being defcended from Lionel, duke of 
patron of the church and clergy, and a- Clarence, third fonof Edward ISi and elder 
bounding in works of charity, wife in his brother of John, duke of Lancafter. He 
counfels, magnanimous in hisdefigns, and took this opportunity from the difcontents 
refolute in purfuing them j great and fome- of the people, occafioned by the king's ux- 
what referved in his temper, given to fpeak orioufnefs, and his queen's imperious and ar- 
little j but all he faid was like himfelf. As bitrary methods, who fat at the helm, while 
to his valour and bravery, his whole reign he reigned only by proxy. Thefe difcontents 
was a continued and wonderful inftance of Richard fecretly fomented, and when he 
it •, in the exercife of which his ftricteft faw his time fit for action, he laid open 
orders were fo nicely obeyed, that he re- his claim : Then began the civil wars be- 
vived the martial difcipline of the old Ro- twixt thofe two houfes, with various fuc- 
mans, by which they conquered the world, cefs on both fides ; fo that the houfe of 
And never was the Englijh valour fo glo- Tork (after long ftruggling for the crown) 
rioufly difplayed as in this reign. carried it at laft. The French, on the other 
Inftitu- _ To leave a teftimony of his affection to fide, taking advantage of thefe diffractions 
nons and arms, he firft inltituted Garter principal at home, beftirred themfelves with might 
c anties. j^g at arms ^ b e fjd es otner honourable aug- and main to fhake off the Englijh yoke, 
mentations to the order of St. George. In and recover their liberty ; infomuch that 
this reign fiourifhed, befides the moft re- Henry, who had been folemnly crowned 
nowned foldiers, many men of note for at Paris, king of France, in 143 1, loft 
arts and learning, as William Linwood, the it five years after, to Charles VII. Thus, 
great canonift of that age -, Stephen Pa- in few years, Henry had nothing left of 
trington, Robert Mafcal, Alain de Lyn, his kingdom of France, but Calais in Pi- 
Thomas Otterborn, John Sherbum, John cardy, and the Norman ifles of Jerfey and 
Lely, and many others. His works of pi- Guernfey. At home, king Henry was ta- 
ety appear in his erecting the monafteries ken prifoner at Northampton fight : where- 
of Bethlehem and Bridget, near his manor upon a parliament was called, which al- 
of Richmond, as alfo in his great donations lowed of Richard** claim, though Henry 
to the cathedral of Weftminfter, and the was to enjoy the crown during life. The 
conftituting and endowing the fraternity of king had then a young fon named Ed- 
St. Giles without Cripplegate j and in many ward, who being thus excluded from the 
other monuments of his piety and liberali- fucceffion, the queen his mother (an active 
ty, proje&ed at Oxford and other places. and martial princefs, daughter of Renata, 
Death. But in the midft of all, king Henry dies duke of Anjou and Tourain) tried every 
at Vincennes in France* having reigned nine ftep to make him fure of the fucceffion. 
years, five months, and twenty-four daysi She raifed an army in the north, whither 
leaving no ijiue but a new-born fon, Hmy t Richard went to oppofe her, and there loft 


to England and Scotland. 6l 

his life, at the battle of Wakefield. But by Humphry duke of Gloucefier. There 
Edward his eldeft fontook up the' cudgels, were many other foundations and build- 
who, at Mortimer* s-Crofs, near Ludlow, ings made in other places, as the college 
encounterM the queen's army, and came of fat/hall in Lincoln/hire, by Ralph lord 
off victorious. Upon this viclory he was Cromwell Leadenhall in London, by Simon 
proclaimed king at London \ and then Eyre, mayor; the ftandard in Cheapfide, 
Henry retired with his queen into Sc-otland, Qc. As to men of valour, the duke of 
which put a period to his reign, though Bedford, the earl of Salijbury, the lord 
he lived eleven years after. Talbot, and the earl of Warwick, were the 
Hischa. Henry VI. was, as to his perfon, comely chief, befides which there were many 
rafter. and well proportioned, and had virtues others: So that it may be faid, as there 
fufficient to make a faint; no king ever never was a more heroical king of En<r+ 
(hewing more piety an.d devotion than land than Henry V. fo never any king had 
himfelf. He had one immunity peculiar more heroical fubjects than Henry VI. who 
to himfelf, that no man could ever be re- had been trained under his .father and 
venged of him, becaufe he never offered grandfather. As to men of learning, they 
any man an injury. He was fo chafte are too numerous to be particularized : we 
and modeft, that when in a publick mafque (hall only mention John Leland the elder, 
forne ladies prefented themfelves before who wrote divers treatifes for inftruction of 
him with their breads uncovered, he im- grammarians ; Peter Bajfet, Efq; one of 
mediately rofe up, and exclaimed againft the privy chamber to Henry V. whofe life 
their behaviour : So merciful, that when he wrote j Thomas Walfingham, Thomas 
he faw the quarters of a traitor over Crip- Radburn, John Capgrave, and John Wetb- 
plegate, he caufed them to be taken down, amfted, all writers of fome parts of the 
declaring, He would have no chriftian fo Englijh hiftory ; John Lydgate, a monk of 
cruelly treated for his fake : So free from Bury, and celebrated poet ; Richard and 
fwearing, that he never ufed any affeve- Robert Hemming, Thomas Dando, and ite- 
ration, but forfooth and verily : So pa- bert Bale. 

tient, that to one who (truck him when he This king, in the year 1444, married H;s mar- 
was taken prifoner, he only faid, You Margaret, the daughter of Renata, duke r J?S e an< * 
wrong yourfelf more than me, by ftriking of Anjou, by whom he had iffue one fon ' iUe ' 
the Lord's anointed : So devout, that on only, Edward of Lancafier, who being 
the chief holy-days he ufed to wear fack- taken prifoner by king Edward IV. at the 
cloth next his (kin : And fo innocent in battle of Tewkjbury, is faid to be killed in 
general, that his confeffor declared, That cold blood by Richard duke of Gloucefier, 
for ten years fpace he never found any being then about 1 7 years old. 
thing he had faid or done, for which he King Edward IV. deleft, fon of Ri- Edward 
might juftly enjoin him penance. And chard duke of Tork, the firft king of this IV " 
herein confided his happinefs, that he was * line, was a martial prince in war, but ef- 
the only prince in the world that never feminate in peace. Pie fucceeded king 
diftinguilhed between adverfity and pro- Henry by virtue of his claim, but was fain 
fperity. to maintain his right as he had got it, by 
thousand Notwithstanding this reign was both the fword. This was a ftrange reign, Miferie* 
charitable troublefome and calamitous, it was remark- both with refpect to the prodigious effu-°\ tlu ' 3 
f?^ nda - able for many pious and charitable founda- fion of blood, as, well as the wonderful reisn * 
tions, and for feveral eminent and worthy changes and revolutions that happened in 
men. The king himfelf founded two fa- it : For fo ftifly bent was queen Margaret, 
mous colleges, the one in Cambridge, called Henry Vlth's wife, to fecure the crown to 
the College-Royal, or King* s -Co liege j and her fon, that (lie refolved either to de- 
the other at Eaton, near Wind/or; to the throne Edward, or perifh in the attempt, 
maintenance of which, he gave three In order to which, (he made fure of France 
thoufand four hundred pounds per annum', and Scotland: But nothing could happen 
and the glorious chapel of the former more favourable to her defign, than the 
(hews of what wonderful magnificence the accefiion of the potent earl of Warwick to 
whole would have been, had the founder her intereft -, whofe power was fo great, 
reigned to finifh it. In the 28th year of that he was commonly called the Make- 
his reign queen Margaret began the found- king ; for his reputation and influence were 
ation of gfueen 1 's-College in Cambridge, fo great among the people, that whatever 
Three colleges in Oxford were alfo founded fide he took he turned the fcale; and he 
in this reign y All-Souls, Bernard, and had probably re-fettled the houfe of Lan- 
Magdalen-, the two firft by Henry Chichley, cafier upon the throne of England, had 
archbifliop of Canterbury, and the latter not a miftake in. a fog made him lofe the 
by William of Wanfleet, bifhop of Win- victory in Gladmore fight, near Barnet, 
chejiery as alfo the famous divinity fchool, where he was (lain. In ihert, fuch were 




The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

the changes and revolutions of this reign, 
before it came to be fetled, that Henry 
became tv/ice a prifoner to Edward, and 
Edward once to Henry. Edward abdicated, 
and was forced to fly beyond fea, and Hen- 
ry reftored from his prifon to the throne : 
then Henry was rejected, and Edward re- 
admitted ; for the parliaments always fol- 
lowed the ftrongeft fide. Tewkjbury fight, 
in which queen Margaret was taken pri- 
foner, and her army utterly routed, at laft 
decided the quarrel. There it was that her 
fon prince Edward was taken prifoner, and 
foon after murdered by the bloody hands 
of Richard duke of Glocefter, king Edward's 
younger brother ; and king Henry himfelf, 
not long after had the fame fate, and the 
fame executioner. By which Edward re- 
mained in full pofTeffion of the crown. 
His mar- j n the year 1465 king Edward married 

iffu? and t5ie iady ^zabeth Gre y* w i dow of Sir John 
Grey of Groby, and daughter of Sir Richard 
Woodvile, Knt. afterwards earl Rivers. 
He had iffue by her three fons, 1. Ed- 
ward of York his eldeft fon, who fucceeded 
his father by the name of Edward V. 2. 
Richard of York, afterwards murdered with 
his elder brother, by their uncle the duke 
of Gloucefter. 3. George of York, who died a 
child. He had alfo by the fame queen 
feven daughters, viz. 1. Elizabeth of 
York, his eldeft daughter, married to 
Henry VII. 2. Cicely of York, afterwards 
married to John lord Wells. 3. Anne of 
York, married to Thomas Howard duke of 
Norfolk. 4. Bridget of York, who became a 
nun at Deptford in Kent. 5. Mary of York, 
who died unmarried. 6. Margaret of 
York, who died in her infancy. 7. Katherine 
of York, married to William Courtney earl 
of Devon. 

Death. King Edward IV. died at Weftminfter, 
on the ninth of April in the forty-fecond 
year of his age, and the twenty-third of 
his reign, A. D. 1483. 

His cha- Comines fays, that he was the goodlieft 

rafter. gentleman that ever his eyes beheld, tall of 
ftature, fair of completion, andofamoft 
noble prefence, yet too much inclining to 
fat in his latter days. And our author 
adds, that the gifts of his mind feem to 
drive for priority with thofe of his body, 
having a moll courageous heart and a mag- 
nanimous difpofition, being politick in 
.council, witty in converfation, and in ad- 
-verfity undaunted. In battle he was bold 
and adventurous, being prefent in nine 
feveral engagements, in which, to his great 
.renown, he always fought on foot, and was 
ever victorious. He was far from being 
proud, yet very ambitious ; and to gain 
his ends, no man was mafter of more in- 
sinuating methods than himfelf. In the 
midft of all his mining qualifications, he 

could fet no bounds to his luft or his am* 

In this reign flourifhed feveral men emi- Famous 
nent for arts and learning;, as well as menin 
valour ; as Thomas Littleton, a famous judge rei £ n ' 
of the Common-Pleas, who brought a great 
part of the law into method, which before 
was confufedly difperfed : John Forte/cue, 
a judge and chancellor of England, who was- 
famous for understanding the laws and con- 
ftitution of England: John Harding and 
William Caxton, both writers of the Englijh 
hiftory : Scogan, a learned gentleman, and 
a ftudent of Oxford, who, for his pleafant 
wit and jocular conceits, was called to 
court. And that which now began to 
give new encouragement to learning, was 
the famous art of printing, which was firft 
found out in Germany, by John Guttenburgh, 
about the year 1 440, or fomewhat later, and 
brought into England by William Caxton, a Printing 
mercer of London, and probably the fame brou g 1 >r 
with the hiftorian, who firft pradifed it in 1 ^**- 
the abbey of Weftminfter, Anno Dom. 147 1, 
and the eleventh of this reign. 

King Edward V, being the eldeft fon Edwar/ 
of Edward IV, fucceeded his father at the V. 
age of twelve years, but was never crowned, 
being foon removed by the wicked practices 
of his unnatural and ambitious uncle, Ri- 
chard (furnamed Crouchback) duke of Glou- 
cefter ; who, to clear his way to the crown, 
had, in his brother's reign, caufed his elder 
brother Clarence to be impeached of high 
treafon ; by which means he was put into 
the Tower, where he foon after ended his 
life, being faid to be drowned in a but of 
malmfey. Thus there remained no block 
in his way, but his two nephews, this king 
Edward and Richard his brother. To be 
rid of thefe young princes, he firft pro- 
cured the protectorihip to be taken away 
from the lord Rivers, the king's uncle by 
the mother's fide •, and then got into his 
clutches Richard the king's brother, whom 
the queen mother was forced to part with 



affliction and with 



glings of nature. To blind the people, he 
forthwith gave order for the king's coro- 
nation, whilft he fecretly contrived with the 
duke of Buckingham (his great coadjutor in 
his wicked defigns) to fix the crown upon 
his own head ; by whofe artifice the city of Deprived 
London was drawn in at laft, on the 1 8th of cne 
of June 1483, to proclaim Richard king of^°V" J 
England, the late king Edward and his jj], 
iflue, being reprefented to the people as 
fpurious. So that this young king reigned 
but three months, and foon after became 
(with Richard his brother) a victim to his 
uncle, and next fuccenor. 

King Richard III. was brother to Ed- Richard 
ward IV. and uncle to Edward V. who H*- 
having ufurped the crown from his ne- 

to England and Scotland. 63 

phew, made it his next bufinefs to take the 2 2d of Auguft, in the forty-third year 
away the lives both of him and his bro- of his age, and the third of his reign, 
ther, that he might reign without any A. D. 14.85, in this manner: King Ri- 
competitor. The two young princes be- chard's friends, finding a great defertion 
MurJcrs ing & ut U P m tne Tower, he caufed them in his army, and the lord Stanley with a 
his ne- to be ftifled in their beds. From which body of troops ready to join the enemy, 
fhews. t i m e the duke of Buckingham projected his advifed him to retire to fome place of 
ruin, who had been the chief inftrument ftrength, and referve himfelf for a more fa- 
in his elevation : for there was then at the vonrable juncture ; but he rejected the ad- 
court of Britaine in France, Henry earl of vice, and faid, That that day Jhould deter- 
Richmond, of the houfe of Lancafter, to mine the war or his life. The armies be- 
whom the crown was propofed, with this ing engaged, he made it his bufinefs to 
provifo, that he mould marry Elizabeth, difcover in what part of the field his ene- 
eldeft daughter of king Edward IV. where- my the earl of Richmond was, and advanced 
by the houfes of Tork and Lancafter would againft him ; and had the earl been a 
be united into one. But before the plot gentleman of equal fpirit, the two perfons 
took effect, the duke loft his head -, for moll interefted in the caufe might have 
being apprehended, Richard, without any determined the controverfy themfelves -, 
form of trial, or any regard to his former but the earl fuffered feveral of his men to 
fervices, ordered his execution. Soon af- interpofe between him and king Richard. 
ter this, the earl of Richmond landed with The king however preffed through them, 
a fmall force at Milford-haven : and as he overthrew the ftandard, and killed the 
advanced forward, being ftill reinforced, ftandard-bearer Sir William Brandon. He 
he at laft encounter'd Richard at Bofworth afterwards bore down Sir John Cheyney to 
in Leicejierjhire -, the fight was fharp and the ground, a knight remarkable for his 
obftinate, but fuccefsful to Henry, who, ftrength and valour ; and was now coming 
by this fingle victory, obtained the crown, to clofe with the earl, when the lord Stan- 
His cha- Hiftorians are divided as to this prince's ley's troops advancing to the earl of Rich- 
iaaer. character. Hollingjhead fays, as he was mond's afiiftance, the king was forced to 
fmall and little of ftature, fo was he of leave him to give the necefiary orders to 
body greatly deformed ; the one llioulder his troops ; and finding himfelf foon after 
higher than the other : .his face was fmall ; deferted by his own troops, and furrounded 
but his countenance cruel, and fuch, that by his enemies, he fold his life as dear as 
at the firft afpect a man would judge it to he could, and fell bravely in the midft of 
favour and fmell of malice, fraud, and de- them, with his fword in his hand. His 
ceit. When he flood mufing, he would army, who were the greateft part of them 
bite and chaw bufily his nether-lip -, as it in the enemies intereft, made no farther 
were, thereby denoting, that his fierce na- refiftance. The king's body was laid crofs 
ture in his cruel body always chafed, ftirred, a hori'e, and carried to Leicejler, where it 
and was ever unquiet j befides that, the was interred without any ceremony, 
dagger which he wore, he would (when King Henry VII. of the houfe of Lan-HenryWll 
he ftudied) with his hand pluck up and cafter, fucceeded Richard III. (lain in Bof- 
down in the fheath to the midft, never worth battle. He was the fon of Edmund 
drawing it fully out. He was of a ready, Tudor earl of Richmond, and Margaret his 
pregnant, and quick wit, willy to feign, wife. His birth-place was Pembroke-Caflle 
and apt to diffemble. He had a proud in Wales j fo that the prophecy of Cad- 
mind and an arrogant ftomach, the which wallador the laft king of Britain, That the 
accompanied him even to his death, ra- Britiih blood Jhould reign in Britain, came 
ther chufing to fuffer the fame by dint of to be fulfilled in this king. He married 
fword, than, being forfaken and left help- Elizabeth, eldeft daughter of Edward IV. 
lefs of his unfaithful companions, to pre- whereby the two houfes of Tork and Lan- 
ferve, by cowardly flight, fuch a frail and cafter became united into one. A great 
uncertain life, which by malice, ficknefs, part of his reign he was troubled with fe- 
or condign punifhment, was like fhortly veral impoftors, which in the end were 
to come to confufion. both detected and puniihed. A rebellion 

Marriage He married Anne, the daughter of Ri- was raifed againft him in the north by one 
and iffue. chard Nevile earl of Warwick, while he John a Chamber, a poor forry fellow ; and 
was duke of Gloucefter •, by whom he had another in the weft, headed by the lord 
iffue only Edward of Tork, who was born Audley ; both which were happily fup- 
A.D. 14.73, an d died m the life- time of preffed. He then takes part with the 
his father. duke of Britaine againft the French king : 

Is killed King Richard was killed at Bofworth, he befiegeth Bulloign, and afterwards makes 
in battle, near Leicefter, in the battle fought there an honourable peace with the French, FJe 
between him and the earl of Richmond, on marries his elden; daughter into Scotland, 
Vol. I. I i and 

The Voyage of D00. Gonzales, 

and his youngeft into France ; and his fon 
Arthur to the infanta of Spain, who died 
five months after his marriage. The king 
and queen of Cafiile being driven into 
England by a ftorm, were royally enter- 
tained by the king. He fets up pmpfim 
and Dudley to opprefs the people, by pro- 
fecuting them upon obfolete laws: and 
having reigned near twenty- four years, he 
departed this life at his royal palace of 
Richmond, April 22, 1509 (having lived 
fifty -two years) and was buried at his 
chapel adjoining to Wefiminfier-Abbey,. 
called Henry the feventh's chapel, 
tiismar- King Henry VII. married the lady Eli- 
riage and za ^ e tb, elded" daughter of Edward IV. by 
iirue - whom he had iffue, 1. Arthur Tudor, his 
eldeft fon, who afterwards married the 
princefs Katberine of Spain, and died with- 
out ifTue in the life-time of his father j 
2. Henry Tudor, his fecond fon, who fuc- 
ceeded his father in the throne ; 3. Ed- 
. wund Tudor, his third fon, who died at a 
year old. He had alfo four daughters, 
viz. 1. Margaret Tudor, married to James 
IV. king of Scots -, 2. Elizabeth Tudor, 
who died at three years of age ; 3. Mary 
Tudor, married to Lewis XII. king of 
France, and afterwards to Charles Brandon 
duke of Suffolk ; 4. Katherine Tudor, who 
died foon after Ihe was born. 
His cha- He was a prince of great vigour and 
rafter. ftrength of body ; lean, and of ftature 
taller than the common fort ', of a won- 
derful beauty and fair complection, with a 
countenance pleafing and fmiling, efpeci- 
ajly in converfation : yet he had a high 
fpirit and haughty courage, and governed 
without a rival -, not admitting any to ap- 
proach nearly either his power or his fe- 
crets, and all without any affected orien- 
tation. He was a man of wonderful abi- 
lities, and had many excellent qualificati- 
ons : he was fober, moderate, chafte, and 
pious ; had a quick wit, and a profound 
penetration. He ufed all means to pro- 
cure good intelligence, and was mailer of 
tjie fecrets of all courts and factions, while 
lie himfelf remained in the dark to them : 
and he did not fpare even to proflitute re- 
ligion itfelf, to compafs his defigns, and 
difcover the intrigues of his enemies. He 
cared not how ilibtle his minifters were, 
having the mafter-reach himfelf. But 
what is much to be admired, he was ferved 
fo faithfully, that he did not difplace one 
jninifter, except the lord-chamberlain, in 
all his reign. He was of a fufpicious in- 
quifitive temper, and more feared than 
ipved by his fubjects ; but yet of a very 
infinuating behaviour, to bring about any 
defign he had fixed on. He was not given, 
to pleafures, but made them fubfervient 
to his interefts ; and had no great fliare of 

learning, though he underflood men and 
things admirably well. 

It may not be amifs to take notice ofThe 
the fweating-ficknefs, which happened J w £ atl "g- 
in the firft year, of this reign ; of which 
my lord Bacon gives us the following ac- 
count : 

He fays, in autumn, towards the end 
of September, there began and reigned in 
the city, and other parts of the kingdom, 
a difeafe then new ; which, from the ac- 
cidents and manner thereof, they called the 
fweating-ficknefs . This difeafe had a fwift 
courfe, both in the fick body, and in the 
time and period of the falling thereof ; 
for they that were taken with it, upon 
twenty-four hours efcaping, were thought 
almoil aflured. And as to the time of 
the malice and reign of the difeafe before 
it ceafed, it began about the 21ft of Sep- 
tember, and cleared up before the end of 
October \ infomuch that it was no hindrance 
to the king's coronation, which was the 
laft of OcJober ; nor (which was more) to 
the holding of the parliament, which be- 
gan but feven days after. It was a pefli- 
lent fever ; but, as it feemed, not feated 
in the veins or humours ; for that there 
followed no carbuncle, no purple or livid 
fpots, or the like, the mafs of the body 
being not tainted ; only a malign vapour 
flew to the heart, and feized the vital fpi- 
rits, which excited nature to ftrive to fend 
it forth by an extreme fweat. And it ap- 
peared by experience, that this difeafe was 
rather a furprife of nature, "than obflinate 
to remedies, if it were in time looked into : 
for if the patient were kept in an equal 
temper, both for clothes, fire, and drink, 
moderately warm, with temperate cordials, 
whereby nature's work were neither irri- 
tated by heat, nor retarded by cold, he 
commonly recovered : but infinite perfons 
died of it, before the manner of cure and 
attendance was known. It was conceived 
not to be an epidemick difeafe, but to 
proceed from a malignity in the confritu- 
tion of the air, gathered by the predifpo- 
fitions of feafons : and the fpeedy cefTa- 
tion declared as much. 

This, reign being of a confiderable Henry 
length, and replenifhed with a great va- Va- 
riety of events, I fhall only touch upon 
the mod confiderable tranfactions of it, 
in order to form a character of this 

Having folemnized his marriage with 
the princefs Katherine of Spain, his bro- 
ther Arthur's widow, about fix weeks af- 
ter his accefiion, he proceeded to punifh 
the inftruments of his father's extortions, 
namely Empfom and Dudley, who were at- Emp/om 
tainted and executed as traitors ; tho' they and ^»^- 
infifled in their defence, that they had^* e " ' 


to England #//*/ Scotland. 


only put the laws in execution, in obe- his devotion. The king indulged his 
dience to -the commands of the late king, youthful inclinations, purfued his pleafures 
Their under-agents were not fo feverely and pompous way of living, and feemed 
dealt with, being only pillory'd, fined, and to leave the weighty affairs of ftate en- 
imprifon'd. I tirely to the cardinal ; who advanced .or 
This was a mod popular act in the ruined whom he pleafed : and having ob- 
king in the beginning of his reign ; and tained a bull from the pope to vifit all the 
it would have been much more fo, had he monafteries and clergy of England, and to 
reftored what had been unjuftly taken, as difpenfe with all church-laws for a year, 
he promifed : But moft of that prodigi- he erected a court called the legate's court ; 
ous treafure* his father had by this means where he made ftrict inquiries into the 
acquired, he fpent, as young heirs gene- Jives of the ecclefiafticks, encouragd infor- 
rally do, in fhews, jufts, mafias, revels and mations againft them, and by that means 
fuch like diverfions, which he was moft extorted immenfe fums from them, 
extravagantly fond of. A treaty being fet on foot between Eng- 
In the mean while he did not feem to land and France in the tenth year of this 
be altogether unmindful of affairs of ftate; reign, it was agreed that the dauphin 
for he vigoroufly profecuted a war in mould marry the princefs Mary, and Tour- 
France, and took feveral towns on the nay be reftored to the French ; but upon 
frontiers, the moft confiderable whereof parting with the bifhoprick, the cardinal 
were Terowen and Tournay. But before ftipulated to have an annual fum of twelve 
the king invaded France, for the fecuring thoufand livres Tournais in the room of it. 
his dominions at home, he caufed the It was about this time, .viz. in the year Reforma-, 
Earl of earl of Suffolk to be beheaded, who had 151 7, that Martin Luther began the re- tlon ^ e ' 
Suffolk been many years prifoner in the tower, formation in Germany. The following %artfn 
beheaded, 'j^ gentleman, nearly related to the year Charles king of Spain, and Francis Luther. 
houfe of Tork, and fufpected ofdefigns the French king, ftood candidates for the 
againft the late king, had fled into Flan- empire ; and the king of Spain was elected. 
ders, and was delivered up by the arch- This made them mortal enemies, and 
duke, on a promife of {paring his life 5 great preparations for war were made, and 
yet contrary to all good faith, he was now alliances enter'd into by each of them, 
lacrificed, on thofe moft detefted princi- Both princes courted Wolfey, and fent him 
pies, which go under the name of reafons continual prefents ; but the emperor's in- 
of ftate. tereft, as well as prefents, being moft con- 
Scotland, according to ancient ufage, (iderable, the cardinal is faid to incline to 
endeavoured to make a diverfion in fa- that fide. 
Scots de- vour of the French ; but the earl of Sur- The emperor came into England in the 
feated. rey, the king's general, obtained a fignal year 1520, in order to enter into a ftricter 
victory over them at Flodden-field, king alliance with the crown ; and the fame 
James IV. (brother-in-law to king Henry) year the French king obtained an interview 
being killed in the action. with king Henry near Guifnes, where the 
In the fifth year of this reign, A. D. two kings entertained one another with 
1514, a peace was concluded with France; jufts and tournaments, the ufual exercifes 
and, in purfuance of one of the articles, and diverfions of the great men of thofe 
the princefs Mary, the king's youngeft times ; wherein both kings are faid to 
filter, was married to Lewis the French have fhewn great dexterity and valour : 
king •, who dying within three months but as it was good manners in their oppo- 
after the marriage, me was married again nents to fuffer themfelves to be handfome- 
in lefs than a year to Charles Brandon duke ly beaten, we fee the crown'd heads con- 
of Suffolk, a favourite of king Henry's,. ftantly crown'd with victory. 

Cardinal * n t ^ ie ^ ixt ^ y ear °^ ^is re ig n » Thomas King Henry being returned to England^ 

tVolfey, Wolfey, the king's almoner, who, from a to fhew he was no lefs mafter of his pen 

hisrii'e. butcher's fon of Ipfwich, had, by his parts than his fword, wrote a book againft Lu- Objected 

and dexterity arrived to be a dignitary in ther, and prefented it to popei>0 ; where- t0 tyH en - 

the church, and a minifter of ftate, began upon his holinefs gave, or rather con- ry 

to ingrofs his prince's favour. On the firmed to him the title of defender of 

taking of Tournay, he was made bifhop of the faith. And though this prince was 

that city -, and a little after of Lincoln ; vain enough in other refpects, yet there 

and the fame year archbiihop of, Tork, was no accomplifhment he valued himfelf 

cardinal, and legate a latere, by which he fo much upon, as his learning and his ta- 

had the iuperiority of the archbifhop of lent at writing ; and was feldom fhocked 

Canterbury : and, indeed, as he was prime at the grofTeft pieces of flattery that were 

minifter at the fame time, he had the, offered him on thefe occafions -, for not 

whole clergy and laity of the kingdom at qnly his courtiers, but his parliaments and 



The Foyage of Don Gonzales, 

convocations, the clergy and laity, feemed 
to vie with one another in magnifying his 
oreat abilities, and ufed to addrefs him m 
fanguage fitter for a 'Deity than a mortal 


But While the king was thus wrapt up 
in the contemplation of his own perfec- 
tions, and in a belief, that he was as much 
fuperior to the reft of mankind in the en- 
dowments of his mind, as he was in qua- 
lity and fortune, Wolfey governed the ftate 
without controul ; and the unfortunate 
duke of Buckingham; indifcreetly reflecting 
on the haughty arrogance of this proud 
prieft, drew on him a profecution for high 
treafon, and fell a victim to his malice. 
He was tried by his peers, convicted and 
executed for defigns againft the govern- 
ment, which no man ever thought him 
guilty of; and the proof confifted of Tome 
loofe unguarded expreftions, rather jocofe 
than dangerous. Put it was enough, in 
that reign, to be marked out by a prime 
minifterfora traitor: deftruction certainly 
enfued ; neither peer's or jterliarrient ever 
hefitated to compliment their prince with 
any head his minifters demanded. With 
this nobleman's life determined the place 
of high-conftable of England, which has 
not been revived fince. 

In the year 1521, cardinal Wolfey went 
over to Calais, to mediate a peace be- 
tween France and the emperor, but to no 
'effect. During the cardinal's flay at Ca- 
lais he kept the great feal of England 
there, being at that time lord chan- 
cellor ; and thither all writs and patents, 
which required the great feal, were fent to 
be fealed. Pope Leo dying a little after, 
Wolfey at- the cardinal made great application to the 
tempts emperor for his intereft to be elected pope ; 
chai? apal but Adrian, cardinal of Tortofa, and tutor 
to Charles the emperor, was elected. 

There happening a rupture between 
England and France in the year 1522, the 
emperor came over into England, and en- 
ter'd into a new alliance with king Henry. 
The king being about to declare war 
againft France, caufed a furvey to be made 
of all the lands in England, much in the 
nature of Doom/day, in order to get an ac- 
count of the wealth and eftates of his fub- 
jects-, which, when he had received, he 
fent out commiffions to demand money of 
them by way of loan : but this not an- 
fwering his expectations, he called a par- 
liament in the year 1523, which was the 
only one he had called in feven years. The 
convocation was aflembled at the fame 
time, and gave the one half of their re- 
venues towards the war, to be paid in five 
years ; the parliament gave three millings 
in the pound, to be paid in four years by 
thofe who had eftates of fifty pounds a 

year, and two millings in the pound on 
thofe whofe eftates were under that value. 
Then the parliament was diflblved, and 
no other called in feven years after. 

King Henry, in purfuance of his alliance 
with the emperor, fent over a body of 
troops, under the command of the duke 
of Suffolk, to join his forces in the Low- 
Countries, and march into France ; which 
they did with good fuccefs, and advanced 
within eleven leagues of Paris -, but the 
emperor's army not being duly paid, they 
were forced to retire, and abandon all 
their conquefts. Pope Adrian dying about 
this time, cardinal Wolfey made another Makes a 
attempt to mount the papal chair-, but fecond at - 
was difappointed, and Julio Medici elected temi>t ' 
pope, by the name of Clement VII. But 
though the cardinal failed in that attempt, 
he procured of the new pope to have his 
legantine power enlarged in England, and 
continued to him for life ; and he alfo 
obtained a bull, empowering him to dif- 
folve fome of the leffer monafteries, in 
order to erect two colleges *, one at Jpf- 
ivich; the place of his nativity, and the 
other at Oxford. 

In the fixteenth year of this reign, com- 
miflions were iflued for levying a fixth 
part of the goods of the laity, and a fourth 
of the clergy ; which fo difgufted the peo- 
ple, that it had liked to have occafioned 
an infurrection : whereupon the king con- 
tented himfelf with a benevolence. 

The cardinal, by the multitude of the 
temporal and ecclefiaftical employments 
and offices which he held, but principally 
by the extortions of his officers in the 
legate's courts, and his vifitation of mo- 
nafteries, acquired fuch wealth, that his 
treafure was looked upon as equal to the 
king's : and that his majefty might take Compro- 
the lefs notice of it, he constantly in- mifes 
dulged and promoted his pleafures, and Wlth * he 
gave him to underftand he had left him ^"fx^. 
the greateft part of it in his will -, and ordinary 
gave the king the fine palace he had wealth, 
built at Hampton-court. ■ 

The princefs Mary having been offered 
in marriage to the dauphin and the em- 
peror, had given occafion to thofe courts 
to inquire into the legality of her father 
king Henry's marriage with her mother 
queen Katherine ; from whence it is fup- 
pofed the king took the firft hint of fcru- 
pling the validity of it himfelf. But 
however that matter be, in the year 1528, 
the king defired the opinion of the Englifh 
bifliops upon that fubject j and all of them, 
except Dr. Fifher bifhop of Rochefler, de- 
clared, by a writing under their hands, 
that his marriage with his brother's wife 
was unlawful. 

Having this encouragement to hope for 

a fe- 


to England and Scotland. 

a reparation, and the queen being became to procure the opinion of the foreign uni- 

unacceptable to him, on account of fome verfities, as to the validity of his marriage 

difeafes fhe had contracted, and the little with his brothers widow ; for if it fhould 

likelihood there was of having any male- prove to be the general opinion that it was 

iffue by her ; but above all, being taken contrary to the law of God, he held that 

with the beauty of Anne Bulletin one of her no difpenfation of the pope could eftablifh 

maids, he applied to the pope for a di- it. 

vorce •, and at his inftance cardinal Cam- The decifions of the foreign univerfities 

pejus was difpatched to England, to hear anfwered the king's expectations ; and the 

the caufe jointly with cardinal Wolfey ; and king procured a letter to the pope from 

he brought over with him a decretal bull the lords fpiritual ahd temporal, reprefent- 

for annulling the marriage, which he ing the hardnefs of his cafe; and threaten- 

fhewed the king, but would not fuffer it ing, unlefs fome difpatch was made in his 

, to be communicated to others : and it is fuit, they mould find out another remedy 

faid the legates had fecret infr.ru6r.ions not to relieve him. 

to determine any thing. However, a The convocation, and the two univerfi- 
court was formally erected, and the king ties of Oxford and Cambridge, concurred 
and queen cited to appear, which they with the foreign univerfities in the ille- 
did in perfon ; but the queen protefted gality of the king's marriage : But this did 
againft the legates, as incompetent judges, not fave the clergy from a profecunon, for 
withdrew out of court, and never ap- fubmitting to the legantine authority, and 
peared there any more, but appealed to breaking the ftatutes of provifors ; where- 
the pope. The court, notwithftanding, by they were adjuged to have incurred a 
proceeded to examine witnefles, as if they praemunire, and were forced to pay the 
really intended to come to fome determi^ king 100,000 pounds to obtain their par- 
nation ; but, unexpectedly, the pope fent don ; notwithftanding they urged, that 
over letters of avocation, and put an end the king himfelf had encouraged Wolfey* s 
to the legates powers ; and a citation came legantine power, and therefore it was 
over for the king to appear at Rome, which hard they mould be punifhed for difobey- 
he would not fuffer to be publifhed. ing it. 

The king finding himfelf abufed, and On the 14th of July, 153 1, the king 

that nothing was ever really intended by thought fit finally to feparate himfelf 

all this formal procefs, which had put from queen Katherine, after fhe had lived 

Fall of him to a vaft expence, refolved to revenge with him as his wife two and twenty 

Wolfey. himfelf upon Wqlfey, who had concurred years. 

with Campejus, in delaying and avoiding The next year the king procured an act 

the coming to any determination, till the of parliament againft paying any firft fruits 

letters of avocation arrived. The firft or annates to Rome. On the other fide, 

inftance of his difpleafure againft Wolfey the pope wrote to the king, complaining, 

he difcovered in taking from him the that notwithftanding a fuit was depending 

great-feal, and giving it to Sir Thomas concerning his marriage, he had put away 

More. Soon after an information was laid his queen, and kept Anne Bullen as his wife, 

againft him, and he was adjudged to have contrary to a prohibition ferved on him ; 

incurred a praemunire, in procuring bulls and required him to live with his queen, 

from Rome, and executing his legantine and put away the other ; and cited the 

power by an authority derived from that king to appear at Rome in perfon, or by 

fee ; and, in purfuance of this judgment, proxy. 

his palace, called Tork-houfe, now White- The king fent Sir Edward Karne and 
hall, and all his immenfe riches and effects, Dr. Bonner to Rome, to excufe his appear- 
were feized to the king's ufe: However, ance; but a little while after, going over to 
he was permitted to eniov the bifhop- France, to an interview with Francis the .2 
ricks of Tork and Winchefler, and as many French king, he took over Mrs. Bullen AnmBul- 
of his goods were reftored him, as amount- with him, and married her at Calais. ten. 
ed to 6000 pounds. This appearance of In the year 1533, an a< ^ of parliament 
returning favour the cardinal was infinite- was made, prohibiting all appeals to Rome ; 
ly tranfported with, but did not rejoice but the pope was fo compJaifant notwi th- 
in it long ; for being retired to his palace (landing, as to grant a bull for the confe- 
at Tork, he was fome months afterwards crating Dr. Cranmer archbifhop of Canter- 
arretted there for high-treafon, and ordered bury ; which was the laft bull of that na- 
to the Tower, but died on the road to ture that was received in England. The 
London. archbifhop was no fooner confecrated, but 
Soon after the fall of Wolfey, Dr. Cran- a formal procefs was begun before him 
mer came upon the ftage. His rife is at- concerning the legality of the king's mar- 
tributed to the advice he gave the king riage with the princels Katherine ; and he 
Vol. I. K k gave 

68 The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

cave fentence, that the marriage was null and mifprifion of treafon to fpeak againft 
and void from the beginning, and both them 

mrties at liberty to marry : though this And an oath was required to be taken 
Hcrment feems to come a little of the to maintain and defend the contents of 
hteft the king being already married to this ad, viz. the unlawfulnefs of the king's 
Anne * Bullen who was about this time marriage with the princefs Katherine, the 
Kroueht to bed of the princefs Elizabeth, lawfulnefs of the king's marriage with the 
afterwards queen of England. lady Anne Bullen, and the fucceffion of the 

The pope hearing of Dr. Cranmer's crown as hereby limited. The refufers 
fentence was highly* incenfed at it, and of the oath to be adjudged guilty of mif- 
formally annull'd it at Rome. prifion of treafon. 

But notwithstanding all the provoca- The lord chancellor More, and bifhop 
tions that had been given on both fides, Fijher, refilling to take the oath in the 
things were very near being accommodated aft of fucceffion, were committed to pri- 
between the courts of Rome and England ; fon, where the old bifhop was ufed very 
and the pope had agreed to give fentence barbaroufly. They did not fcruple fwear- 
for the king, provided he would return to ing to the fucceffion, it feems, as limited 
the obedience of that fee. And the king by parliament ; but the declaring the 
accordingly made a formal fubmiffion in king's firft marriage unlawful, when the 
writing •, but the courier being retarded in pope had determined otherwife. 
his journey by bad ways, the winds, and Another aft was paffed in this parlia- 
other accidents ; and the imperial faftion ment, whereby it was made treafon to 
preffing to have the affair fpeedily dif- deny the king's titles or fupremacy, or to 
patched, under pretence that the king re- call him heretick or fchifmatick. Upon 
mained 'obftinate, fentence was given a- this aft feveral perfons were committed 
gainft the king but two days before the and executed •, and among the reft bifhop 
courier arrivecTwith his fubmiffion; nor Fifier and Sir Thomas More : the laft butJ™°P 
could the confiftory be prevailed on to upon very flender evidence; his very fi- and others 
re-hear the caufe. k nce m tne matter of the fupremacy being executed. 

Denies " The king was fo provoked with this made one proof of his denying it. And 
the pope's u f a g e> t h at ne paffed an aft for abro- as the fupremacy was then explained and 
fuprema- gatin g tne pope's authority ; and another, praftifed, it was pretty difficult for any 
Cy ' declaring himfelf fupreme head of the man to fubfcribe to it ; for the king 

church of England. By thefe afts great feemed to claim a power equal to Chrift 
part of the power of that fee was de- himfelf, when he iffued^commiffions to 
volved upon the king. The convocation the bifhops to ordain, confecrate, and ad- 
alfo concurred with the parliament, in re- minifter the facraments, and perform all 
during the pope's power, and eftablifhing other parts of their fpiritual function, 
the kind's fupremacy. The church was now indeed a creature of 

An act alfo palled, confirming the fen- the ftate, and the religion of thofe days 
tence annulling the king's marriage, and not improperly ftiled a parliamentary re- 
fettling the fucceffion of the crown. ligion. And 

By this aft, the king's marriage with The king did not only look upon him- 
the princefs Katherine is adjudged to be felf as fupreme head of the church in the 
void, the feparation valid, and the moft extended fenfe ? but that he had 
king's marriage with queen Anne juft and power to delegate this authority to whom 
lawful : marriages within the degrees pro- he pleafed ; and accordingly he made Crom- 
hibited by Mofes, are declared to be void, wel his vicar-general, and afterwards vice- 
and that no man hath power to difpenfe gerent, by virtue whereof he took place of 
with God's law ; and that perfons then the archbifhops and bifhops, as well as 
married within thofe degrees mould be the lay nobility. 

feparated, and their iffue to be judged il- A general vifiration of the monafteries S W^ 
legitimate : that the children between was alfo begun about this time, and many jj°" o ° s r 
the king and queen Anne mould be held of them by threats and other means were houfes. 
legitimate ; and that the crown fhould be induced to furrender their charters : And 
entailed firft on the male iffue of the faid the next year, viz. anno 1536, an aft of 
marriage, remainder to the lady Elizabeth parliament was made for fuppreffing all 
their daughter, and the other female iffue the leffer monafteries, and giving their 
of the fame marriage according to their fe- revenues to the king ; and another foon 
niority, remainder to the king's right after for fuppreffing the greater, 
heirs. In the year 1536, happened the dif- 

And it was made treafon to write againft grace and deftruftion of queen Anne Bullen. 
the lawfulnefs of the king's marriage, or the Our hiftorians impute it to the king's luft, 
fucceffion to the crown as hereby limited j or reafons of ftate, or both. 


to England and Scotland. 



They fay, that queen Katherim being 
dead, queen Anne was now the only ground 
of the controverfy between the king, the 
pope, and the emperor : and that if fhe 
was difpatched, the king could eafily re- 
concile himfelf to Rome and the emperor ; 
and the ifiue he fhould have by a third 
wife would be held on all hands to be le- 
gitimate. They fay alfo, that the king 
had already caff, his eyes upon the lady 
Jane Seymour, and was determined to re- 
move all obftacles to his enjoyment of her. 
But however that be, queen Anne was com- 
mitted to the Tower, arraigned, and con- 
victed by her peers of high-treafon, in 
being falfe to the king's bed. But this 
did not fatisfy king Henry ; for he made 
Dr. Cranmer pronounce fentence for an- 
nulling the marriage between her and the 
king, by reafon of a pre-contract with the 
carl of Northumberland. And it muft be 
acknowledged king Henry gave the world 
fufficient reafon to believe the word that 
has been fuggefted on this occafion, by 
Qaeen marrying the lady Jane Seymour the day 
AweBul- after queen Anne was beheaded. 
ten be- Another inftance of this king's tyranny, 

though not quite fo tragical, was the com- 
pelling his daughter the princefs Mary to 
acknowledge him fupreme head of the 
church, and that his marriage with her 
mother was inceftuous ; both which points 
he knew to be directly contrary to her 

After this he bullied his mean-fpirited 
parliament into a new act of fucceflion. 
This act recites, that there were many 
lawful impediments, unknown at the 
making of the act of fucceflion, 25 Hen. 
VIII. c. 22. which fince that time were 
confeffed by the lady Anne, before 'Thomas 
archbifhop of Canterbury, fitting judicially 
for the fame ; by reafon of which impedi- 
ments, the king's marriage with her was 
never good, nor confonant to the laws •, 
and therefore queen Elizabeth was declared 
illegitimate : And it was declared treafon 
for any man to judge or believe the mar- 
riage between the king and the lady Ka- 
therine, or Anne, to be good, lawful, or 
of any effect. It was alfo in this act declared 
treafon for any one to take, accept, name, or 
call any of the children, born and procreated 
under thefe unlawful marriages, legitimate, 
or lawful children of the king •, and there- 
fore the crown was fettled on the king and his 

heirs male by his lawful queen Jane - 7 and 
for want of fuch iffue by her, upon his heirs 
male by any other lawful wife ; and for 
want of heirs male, upon his heirs fe- 
male by queen Jane, or any other law- 
ful wife j and for want of lawful heirs of 
his body to be procreated and begotten, as 
is limited by this act, to fuch perfon and 
perfons in pofTeflion and remainder as 
mould pleafe the king; and according to 
fuch eftate, and after fuch manner, form, 
fafhion, order, and condition, as fhould be 
expreffed, declared, named, and limited 
by his letters patent, or by his laft will. 

He alfo procured another ftatute, That 
whatever act fhould pafs in the minority 
of any of his fucceffors (under twenty- 
four) they might reverfe by their letters 
patent. And the convocation, who were 
no lefs his flaves than the laity, confirmed 
the fentsnee, declaring his marriage with 
queen Anne null and void. 

In the year 1536 the fix bloody articles Bloody ar« 
of religion, a which were framed by the tic! . es . of 
king, were eftablifhed by aft of parlia- lslon * 
ment, by virtue whereof he frequently 
burnt proteftants and papifts in the fame 
fire. The refufing to affent to any of his 
whimfies in religion, was inevitable de- 
struction. If any perfon worfhipped any 
other God (or, which is the fame thing, 
worfhipped God under any other notion) 
than he was pleafed to prefcribe, he was to 
expect the fiery furnace. And 

We find the commiffioners he had em- 
ployed in the fupprefling monafteries, were 
guilty of all manner of oppreffions and 
extortions; ten thoufand of the religious 
being at once turned out to ftarve, with 
only forty millings a- piece in their pockets. 
Thefe were many of them of good fami- 
lies, and bred up to letters •, which made 
it appear an act of the greateft tyranny, 
fuch perfons being generally unable to pro- 
vide for themfelves by laborious employ- Demoli- 
ments. The churches and cloifters, which tion of 
the piety of former ages had erected, and churches, 
which had been places of great hofpita- 
lity, to fay no more of them, were pulled 
down and demolifhed ; and all the mate* 
rials, with their furniture and ornaments, 
expofed to publick fale, and their revenues 
feized for the king's ufe. But the deftruc- 
tion of thefe venerable and noble founda- 
tions was even then fo generally detefted, 
that nothing could have fecured the facri- 


* Of which the following is a tranfeript: i. That after the words of confecration fpoken by the prieft, 
the real and natural body and blood of Chrift, as he was conceived and crucified, was in the facrament, 
and no other fubltance confining in the form of bread and wine, befides the fubftance of Chrift, God and 
man. 2. That the communion in both kinds was not necefTary unto falvation, the flefh only in the form 
of bread fufficient for the laity. 3. That prielts, after they had received orders, might not marry by the 
law of God. 4. That the vows of chaftity, either in manor woman, ought by God's law to be obferved, 
and by which they are exempted from other liberties of chriftian people. 5. That private maffes were ne- 
ceflary for the people, and agreeable to the law of God. 6. That auricular confefliou was expedient to be 
retained and continued in the church of Ged. 


The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

Lady Jane 
the king's 
third wife, 
dies in 

legious plunderers, or even the king him- 
felf upon the throne, but that accurfed 
policy of letting the nobility and gentry 
into a (hare of the profit. 

Not that I would be thought to coun- 
tenance the abufes of thofe charitable en- 
dowments-, but, as the intention of the 
royal and noble donors was to do honour 
to Almighty God, and good to mankind, 
jurely they ought ftill to have been applied 
to fuch purpofes, and not facrilegioufly in- 
vaded by impious hands, whofe ultimate 
end was the enriching themfelves and 
their families. Can it ever be believed, 
that out of thofe prodigious, but facred 
ruins, one hundredth part of the value was 
not applied to any pious or charitable pur- 
pofes? Surely there is a wide difference be- 
tween a total deftruction and a reformation : 
And exceeding ftrange it is, that when 
preaching came fo much in vogue, they 
mould not leave even a fubfiftence for the 
preachers in moft of the in Eng- 
land. The improved rents of the abbies 
and monafteries that were deftroyed, 
amounted to at leaft 1,500,000^ per 

But I mould have remembered before 
this, that queen Jane having brought the 
king a fon (afterwards Edward VI.) died 
in child-bed the 24th of Oftober 1537, 
being a little more than a year after her 


The king 
lady Anne 

Cromwel^ to ilrengthen his own and the 
proteftant intereft, propofed the king's 
marrying the lady Anne Cleve, fitter to the 
duke of Cleve, whofe eldeft fifter had 
married the duke of Saxony, one of the 
greateft champions for the reformation in 
Germany. But unhappily for Cromzvel, the 
king entertained an averfion to her as foon 
as he faw her •, and though for reafons of 
ftate he folemnized the marriage, he ftill 
meditated how to difengage himfelf from 
her; and for want of a better, after he 
had been married a few months, he revived 
an old objection, which he had before ex- 
amined, and knew there was nothing in, 
namely, a pretended pre-contract between 
his queen and the prince of Lorrain. He 
pretended too, that he never inwardly con- 
fented to the marriage, and had never 
confummate4 it: And on thefe allegations 
he procured his marriage with her to be 
annulled by the good natured archbifhop, 
and the whole convocation. The reafon 
of this hafty and abfurd proceeding was 
occafioned, it feems, not only by the aver- 
fion the king had for this queen, but by a 
new paflion he had entertained for the lady 
Katherine Howard, neice to the duke of 
Norfolk, and firfl coufin to Anne of Bullen. 

As Cromwel had been the principal pro- 
moter of the match with the lady Anne 

Cleve, and oppofed that with the lady 
Howard, he was foon made a facrifice to 
the refentment of her and her relations. 
This man, who had found out the way to 
bring fuch immenfe wealth into the king's 
treafury, by the fuppreffion of the monaf- 
teries, who had been the king's vicegerent, 
and given laws both to the ecclefiaftical 
and civil powers ; who was at the fame' 
time lord privy-feal, lord chamberlain, and 
mafter of the rolls : This great minifter, 
and moft obfequious fervant, did the king 
offer a victim to the caprice of a lafcivious 
woman. He was attainted in parliament 
of high-treafon and herefy, without ever 
being heard in his defence, a proceeding 
that he himfelf is faid to have too much 
encouraged. And one thing is very re- 
markable, that he who had been fo notable 
a reformer, and under that pretence had 
feized the revenues of the church, when 
he came to die, acknowledged he had been 
feduced, and died a zealous papift. 

The king's marriage with the lady Anne 
Cleve was alio declared void in parliament, 
and it was made high-treafon to believe it 
to be good ; though in the very fame ie{- 
fions they pafled an act, that no pre-contract 
mould annull a marriage folemnized in the 
face of the church •, fo extremely vile, fo 
mean and bafe were the whole three ef- 
tates in this reign, that they made no fcru- 
ple of enacting contradictions, or pafiing 
into laws the moft abfurd and ridiculous 
propofitions that could be invented. 

Soon after Cromwel's execution, the 
king declared his marriage with the lady 
Katherine Howard: And it feems he was 
fo exafperated with cardinal Pool, for ex- 
pofing his luft and cruelty, his rapine and 
facrijege, that he ordered the old countefs 
of Salijbury, his mother, to be executed, 
without alledging any crime againft her. 

The king was not married a year and Lady Ka- 
half to his admired Katherine Howard, be- therine 
fore archhifhop Cranmer brought him a ,"7 ■', 
charge againft her or incontinence, rorfif tn w if e> 
which fhe was attainted in parliament, and beheaded. 
beheaded. She acknowledged fome mif- 
carriages before her marriage with the 
king; but took it upon her falvation at her 
death, that fhe had never been falfe to his 
bed. Whether Anne of Bullen, or this 
queen, were really guilty, may be difficult 
to determine at this day. But it is obferve- 
able, as queen Anne of Bullen was the 
great fupport of the proteftants, the au- 
thors of her ruin were papifts ; and as the 
lady Katherine Howard was efteemed a 
-great favourer of the papifts, fo her ruin 
came from the proteftant fide, and arch- 
bifhop Cranmer was her principal accufer : 
From whence the world will be apt to 
conjecture, that each of their misfortunes 


to England and Scotland. 


proceeded rather from the malice and vio- 
lence of the oppofite faction, than from 
any real guilt in either of them. The 
king, it feems, was of a roving difpofi- 
tion, ever given to change ; and the feve- 
ral parties obferving his weaknefs, took 
fuch opportunities of gratifying their re- 
venge on one another. 

In the aft for attainting queen Katherine 
Howard, there are the merrieft provisions 
that ever found place in human laws. It 
was made treafon not to difcover the in- 
continence of any perfon the king mould 
be about to marry ; and treafon in the lady 
herfelf, not to difcover the lofs of her vir- 
ginity, of which the king himfelf was to 
be judge. 

But to return : So profufe, fo very ex- 
travagant was this king, that the wealth of 
all the monasteries was fquandered away in 
an inftant, and large fupplies demanded of 
the parliament in a year or two after. And 
though he had fwallowed the larger as 
well as the leffer monasteries, and pro- 
ceeded to feize the revenues of feveral col- 
leges and hofpitals, he ftill demanded fup- 
plies, and had fix millings in the pound 
granted him, to be raifed in three years. 

The king determining to marry again, 
found himfelf under greater difficulties 
than heretofore ; for he had rendered him- 
felf fo terrible to the women, by cutting 
off two of his wives heads ; and more ef- 
pecially to the maids, by the aft above- 
mentioned, making it high-treafon not to 
come virgins to his bed, that he was under 
a necefllty of taking up with a widow : 
The king Whereupon he married the lady Katherine 
marries Parr, widow of the late lord Latimer. 
^ r h r enne And fhe too was in great danger of her 
life, when fhe difcovered herfelf to be of 
different faith from what the king had pre- 
ferred to her and the reft of his fubjefts. 
To fuch pride and arrogance was this 
prince arrived, that whoever refufed to 
fubmit their underftanding and confeience 
to his dictates, and to alter their creed as 
often as he was pleafed to alter his mind, 
were immediately deftined to deftruftion. 
And now the king thought fit to frame 
a new aft of fucceflion. 

In this act is recited the fettlement of the 
crown by 28 Henry Will, and what power 
was thereby given to the king to difpofe 
of the fame, and then goes on. ' To the 
c intent therefore that his majefty*s difpo- 
' fition and mind therein might be openly 

* declared and manifeftly known, his ma- 
4 jefty defigning a voyage beyond fea, it 
.* was enacted by his highnefs, with the 
' affent of the lords fpiritual and temporal, 

* and commons in parliament afTembled, 
4 and by authority of the fame, That in 

* cafe it mould happen, the king's majejly, 

Vol. I. 

c and prince Edward heir apparent, to d;e 

* without ilfue of their bodies lawfully be- 

* gotten, fo as there be no heirs, male or 
' female, of either of their bodies, to 
■ have and inherit the faid imperial crown, 

* that then it mould be to his daughter 
4 Mary, and her heirs lawfully to be be- 

* gotten, under fuch conditions as mould 
4 be limited by the king's letters patent, 

< 4 or his laft will; and for default of .iflue, 
4 to his daughter Elizabeth upon the fame 
4 conditions. But if no conditions were 

* appointed, then the fucceffion to each 
4 of them one after another abfolutely. 

4 And for want of heirs by his queen 
4 Katherine his lawful wife, and for want 
4 of lawful ifTue of prince Edward, or of his 
4 daughters Mary and Elizabeth, then the 
4 king to difpofe of the crown at his own 
4 pleafure, from time to time'. 

He procured alfo a fecond aft to cheat An aft 
all his creditors, and to be difcharged frompafled to 
the payment of his debts; and he carried defraud 
it fo far, that thofe whom he had paid, ^2* 
were to repay their money back again into 
the exchequer. 

His fubjefts were certainly in very happy 
circumftances : No man dared refufe to lend 
him money if he demanded it, and at the 
fame time they were very fure they mould 
never have it again. 

And notwithstanding all the former Current 
ways and means for raifing money, he coin de- 
defcended to debafe the coin, in order to bafed ' 
carry on a war with France, in which he 
was now engaged. In the year 1 544 he 
invaded France in perfon, and took the 
town of Bologne ; but being deferted by 
his good ally the emperor, he returned in 
a few months to England. The next year 
new fupplies were demanded, and granted 
in parliament, which, the hiftorians fug- 
geft, were great part of them laid out in 
fortifying the coaft ; but the value of one 
of the monasteries he fuppreffed, would 
have doubly paid for all the fortifications 
that were erefted in his whole reign. 

In the year 1546, being the laft of this Peace con- 
king's reign, a peace was concluded with cl ? de(1 
France, while a bloody perfecution reigned ^ 
at home: Even women were rack'd and 
tortured, and afterwards burnt alive by this 
reforming king, for denying the corporeal 
prefencein the facrament of the Lord's-fup- 
per. And he had figned a warrant, we 
are told, to commit his queen to the tower 
for herefy, which with fome difficulty fne 
wheedled him to revoke ; and at the fame 
time the votaries of Rome were equally 
profecuted for denying his fupremacy. 
He gloried in fhewing himfelf impartially 
cruel to all his fubjefts ; and one of the 
laft acts of his tyranny was exprefifed in the 
ruin of the family of the duke of Norfolk, 
L 1 who 


72, The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

who was the head of the Romifh party, made into the corruptions and errors of 
His fon the earl of Surrey he cauled to be the church, in order to a reformation, 
convicted of treafon by a jury of common- which was happily brought about, in a great 
ers, and on the 19th of January, 1547, meafure, by the prudent management of 
he was beheaded. His father the duke of the then archbifhop Cr aimer, a great light 
Norfolk was attainted in parliament with- of the church in thofe times of darknefs : 
out being heard; but the king happening Whereupon there happened two defperate 
to die the 28th of January, he was not rebellions, one in Lincoln/hire, and another 
beheaded. This nobleman had executed in Torkfhire, but were both happily fup- 
the office of lord treafurer many years with preffed. In Ireland alfo there broke out 
great fidelity •, and nothing was objected another rebellion, which proved fatal to 
ao-ainft him, but his bearing the arms of the noble family of Kildare. Cardinal 
the royal family, which he had ever done, Wolfey, who lived in the greateft ftate of 
with fome diftinctio'n from the king's. So any prelate next to the bifhop of Rome, 
trivial a pretence will ferve a tyrant to ruin fell under the king's difpleafure, and was 
his greateft fubjects. ftrip'd of all. Thomas Cromwel, who was 
In purfuance of the act of parliament by the king made earl of EJJex, was foon 
impowering the king to limit the fuccef- after beheaded. Sir Thomas More, who 
Makes his fion of the crown by his will, he made his had fucceeded the cardinal in the chancel- 
will, laft will, and limited the crown to the ifTue lorfhip of England, and John Fijher bifhop 
of his younger after Mary, by Charles of Rocbefter, were both beheaded for dif- 
Brandon, duke of Suffolk, upon failure of owning the king's fupremacy. The king, 
iffue of his fon Edward, and the prin- before he defected from the pope, had wrote 
cefies Mary and Elizabeth. a book againft Luther, the great reformer 
And now to fum up the whole : Hen- of the church in Germany, for which pope 
ry VIII, heir to both the houfes of York Leo honoured him with the title of de- 
and Lancajler, and the only furviving fon fender of the faith, fince made hereditary 
of Henry VII, fucceeded his father at to the kings of England by act of parlia- 
the age of eighteen, and reigned with ment. Wales was alfo in this reign incor- 
much applaufe, till being vitiated by car- porated into England, and Ireland made 
dinal Wolfey his chief minifter, he hardly a kingdom. As to foreign affairs, Henry's 
kept within any bounds, but made his firft warlike attempt was made againft 
will a law to his fubjects. He had fix France, in which he took Terowen and Tour- 
wives, viz. Katherine of Spain, Anne Bullen, nay, in the taking whereof, the emperor 
Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleve, Katherine Maximilian ferved under the king of Eng- 
Howard, and Katherine Parr. Two of land's pay. This breach with France 
them he repudiated, Katherine of Spain, drew on a war with the Scots, who were 
and Anne of Cleve ; the firft as an inceftu- utterly routed at the battle of Flodden- 
ous match, being the widow of Arthur his feld,a.nd their king (James IV.) flain. After 
elder brother, the laft for fome natural de- this, Charles V. emperor, and Francis I. 
feet. Two he publickly beheaded, Anne king of France, being a: war with each 
of Bullen for pretended, and Katherine other, fought after king Henry's friend- 
Howard for real adultery. Jane Seymour fhip with great emulation. And the em- 
died in child-bed, and Katherine Parr fur- peror coming twice over into England, at 
vived him. For his marriage with Katbe- firft carried it, tho' afterwards the king 
rim of Spain, he had a difpenfation from was brought over to the French intereft, and 
the pope, notwithstanding which, after had feveral interviews with the French king 
being twenty years married, he fcrupled near Calais, in great pomp and fplendour. 
the lawfulnefs thereof, and queftioned the To unite Scotland with England, a match was 
validity of the pope's difpenfation-, and concluded betwixt prince Edward, and Mary 
thereupon threw off Katherine, and mar- the young queen of Scots, which was after- 
ried Anne Bullen : Which made fo great a wards broke off, by the power of the Hamil- 
breach between the king and the pope, tons, and the intereft of theFn?m:£,which oc- 
that the king was excommunicated, and cafioned a new war both with France and 
the whole realm interdicted. But Henry Scotland : In which king Henry took Bo- 
was proof againft the thunderbolts of Rome, logne from the French, and deftroyed with 
and the Thames began to bid defiance to fire Leith and Edinburgh in Scotland. At 
the Tibet* So that the king ftiook off the home, fix new bifhopricks were erected by 
pope's fupremacy, as an ufurpation upon the king, upon the diffolutiort of the mo- 
thc rights of the crown, and re-affumed nafteries, viz. at Weflminjier, Oxford, Pe- 
the ancient power of his predeceffors the terborough, Briftol, Chefler and Gloucefier j 
Britifh kings, who reigned independent- all which, except Wefiminfter, continue e- 
ly of the papal fee. The pope's fupre- pifcopal fees. And having reigned 3 7 years, 
macy being difannulled, ah inquiry was 10 months* and one day, he died on Ja- Dies. 


to England and Scotland. 73 

nuary the 28th, 1546: leaving behind him ads for eftablifhing the fix articles, for 

one fon and two daughters, who each of making the king's proclamation of equal 

them fucceeded him in the kingdom •, but authority with an ad of parliament, and' 

all of them died without iflue. all the ads againft the Lollards, or re- 

Ed-ward King Edward VI, the only fon of Hen- formed, were repealed. 
VI. ry VIII, by Jane Seymour his third wife, It was alfo enaded, that the communion 

was born at Hampton- court, the 12th of mould be adminifter'd in both kinds ; that 

Oclober 1537, and was but in the 9th year bifhops mould be created by letters pa- 

of his age, when he afcended the throne tent, without any conge d'elire, and then 

of his father. confecrated ; and that fuch chauntries 

The privy-council, for reafons of ftate, mould be feized to the king's ufe as had 

thought fit to conceal the death of king efcaped king Henry. 
Henry for two or three days, till they had The next year, viz. 1548, there was an 

brought the young king from Hertford/hire order of the regency for removing images 

to London, and then they proclaimed him, out of churches, and feizing the mrines 

and proceeded to open the late king's will ; and plate that belonged to them to the king's 

whereby he had appointed fixteen perfons, ufe : Auricular confeflion was abolifhed, 

of whom the archbhnop of Canterbury, and a form of common prayer appointed ; Common 

the lord chancellor, and the great officers and, contrary to the pradice at this day, prayer ap- 

of ftate were part, to be executors of his in a caufe of divorce for adultery, it was P ointed - 

will, and governors to his fon, till he fhould adjudged by the court of delegates, that 

Contro- come to eighteen years of age : And it the innocent party was at liberty to marry 

verfies being propofed, that one of the fixteen again. 

about the fhould be chofen, to whom ambafTadors In this reign fell the lord admiral Tho- 
mem™" anight addrefs themfelves, and who mould mas Seymour, one of the king's uncles, and 
have the principal adminiftration of the the lord protedor's brother ; and not long 
government, the choice fell upon the earl after the protedor himfelf, by the great 
of Hertford, the king's uncle by the mo- power and influence of the duke of North- 
ther's fide, and he was declared governor of Cumberland, a man of great ambition : who 
the king's perfon, and protector of the king- feeing the king in a confumptive condi- 
dom ; but it was provided that he mould not tion, meant to fettle the crown in his fa- 
ad in any thing material without the con- mily, by making a match between Guilfor4 
currence of the reft. The lord chancellor Dudley, his fourth fon, and the lady Jane 
Wriothejly is faid to oppofe this new regu- Gray, daughter to Henry Gray duke of 
lation, as not agreeable to the late king's Suffolk, by Frances his wife, daughter of 
intentions, and for that the place of pre- Mary, filler to Henry VIII. Which done, 
cedence did of right belong to him \ and he got king Edward to declare her his fuc- 
fome others of the executors adhering to ceffor by will, to the prejudice of the true 
him, gave rife to a fadion which very heirs, Mary and Elizabeth his fillers: which 
much diftraded this reign. The earl of will he got confirmed by the council and 
Hertford, and his party, who prevailed at the judges of the realm, 
prefent, were looked upon as friends to the King Edward died at Greenwich on The 
reformation, and the lord chancellor and Thurfday the fixth of July, in the feven- ki "g' s 
his party as enemies to it : However, all teenth year of his age, having reigned fix 
the executors took their oaths duly to exe- years, five months, and nineteen days : 
cute the truft repofed in them, and all and in that tender age gave great proofs 
commiflions were renewed in the name of of his virtue. He was a prince of great 
Progrefs king Edward. Among the reft, the bi- devotion, and conftancy of mind, a lover 
of the re- fhops took out new commiflions to hold of truth, and incredibly ftudious •, virtues 
formation, their bifhopricks during the king's plea- which feldom concur with royal greatnefs. 
fure-, in which commiflions were contain- About three hours before his death, not 
ed powers to ordain, confecrate, admini- thinking any one had been prefent to over- 
fter the facraments, and perform all other hear him, he thus commended himfelf to 
parts of their epifcopal fundion, as had God. 
been pradifed in the laft reign. ' O Lord God, free me, I befeech thee, King Ed- 

His reign began with a profperous war * out of this miferable and calamitous life, w *>^' s 

againft the Scots, to whom the duke of * and receive me among the number of praj " 

Scmerfet, his uncle and protedor, gave a ' thine eled, if fo it be thy pleafuie : . Al- 

great overthrow at Mufcleborough : But * tho' not mine, but thy will be done, 

they left ground in France, by reftoring ' To thee, O Lord, do I commend my 

(as they did at laft) le Bolognois to that c fpirit. Thou knoweft, O Lord, how 

crown. ' happy I fhall be, may I live with thee in 

All treafons were reduced to the old * heaven. Yet would I might live, and be 

ftandard of the 25th Edward III. And the ' well for thy eled's fake, that I might 
- ' faithfully 

74 7he Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

' faithfully ferve thee. O Lord God, of was imputed to his lofs of time. King 

' bids thy people, and fave thine inheri- Philip having war with France, the French 

' tance O Lord God, fave thy people loft St. Quintin, and the Englifh the key of 

* of England, defend this kingdom from France, Calais, which had been in the hands 

* popery and preferve thy true religion in of the Englifh above 200 years. 

« it that I and my people may biefs thy As to her perfon, as fhe was not very a- H ercha- 

« mo ft holy name, for thy fon Jefus miable, fo (he was without any deformity. ra " er -- 

* Chrift Amen. Nor did fhe want parts or underftanding ; 
Then' opening his eyes, which he had but had the advantages of learning, and 

hitherto clufed, and feeing doctor Owen a good underftanding in the Latin tongue, 
the phyfician (from whofe report we have She was a woman of a ftrict and fevere 
this prayer) fitting by : Are you there? faid life, who allowed herfelf few of the diver- 
the king \ I had not thought you had been fo lions belonging to courts ; was conftant at 
near. The do&or anfwered, I heard you her devotions, and violently addicted to 
fpeak, but could not collecl your words. In- the interefts and humours of the Romifh 
deed (faid the king) 1 was making my prayer priefts. She had great refentments of her 
to God. A little after, he fuddenly cried ufage in her father's and brother's reign, 
out, I faint, Lord have mercy upon me, and which eafily induced her to take revenge-, 
receive my foul: which words he had no tho' fhe coloured it with her zeal againft 
fooner uttered, than he departed. herefy. She much endeavoured to ex- 
Mary I. Queen Mary I, eldeft daughter of king piate and reftore the facrileges of the two 
Henry VIII, by his firft wife Katherine laft reigns •, befides which laudable inten- 
of Spain, fucceeded her brother Edward, tion, a froward fort of virtue, a melan- 
'Tis true the lady Jane Gray, mentioned cholly piety, are the beft things that can 
in the former reign, was proclaimed queen be faid of her. Her former difiimulations, 
before her, by virtue of the late king's her publick breach of faith to the Suffolk 
will; but, as it proved, fhe had but the gentlemen and others,and her barbarous cru- 
fhadow of a crown, and Mary had the elties to thofe called Hereticks, are inex- 
fubftance, who came to the throne by the cufeable blemiflies in her character. And 
right of fucceflion. Norfolk and Suffolk God thought fit to punifh her with a bar- 
were the firft that embraced her intereft, ren womb and an untimely death } and 
and the firft that fmarted for it. Being a the world, with a blafted name, which has 
bigotted princefs, her main application, made an indelible imprefiion of horror 
Rsftorcs after fhe got the crown, Was to reftore the upon the nation. To conclude, her death 
popery. Roman worfhip and doctrine, and to ex- was as little lamented as that of any other 
plode the reformation, which fhe brought that had worn the crown, excepting by the 
to pafs in the fpace of eighteen months } popilh clergy. And had it not been for 
infomuch that the kingdom annually blazed the two worthy foundations of Trinity and 
with burnt facrifices. Amongft which, four St. John's colleges in Oxford, there had 
bifhops, and at laft archbifhop Cranmer, been fcarce any thing in this reign to have, 
ended their lives in the flames, their zeal made it memorable, befides the calamities 
outihining the flames in which they ex- and misfortunes of it. 

pired. This fiery perfecution was carried 'Tis faid the queen was fo much grieved The caufe 

on principally by Stephen Gardiner bifhop at king Philip's abfence and neglect of her, of her 

of Winchefter, now made lord chancellor, the want of ifTue, and the late lofs of Gz- death - 

and the queen's great favourite, and bloody lais, that it brought on her thofe indifpo- 

Bonner (for fo the Engliflo call him to this fitions that occafioned her death •, in which 

•day) bifhop of London, both of a revenge- fhe was accompanied by cardinal Pool, 

ful fpirit, and cruelly imbittered againft who expired the fame day, • November the 

proteftantifm. Upon a civil account alfo 17th, 1558. 

a -great many perfons fuffered death, as the Queen Elizabeth^ the fecond daughter Elizabeth. 

Pjtsthe duke of Northumberland, the lady Jane of Henry VIII. by his fecond wife Anne 

!& f m Gray, the duke of Suffolk her father, the Bullen, being wonderfully preferved in the 

death. ^ or< ^ Guilford her hufband, and his brother late reign, fucceeded next to queen Mary 

the lord Thomas Gray. The lady Elizabeth, her half lifter, and reftored the reforma- 

whom the Romifh party called the hope of tion, for which fhe was excommunicated 

hereticks, was alfo taken into cuftody, and by the pope, and her fubjects abfolved 

Jmprifoiis made a prifoner for above a twelve-month, from their allegiance ; which occafioned 

^Etizab / k e * ore ner innocence could procure her li- plot upon plot, and rebellion upon rebel- 

'berty. To get an heir for the crown fit lion} the Roman party ftriving to cut her 

for their turn, a marriage was concluded off by treachery, or dethrone her by force, 

between the queen and Philip of Spain : But, in fpite of all her enemies, ihe was 

•Which occafioned an infurrection headed ;bleffed with a glorious reign of forty-four 

by Sir Thomas f&iafy the ruifcarriage where- years. Memorable was the year 1588 for 


to England and Scotland. 7c 

Her wars, the Spanifh invafion, attempted by king and profound politicians, as ever attended 

Philip with his invincible armada, but dif- any chriftian prince. And as her great 

appointed by God's providence •, where- ftatefmen reflected new luftre upon her 

upon queen Elizabeth, purfuing her blow, own wifdom and underftanding, in make- 

carried on the war againft Spain with fo ing fo worthy a choice ; fo me never was 

much conduit and fuccefs, both in Europe fo happy in her choice, as when fhe go- 

and America, that the Englijh became every verned by her own judgment, without the 

where a terror to the Spaniards \ and the advice of others. Having furmounted 

very names of her chief commanders, many difficulties in church and ftate, one of 

Howard, Effex, Norris, Drake, and Ralegh, her great obfervations was, That the people 

(truck an awe upon them. In Ireland fhe of England were more governable in times 

quelled two great rebellions j one headed of war than in times of peace. Tho' fhe 

by O Neal, and the other by Tir Owen, never thirfted after any unjuft enlar°-e- 

The new-fprung ftates of Holland flie che- ment of her dominions, yet the great af- 

rifhed, and protected againft the attempts fairs of Europe principally depended upon 

of Spain. The whole ocean fhe com- her directions -, while fitting at the helm 

manded •, and fo great was her fame, that of all, (he arbitrated, and guided their 

it was refpected even by the Mufcovites, eftates both in peace and war. Spain en- 

Turks, Per/tans, and 'Tartars, and her very deavouring to overflow all, was driven 

enemies. Unhappily fhe confented to the back, and fcarce able to maintain its own 

death of that unfortunate princefs Mary banks. In France, the houfe of Valois 

queen of Scots, who being excluded her was happily fupported by her counfels ; 

dominions by a potent faction, was com- that of Bourbon advanced by her counte- 

pelled to fly for fhelter into England ; nance, forces, and treafure •> Scotland re- 

where, upon a charge of treafon againft lieved by her love ; the Netherlands by 

her, and after a tedious imprifonment at Fo- her power ; Portugal*?, king by her boun- 

theringay-caftle, ihe was at laft condemned ty ; and Poland by her commiferation. 

and beheaded. The earl of EJfex's death Likewife Germany, Denmark, and Swede- 

was alfo very much lamented by the queen, land, often took up and laid down arms 

whofe favour, more than his crime, was at her pleafure and difpofal. Nor could 

the occafion of his fall. The queen her- the utmoft bounds of Europe, Rvffia and 

felf lived but two years after, and died a Tartary, limit the extent of her great 

Death, -maiden (tho* an heroick queen ) March 24, fame; but it fpread further into the more 

1603, in the fixty-ninth year of her age, remote parts of Afia, Africa, and America, 

and the forty-fifth of her reign. A queen, among the Turks, the Perfians, Barbarians, 

whofe incomparable wifdom will ever be and Indians -, in moft of whofe dominions, 

admired by future ages, as the wonder of to the great enriching of her kingdom, 

her time, and a pattern to princes of the fhe fettled commerce, and gained large 

better fex. « privileges for the encouragement of her 

Her cha- She died covered with all the glories of merchants, whom fhe cherifhed as a moft 

rafter. t ^ $ wor i<jj anc j nobly qualified for thofe neceflary and important part of her com- 

of the next, having had all the virtues monwealth. 

and accomplishments of her mighty fa- It was in her reign the famous com* ShFrancis 

ther, and fcarce any of his vices and im- mander Sir Francis Drake made a voyage Drake's 

perfections -, only fhe was in fome cafes a round the world in three years, wanting expedl " , 

little too parfimonious, and a little too li- twelve days -, and Forbifher, another IhTworld. 

able to paffion and the love of flattery, great Englijh feaman of that age, failed to 

The news of her death immediately filled the north-eaft a great way farther than 

the court, the city, and the whole nation, any had done before him. In the honour 

with fuch a flood of tears, and produced of this virgin-queen it was that Virginia 

fuch marks of inexprefilble forrow, as were came to be fo called. 

never known before; and, in reality, no King James I. fucceeded queen Elizabeth James I. 

prince, fince the creation, had ever more in the realm of England, being before king 

fincerely the hearts of their fubjects, than of Scotland, and the fixth of that name 

this illuftrious queen. there. His claim to the crown of Eng- 

At Rome, where fhe was both hated and land was his being defcended from Mar- 

excommunicated, pope Sextus Quintus ufed garet, eldeft daughter of king Henry VII. 

to fpeak with the greateft honour of her for he was the {on of Mary queen of Scots, 

government, and profanely wifhed he who was beheaded in queen Elizabeth's 

might enjoy her but one night, that he reign ; and the daughter of James V. of 

might beget a fecond Alexander the great. Scotland, fon of James IV. by the afore- 

Her court was as complete an academy of faid Margaret. His father was the lord 

honourable counfellers, illuftrious peers, Darnley, queen Mary's hufband, eldeft fon 

gallant courtiers, learned profeflbrs, and of Matthew earl of Lenox, defcended from 
. , Vol. I. Mm Robert. 

76 The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

Robert Stuart, the next fucceffor to David higher than he could reach them, nor 
Bruce king of Scots. Thus, by king grow fo ftrong, but he could either alter 
James's acceffion to the crown of England, or divert them ; that he had an admirable 
thefe two kingdoms (which had been for pregnancy of wit, which being improved 
fo many ages in a perpetual feud) became by continual ftudy, he acquired iuch a 
United united together under one head ; the kings promptnefs and elegancy in expreffing his 
England of England having ever fince aflumed the mind, that his extemporary fpeeches were 
and Scot- tk]e £ monar chs of Great-Britain. King little inferior to his premeditated writings •, 
W ' James, according to the prudent forecaft that he was a mild, peaceful, and mum- 
of Henry VII. quitted the letter for the fkent monarch, fuitable to the Englijh ge- 
greater, making London the royal feat of nius and nation. He was eminent for his 
the three kingdoms. Upon his coming chaftity, which was remarkable in a court 
into England, lie efcaped two confpiracies fo loofe and luxurious as his own. He 
in the two firft years of his reign, both was very temperate in his exercifes and 
formed from the popifh fadion ; particu- diet, and not intemperate in his drinking », 
larly the gun-powder treafon, which at one yet he drank very often of the ftrongeft 
blow was to have deftroyed both church fweet wines, but always in very fmall 
and ftate, by blowing up at once all the quantities, and rather out of a cuftom 
flower of the kingdom (the king, prince, than any delight. He was by education 
and parliament). This king made a peace patient, pious, and religious j yet fome- 
with Spain ; and for a fum of money quit- times his choler and paffion would prevail 
ed the cautionary towns the Englijh had in over all, and throw him into the profaneft 
Holland, viz. the Brill and Flujhing, &c. oaths and curfes, for which he would af- 
Created He alfo created a new fort of knights call- terwards {hew himfelf heartily penitent : 
the order , e d baronets, next to the degree of a baron, and, indeed, he was not only ready to afk 
of knights and made the honour hereditary. Under this forgivenefs of God, but alfo of men ; and 
king the lord Bacon, a man of great learn- fometimes in fuch a peculiar manner, that 
ing, was, from the high ftation of lord they could fcarcely fay whether it was a 
chancellor of England, reduced to a degree pious condefcenfion, or an abjecT difpofi- 
of poverty little fhort of beggary : and tion. As to his religion, in which he dif- 
the learned Sir Walter Ralegh, a great man play'd the height of his parts and learn- 
in the former reign, was, by the preva- ing, he was really a Calvinift in moft points, 
lency of Gondamore the Spanijh ambafiador, excepting that of epifcopacy, as appears 
beheaded. This king was efteemed fa- from fome of his books, and his zeal for 
mous for his learning, having wrote feve- the fynod of Dort ; yet he gave very un- 
ral books ; but was no martial prince. He happy fufpicions to the nation, by make- 
gave for his motto Beati pacifici, and loved ing fuch advances to the pope and papifts 
Was peace to a fault ; for his daughter Eliza- upon the account of the Spanijh and French 
peaceable beth, being married to Frederick, ele&or- treaties. Notwithstanding his open indul- His dif- 
10 afault - palatine of the Rhine (afterwards chofen gencies, and perhaps fecret inclinations toP ofi «°n 
king of Bohemia, and crowned with his the Roman-Catholicks, yet in many pub-^_£*'" 
wife at Prague) could not prevail with her lick fpeeches he declared againft them, ^/^ 
father to affift them againft their compe- and once in a very remarkable manner, in 
titor Ferdinand the emperor, by whofe the prefence of many lords, as we find it 
power they came to be difpoffeffed of all. in Coke's report •, for having been charged 
After he had reigned twenty-two years and with a defign of granting a toleration to 
Death, three days, he died at Theobalds, in the papifts, he made a folemn proteftation, 
fifty-ninth year of his age, and was in- * That he would fpend the laft drop of 
terred at Wejlminfier. ' blood in his body before he would do 
His cha- As to his perfon and prefence, he made ' it ; and pray'd, that before any of his 
•racier, but an ordinary figure j his countenance ' ifine mould maintain any other religion 
was homely, his features harfh, ' though ' than his own, that God would take them 
not altogether uncomely -, his ftature was ' out of the world.' How far this impre- 
of the middle fize, his body not ill com- cation reached, or affected himfelf, or any 
pa&ed, but fat and unwieldy in his latter of his family afterwards, we leave to the 
days, ufually wearing his clothes plain, determination of an ornnifcient Being, 
large, and different from the common King James I. married Anne the daugh- His mar- 
mode. But as to his mind, he has re- ter of Frederick II. king of Denmark, by r !: 1 S ean< * 
ceived the higheft applaufes and commen- whom he had iffue, 1. Henry his eldeft 
dations, particularly that he was the Solo- fon, who died at eighteen years of age 
mon of the age for knowledge, learning, unmarried; 2. Robert, who died in his 
and wifdom -, one who knew how to catch infancy •, 3. Charles, who fucceeded his 
the inclinations of the people at the firft father by the name of Charles I. He 
rebound, not fuffering them to mount had ifiue alfo by queen Anne three daugh- 

to England and Scotland. 77 

ters) viz. 1. Elizabeth (married to Frede- though unwillingly, which he afterwards 
rick V. count palatine of die Rhine, elector, repented of. Archbifhop Laud was alfo Arch- 
cup-bearer, and high-fteward of the em- tried, condemned and executed by the ^°f 
pire, fometimes ftiled king of Bohemia) fame parliament. And the difference c ' lued> " 
from whom his prefent majefty king George growing wider and wider between the 
is defcended •, 2. Margaret, who died in king and parliament (after he had puffed 
her infancy •, 3. Mary, who lived two an act that they mould not be diffolved 
years, five months, and eight days; 4. So- but by their own con lent) the king with- 
phia, who died three days after fhe was draws himfelf from his parliament, and goes The king 
born. to Hull -, but found the gates fiiut againft breaks 
Charles I. King Charles I. the only furviving fon him, and himfelf denied entrance : and then Wlth . his 
of king James I. was born at Dumferling broke out the civil war, which continued J",, 1 *" 
in Scotland, November 19th, 1600, and from the year 1642, to the year 1646; 
crowned at Weftminfter on February 2d, with the lofs of much Englijh blood, 
His 1625. But his crown proved a crown of both of the nobility, gentry, and corn- 
trouble- thorns, his reign being embroiled with ci- mons ; the ruin of many families, and 
fome vil wars, and the end of it tragical beyond the fall of the church of England: for the 
re,£n * all example. Soon after his coming to the army raifed by the parliament prevailed 
crown, he married Henrietta- Maria, daugh- over the king's forces, fo that the king being 
ter of king Henry IV. of France, who befieged in Oxford, he efcaped thence in 
was brought over by the duke of Bucking' difguife, and went to the Scots army, 
ham, and landed at Dover, June the 23d. who had come into England to help the 
This queen being a very active woman in parliament. To them, as being his native *j urre °" 
the government, and zealous in the popifh countrymen, the king furrendered himfelf »^ t ^ c 
religion, did not a little contribute to the but they for the getting 200,000 pounds, Scots 
king's misfortunes ; his unbounded favour due to them for arrears, delivered him up army. 
alfo to the duke of Buckingham, a man to the parliament -, and the parliament J he ScotI 
obnoxious to the ftate, increafed the dif- (being over-ruled by the army, who werc h ^ v " 
guff of the people : Infomuch that the rather for continuing the war, than make- t h e par- 
The mur- duke was at laft (tabbed at Port/mouth by ing peace) fecured his majefty •, and fhut- li&ment, 
der of the ne lieutenant John Felton (for which he ing out, or excluding all thofe members 
duke of was j^rjged \ n chains) but it was not till of parliament that were not of their tem- 
bam!" S ~ after the fruklefs attempt ofthreefeveral par- per (the refidue being by way of derifion 

liaments againft his life; the king ftill bring- called the Rump) they refolved to arraign , 

ing him off, and chufing rather to part the king, and take away his life, by me- J tr; 

a new 

with his parliaments, than with fo great a thods of pretended juftice ; for which pur- ere a e d 

favourite: whereby the king having dif- pofe they erected a judicial court, and made court of 

obliged them, he was advifed to raife mo- Brad/haw (one of their members) prefi-J urtlce - 

ney without them ; having the advice of dent thereof : By whofe judgment the 

the judges that he might legally do it . king was fentenced to death, as the author, 

but thofe ways being indeed illegal, many occafion, and contriver of the late civil 

refufed to pay what was affeffed upon wars -, and after many indignities offered 

them, for which they were imprifoned to him by thofe in whofe hands he was 

in feveral parts of the nation, which in the placed, the fentence was executed upon beheaded, 

conclufion had very bad effects. And him before the gates of Whitehall, where 

Arch- archbifhop Laud having advifed the king a fcaffold was to that end erected, and 

bifhop to impofe epifcopacy, and the liturgy, on thereon his head fevered from his body. 
evif ' tne church of Scotland, the Scots (whofe He married the princefs Henrietta-Ma* His mar- 

fel of bad reformation was made into prefbytery, as ria % youngeft daughter of Henry IV. of"?S eand 

eonfe- to church government) entered into a France, furnamed the great ; by whom 

quence. f l emn league and covenant againft epifco- he had iffue, 1. Charles, who died the fame 

pacy, as forced upon them againft law; day he was born ; 2 . Charles, who fucceed- 

and this drew on a remonftrance from the ed his father in the throne by the name 

diffenting party in England-, which necef- of Charles II. 3. James, who fucceeded 

fitated the king to call that parliament, his brother Charles, by the name of 

fo well known by the name of the Long James II. 4. Henry, who died in the 23d 

Parliament: Soon after the calling where- year of his age unmarried. He had alfo 

of, a bloody rebellion and maffacre of the four daughters by the fame queen, 'viz. 

proteftants broke forth in Ireland, which 1. Mary, married to Willi a a Naflau, only 

by that parliament was charged upon the fon of Frederick- Henry prince of Orange j 

Earl of king. By this parliament the earl of by whom fhe had iffue William, after- 

t l\^£°^ on .Strafford was impeached, and after a long wards king William III. 2. Elizabeth, 

demn'ed, trial by his peers, was found guilty, the who died at fifteen years of age unmarried -, 

and exe- king figning the warrant for his execution, 3. Anne, who died at three years of age ; 
cur ^- •' 4. Henrietta- 


The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

4. Henrietta- Maria, married to Philip duke 
ofyhjou; by whom me had ifiue Maria 
Aloifia, married to Victor Amadeus, the late 
duke of Savoy; by whom (lie had male 
iflue ; and alio two daughters, the eldeft 
married to Lewis duke of Burgundy, the 
eldeft grandfon of Lewis XIV. who had 
ifTue Lewis the prefent king of France; 
and Maria- Louifa-Gabriella, the other 
daughter of Viftor Amadeus, duke of Sa- 
voy, was married to Philip, the prefent king 
ot Spain, by whom fhe had ifTue Philip 
Lewis, the prefent prince of the AJlurias, 
and other children. 

King Charles I. was (as before men- 
tioned) openly murdered, before the gates 
of his own palace, on the 30th of January, 
in the 49th year of his age, and the 24th 
of his reign, in the year 1648-9. 
His cha- The character of this king is fo various 
rafter. among the Englifh, that if credit be given 
to the panegyricks of what is called the 
high-church writers, no one can deny him 
a place among the faints and martyrs of 
Chrift ; and he is accordingly placed in the 
calender, and a form of prayer with a 
public day of devotion and falling is fet 
apart in the church by law eftablifhed ; 
on the other fide, whoever will be led by 
thofe called republican writers, who juftify, 
or at leaft moderate the crime of putting 
him to death, he appears no lefs criminal 
and deferving of death than one who has 
• • denied his God, falfified his oaths, and 

both openly and fecretly, by commiffion, 
and in perfon, imbrued his hands in the 
blood of his faithful and innocent fubjects. 
In this ftrait I found myfelf to gain a juft 
idea of this prince's character, when I 
fortunately met with the following ac- 
knowledgment, which Mr. Henderfon, his 
profefs'd enemy, made folemnly on his 
death-bed; which I think ought to be 
looked upon as the moft impartial, for as 
much as the writer had been not only the 
chief commhTioner to the parliament and 
fynod of England from the kirk of Scotland, 
and his great perfecutor, but could have 
no views to flatter in that his extremity, 
and declares his fole intention was thereby 
to difcharge his confcience. * I do declare 
' fays he, before God and the world, that 

* fince I had the honour and happinefs to 

* converfe and confer with his majefty, 
' with all forts of freedom, efpecially in 

* matters of religion, whether in relation 

* to kirk or itate, that I found him the 
' moft intelligent man that ever I fpoke 
' with, as far beyond my exprefiion as 
' expectation. I profefs that I was oft- 
*' times aftoniflied with the folidity and 
*• quicknefs of his reafons and replies; 
'■ wondered how he (fpending his time fo 
4 much in fports and recreations) could. 

have attained to fo great knowledge; 
and muft confefs ingenuoufly, that I was 
convinced in confcience, and knew not 
how to give him any reafonable fatisfac- 
tion : Yet the fweetnefs of his difpofition 
was fuch, that whatfoever I faid was well 
taken. I muft fay, that I never met with , 
any difputant of that mild and calm 
temper, which convinced me the more, 
and made me think that fuch wifdom 
and moderation could not be without an 
extraordinary meafure of divine grace. 
I had heard much of his carriage to- 
wards the priefts in Spain ; and that king 
James told the duke of Buckingham upon 
his going thither, that he durft venture 
his fon Charles with all the jefuits in the 
world, he knew him to be fo well 
grounded in the proteftant religion ; but 
could never believe it, before I obferved 
all his actions ; more particularly thofe of 
devotion, which I muft truly fay are 

more than ordinary. If I mould 

fpeak of his juftice, magnanimity, cha- 
rity, fobriety, chaftity, patience, hu- 
mility, and of all his chriftian and 
moral virtues, I fhould run myfelf into 
a panegyrick, and feem to flatter him 
to fuch as did not know him, if the 
prefent condition that I lie in did not 
exempt me from any fufpicion of worldly 
ends, when I expect every hour to be 
called from all tranfitory vanities to eter- 
nal felicity, and the difcharging of my 
confcience before God and man did not 
oblige me to declare the truth fimply 
and nakedly, in fatisfaction of that 
which I have done ignorantly, though 
not altogether innocently.' 

'The Inier-regnum from the 0,0th of January 
1648, to the 29th of May 1660. 

TH E king being removed, that lit- The go- 
tie affembly or remnant of a houfevemment 
of commons, who paired the ordinance by par- 
for the arraigning and trying of his l a te ljament * 
majefty, having re-admitted fuch excluded 
members, who, tho' they had refufed to 
join with them in the beheading of their 
lawful king, were thought ready to con- 
cur with them in their future projects, 
resolved that a houfe of peers in par- 
liament was ufelefs and dangerous; and 
then patted an ordinance to aboliih it. 
Then they resolved, that the office ofThe mo- 
king, or to have the power thereof in any n ? rch y 
fingle perfon in this nation, was unnecef- ' 

fary, burthenfome, and dangerous to the 
liberty, fafety, and publick intereft of the 
nation, and fo paffed an ordinance to abo- 
liih it alfo. Confequently, they made a 
new great feal, and enacted that no procefs 
fhould afterwards ifiue in the king's name ; 


to England and Scotland. 73? 

Common* but in the name oF the commonwealth, dominions and territories thereto belonging. 

wealth declaring that the people were, under God, At his taking on him the proteclorfhip, Signs the 

ellabli ^' d - the original of all juft power; and that he figned a parchment, called the «j/8r«- inftrumeat 

they, the commons of England, being cho- ment of government ; whereby he engaged §°" 

fen by, and reprefenting the people, were to call a parliament once in every three 

the fupreme power of the nation. years, which was to confift of about four 

Money They alfo patted an ordinance, that all . hundred men, befides thofe out of Scotland 

new coin- money, to be coined, inftead of the royal and Ireland a (thefirft of which affembiies 

ed. flamp, mould bear the imprefliop of the was to meet on the 3d of September, 1654.) 

crofs and harp, with this motto, God^xfhjk, And he engaged not to diffolve any fuch 

Thecoun-Cfr. Then they erected a council of fl parliament once met, till they had fat five 

aiofitate. confifling of about forty perfons, to wiSK months : That fuch bills as fhould be pre- 

they committed the care of the militia and fented to him by the parliament, if they 

the navy: And they framed a new oath mould not be confirmed by him within 

for their fubje&s, or rather flaves, called twenty days, fhould pafs without him into 

the engagement; whereby every perfon, laws : That he fhould have a felect council 

admitted to any office or place in church to aflift him, which mould not exceed 

or flate, was to fwear, That he would be twenty-one, nor Jie Iefs than thirteen : 

true and faithful to the government, with- That immediately kfter his death the coun- 

out king or houfe of peers. Thus was the cil fhould chufe 'another protelor before 

ancient conftitution entirely altered : And they rofe: That no protector after him 

this remnant of a houfe of commons, not fhould be general of the army : That the 

confifling of above a fifth part of the prober fhould have power to make peace 

ufual number, being fupported by the or war : And further, with the confent of 

army, affumed to themfelves both a le- his council, he fhould make laws, which 

giflative and executive power. And in- fhould be binding during the intervals of 

Juries ftead of the ancient methods of trial by parliament. While this was reading, Crom- 

aboliih'd. juries, they erected high courts of juftice, wel had his hand upon the bible; and 

confifling of their own creatures, by whom when read, he took this oath : ' That he His oath* 

they generally tried thofe who refilled their ' would not violate any thing contained in 

mock authority. ' that inflrumentof government, but would 

CmmwePs Under the tyranny of thefe men, in ' obferve,andcaufethefametobeobferved, 

ofurpation appearance (but really under the domi- ' and in all things govern the nation ac- 

nion of Cromwel) the people continued * cording to the laws, flatutes, and cuf- 

tipwards of five years, viz. till the year * toms, feeking peace, and cauiing juftice 

1653, when Cromwel with an armed force ' and law to be equally adminifler'd.' 
drove them out of the houfe of commons, Cromwel having thus far carried his point, Evades the 

his officers declaring that the government caft in his mind how to evade what he had promife. 

was devolved upon him their general. fo folemnly agreed to and fworn. It is 

Cromwel after this fummoned an afTem- true, that he called a parliament as pro- 

bly of men of his own nomination, mofl mifed, according to time; but in the firfb 

of them illiterate enthufiafts, from the le- place he reduced the numbers of members 

veral counties of England, to the number ufually fent by the corporations, and in- 

of one hundred and forty perfons; and creafed thofe returned by the counties; 

thefe he was pleafed to call a parliament, and then he took upon himfelf the power 

and to inveft them with the fupreme autho- to name thofe that were to be fent from 

rity. This affembly or convention, which Scotland zndlreland-, and thirdly, he referved 

Barebones" obtained the name of Barebones's parlia- the trials of elections of all the three king- 

parlia- ment, from one Barebones a leatherfeller, doms to a committee of his own privy- 

ment - who was one of the principal fpeakers, council. Yet, for all thefe precautions, 

finding themfelves very unequal to the when this parliament met, they inquired 

burthen Cromwel had thrown upon them, fo far into the legality of his proceedings, 

and having rendered themfelves exceeding and voted fuch limitations of his power, 

ridiculous to the nation, made a formal that he was neceffitated to diffolve them, 

Surrender furrender of their power to their creator as foon as their five months were, expired ; 

their pow- Cromwel, within a few months after they and wrecked his invention to eftablifh ano- 

er toCrm- received j t Ancl j^ h av j n g a g a j n ac _ t ^ er f ort f government, by dividing theEreftsan- 

cepted it with abundance of feeming re- kingdom into twelve provinces, and place- othcr ion 

luctanceand humility, took upon him the ing in each of them an officer, with the of § ovein * 

Cromwel title of protestor of the commonwealth of title of major -general, and an almoil un- 

takes the England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the limited power. Thefe were his particular 

name or Vr»T T xt 

proteftor. VOL * *• w n creatures, 

Ireland was to fend thirty members of the protestor's own nomination. 


7he Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

creatures, and ferved to keep the counties 
in awe, by perfecting and imprifonmg 
thofe he fufpected, and levying fuch fums 
of money, as he from time to time Ihould 

Summons This ufurper did now govern more ab- 
another f ] utc iy than any king before him, but 
5!nt!" ^as ambitious to afTume the title of king ; 
Defires for which end he fummoned another par- 
the title ]iament, but fuffered none to enter the 
of ki "S- houfe whom his council did not approve 
of; hoping they would compliment him 
with it : but his hopes were vain ■, for tho' 
his party carried it fo far as to make him 
a formal offer of the crown, he prudently 
refufed it, forefeeing it gave a general dif- 
guft to his friends : yet, to fatisfy his va- 
nity a little, he again caufed himfelf to 
Is again be inaugurated more folemnly into his of- 
inaugu- fi ce f proteclor in Wefiminfier-hall, where 
rated pro- tne cerernon y was brought as near as pof- 
fible to refemble the coronation of an Eng- 
, Jnftitutes lijh king : And that his government might 
an houfe tne more nearly refemble that of the kings 
of lords. of Eng!andy he thought fit to inftitute a 
houfe of lords, confuting of fixty perfons, 
of which feven were of the ancient nobi- 
lity, twenty-three of them gentlemen, the 
reft men of obfcure parentage and mean 
occupations, who had raifed themfelves in 
the wars : and thefe were fummoned by 
writ, in much the fame manner as the 
peers were anciently fummoned to the 
houfe of lords. 

The upper houfe being thus filled, the 

protector did not meet the commons in ' 

the painted chamber as heretofore •, but 

went to the houfe of lords, and fent the 

black rod to the commons, commanding 

them to attend him there, according to 

the practice of Englijh kings. The protector 

himfelf, and his lord-keeper Fiennes, have- 

ing made fpeeches in commendation of 

this ancient form of government, the 

Which commons were difmiffed : but they were 

proved .no iboner returned to their own houfe, 

difagrce- t j ian tne y fh ewec i trie i r refentment at the 

totnmons. protector's having inftituted another af- 

fembly of men to be a check, and, in 

fome refpects, to be fuperior to them. 

They immediately admitted all thofe 

members which Cromwel had excluded, as 

not being well affected to him, queftioned 

his authority in creating peers, and were 

Cromwel about to unravel all his fchemes. Where - 

is angry upon Cromwel came again to the houfe of 

with the lords-, and having fent for the commons, 

and dif' S ' levere 'y reprehended their prefumption -, 

folves told them, that the upper houfe, notwith- 

thcm. Handing their oppofition, were lords, and 

mould continue lords ; concluding his 

fpeech in thefe words, By the living God I 

do, and muft dijfolve you. This was his 

third and laft affembly, called a parlia- 

ment •, and thus were they diftblved, have- 
ing continued together about fifteen days 
after the affembling of the upper houfe. 

Cromwel, thus unwillingly condemned His per- 
to exercife an arbitrary rule, fpent the few P lexit >'- 
months he had to live in perpetual horror 
and anxiety ; like Cain, he dreaded every eye 
that faw him. The royalilts, he knew, 
juftly confpired his ruin •, and thofe who 
had raifed him to that power, the levellers 
and common-wealths men, he feared much 
more, as they had it much more in their 
power to annoy him. He was daily ex- 
ercifed with plots againft his perfon and 
government-, and yet from thefe nume- 
rous confpiracies, as well as former ha- 
zards, did Providence think fit to guard 
the tyrant, and take off this deftroyer of 
his country, at laft, in the ordinary way 
of ficknefs. He died in his bed, even in Death, 
that very palace where he had murdered 
his royal m after, on the 3d of September, 

Upon the death of Cromwel, his eldeft Richard 
fon Richard was proclaimed protector by v ^^ m 
his late father's privy-council ; the lord- e d protes- 
mayor and aldermen, and feveral of the tor. 
officers of the army and gentlemen affift- 

The foreign minifters had their audi- Addrefled 
ences of condolence and congratulation j on h ' s 
and addreffes came from the army, and 
from all parts of England, teftifying their 
joy at his acceffion, and promifing to ftand 
by him with their lives and fortunes. 

Richard having called a parliament, to Calls a 
meet the 27th of January, recommended parlia- 
his affairs at home and abroad to their ment » 
confideration •, but fo exafperated were the 
commons at the new-created houfe of peers, 
that they refufed to pafs an act recognizing Which 
Richard for their protector ; and fell i n to would . not 
fuch heats, that he was compelled to dif- J^thdr 
folve them. proteftor. 

From this diffention we may date the 
end of Richard's government-, for he never 
was applied to or mentioned afterwards. He 
bore the name of protector feven months 
and about twenty days -, after which there Different 
was a kind of inter-regnum for twelve days, fo:ms of 
when the officers of the army thought ^^entaittt 
to reftore the rump-parliament, at leafti?/ r ^ r ^ 
fo many of the old members as they was dif- 
thought would be fubfervient to them, carded. 
Thefe met on the 17 th of May, the reft 
were excluded by force ; and, at laft, 
wanting two to make up their intended 
number, they fupplied their places with 
two they fetched out of jail. 

On the 13th of October following, Lam- 
bert, and the officers of the army, turned 
this rump again out of doors, and about 
thirteen days after fet up a committee ofCommit- 
fofety, confiding of twenty-three perfons, te ^ of 

moft fafety ' 

to England and Scotland. 


mod of them officers ; but in about two in the name of the keepers of England for Keepers of 

months the rump was permitted to refume calling that parliament, which voted the En l land - 

its power, till Monk came with his army reftoration of kingly government, and the 

to London* reftored the fecluded members, calling home king Charles II. who accord- King 

and on the 1 6th of March procured an ingly was reftored, and returned on the Charles II 

ordinance to pafs for their own diffolution : 29 th of May following, 
which being effected, writs were iffued out 



Of the Divifion of Engl and, both Political and Ecclefiaftical. 

MY tutor, having improved my time changes in this nation to the reftoration, I 

by the foregoing particulars, in the fhall now give you the feveral divifions 

next place endeavoured to make our tour thereof. 

the more agreeable, by giving me a juft England, with the principality of Wales, Divifion 

idea of the country : Therefore, faid he, as it is now called, was, at the arrival of of £ "2- 

as I have given you an account of the the Romans, divided into the following Jj**_ c 

governors or princes, and their feveral petty governments, or independent ftates. rival of 

the Ro- 







5. BELGjE, 





10. ICENI, 


12. CORN A VII, 





( Suffex. 
X Surrey. 




C Devon/hire. 
\ Cornwal. 


f Somerjetjhire. 


\ Wiltfhire. 
1 Hampfhire. 


{ Gloucefterfhire. 
1 Oxford/hire. 


f Warwick/hire. 


< Buckingham/hire. 
1 Bedford/hire. 
r Hertford/hire. 



\ Effex. 
1 Middlefex. 
r Suffolk. 

> Inhabitants of ^ 


\ Norfolk. 
] Qambridgejhire. 
£ Huntingtonjhire. 
r Lincoln/hire. 


T T 

\ Leicefterjhire. 
J Rutlandshire. 


S Derby/hire. 

J Nottingham/hire. 

T O 

L Northamptonjhire. 
C Worcejlerjhire. 
\ Staffordjhire . 

1 Z. 

] Shropjhire. 
£ Chejhire. 

\ Lancajhire. 


} Durham. 

J JVeJlmoreland. 

*■ Cumberland. 

f Northumberland, 


< and four counties 


t in Scotland. 




By the 


The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

i 5 . SILURES, 



) 7 . DIMET^ 

The Reman emperors, after they had 
conquered Britain, divided it into provin- 
ces. Severus feems firft to have thrown it 
into two provinces, by a line drawn from 
Claufentum to Gabrofentum, i. e. from South- 
ampton to Gate/head near Newcaftle. So 
that all the country on the eaft-fide of the 
line was called Britannia prima, as lying 
nearer to the fea and to Rome, which in 
the language of Dio is -n K«'tw, i. e. Bri- 
tannia inferior ; as all on the weft-fide was 
named Britannia fecunda, and by Bio v "Avw, 
or fuperior. But fince Sextus Rufus rec- 
kons four provinces in Britain, it is pro- 
bable that Maxima Ca far i en/is and Flavia 
Cafarienfis were taken out of the other two 
by Confiantine the great, and not by Maxi- 
mus Clemens, as Pancirolus reports : For 
Sextus Rufus, who wrote in the reign of 
Valentinian I. mentions Maxima Cafarien- 
fis ; whereas Clemens Maximus was an ufur- 
per under Theodofius the great. Ammianus 
Marcellinus, who lived under the fame 
Theodofius, mentions the province Valencia •, 
and after him the Notitia imperii num- 

Inhabitants of 


. Hereford/bin. 

! Montgomery fhirei 
Denbigh/bire 9 
f Caermarthenfhire, 
17, } Pembrokefhire. 
(^ Cardigan/hire. 

bers five provinces in Britain, and among 
them Valencia. It was added to the other 
four by Theodofius, father of Theodofius the 
great ; and feems before to have been part 
of Maxima Cafarienfis, * 

The Romans having abfeonded this 
ifland, as I have told you before, it is pro- 
bable that the Britains no longer regarded 
their provinces, but fell again into their 
ancient divilion of the land, as they had 
Hill preferved among themfelves a kind of 
government •, and thus the Saxons found it 
divided, who entirely overthrew both the 
ancient government and diftinction of the 
parts of this nation, and impofed both 
their language and policy upon the con- 
quered nation, as I have fhewn before : in 
which form William the conqueror found 
it, and for its better government divided 
the whole land of England and Wales into 
feveral counties or fhires, two ecclefiaftical 
provinces, and fix circuits ; which, as they 
now exift, with feveral other appendages, 
will belt appear from the oppofite Scheme. 



A Chorographical Defcription of England. 

BEING thus accompanied and in- 
ftructed, it was to be my peculiar 
care to improve my journey to the ufes 
I firft intended, at my departure from 
Lifbon ; and in particular to render it, for 
the future, fubfervient to my mercantile 
way of life : Therefore I began to take 
minutes of the foil, produce, and manu- 
factures of every county through which 
we pafied ; and made my particular ob- 
fervations on the genius of the. people, 
their different methods of dealing; and 
diftinguifhed the feveral cities, towns, and 
villages, which are moft remarkable for 

trade and navigation ; of all which take 
the following true, though rude and un- 
polifhed account. I begin with Ccrnwal, 
the county in which I landed. 

Ccrnwal is the moft weftern county of Carnival 
England, and is fo warned by the fea on the 
north, fouth, and weft, and the river 
Tamer on the eaft, that it is a perfect ^«««- 
fula ihaped like a horn. I prefently found 
the people of this county valued them- 
felves upon fome pretentions above the 
other part of the nation, which I was in- 
formed was their ability in wrefiling, 
and ftrength of body ; their having moft 

a Britannia Prima feems to have been the fouth part of Britain ; Secunda probably was Wales. Maxima 
Cafarienfis and Valencia feem to have been thofe countries that lay upon the frontiers of Scotland. And 
F/'avia Cafarienfis was, like enough, the heart of England. 



"LAND, anno 173 1. 

Counties Nantes in 
Alphabetical Order. 

Names of fuch as 

have their Titles 

from the County 

or chief Town. 


Berkftiire, Er. 



Cornwal, D. 

Cumberland, D. 
Derby fhire 
Devonfhire, D. 

Dorfetlhire, D. 


Effex, Er. 




Kent, D. 




Middlesex, Er, 

Norfolk, D. 

Northumberland, D. 

Rutlandftiire, D. 

Somerfetlhire, D; 


Suffolk, Er. 

Surrey, Er. 

Suflex, Er: 


Weftmoreland, Er. 

Wiltfhire, Er. 






Elecl. P. of Hanover 


Prince William 




Dunelm (Bp.) 
Dr. Chandler 


Prince Frederick 





tants in, 











■ Mannors 



Howard J 

C Howard, duke 7 p 
\ of Norfolk J * 



Pawlet, D. of Bolton' E 

j Somerfet, duke 1 ' J 
X of Beaufort J, f>o 

SErn. Auguftus, -j ! 
bifhop of C G Q 
Ofnaburgh j f 





ty has paid 






935 10 

• 550060 



1 16420 

Names oftbe- Rivers in 
each County. 

Oufe, Ivel 
Thames, Ills, Kenet 
Tame, Oufe, Colne 

Cam, Oufe, Grant 
Dee, Weever 
Fawey, Loo, Alan 

Rapes, Laths, 

Wapontakes, &c. 


Eden, Derwent, Irthing, 
_ Leven 

Derwent, Trent 
j Dart, Taw, Ex, 
I Tamer, Turridge 

Stower, Frome 



Tine, Derwent, Ware, Tees 

C Thames, Stower, Colne, 
I Lee, Chelmer 

Severn, Avon, Ifis, Wye, 


Avon, Stour,-Itchin 
Frome, Lug, Arrow, Wey 

Colne, Lee 

Oufe, Nen 
C Thames, Medway, 
I Stower, Derwent 

5 hundreds 
30 hundreds 

28 hundreds 

--. i 

( Merfee, Ribble, Lon, t 
I Irk, Irwell < S 

9 hundreds 
22 hundreds 
8 hundreds 

16 hundreds 
; 7 hundreds 
> 9 hundreds 




3 18 hundreds 

: 21 hundreds 

5 33 hundreds 

12 hundreds 

8 hundreds 
3 hundreds 

6 J 5 laths 


Stower, Swift, Reek 
C Humber, Weland, Trent, 
I Witham, Nen 

80 1 Thames, Colne 

5 hundreds 

6 hundreds 
3 hundreds 

__ wapontakes 
5 hundreds 
2 liberties 

Oufe, Yare, Waveney, Frin 

Nen, Oufe, Weland 

Tine, Tweed 

Trent, Idle, Maun, Snite 

j Thames, Tame, Ifis, 
( Charwell, Windrum 
Weland, Chatter 
5 Severn, Feme, Tern, 
I Roden, Rea 
j Severn, Avon, Frome, 
1 Parot, Tor, Tone 
C Trent, Dove, Line, Sou, } 
\ Churnet,Blyth,Pink,bV. 5 
C Stower, Deben, Brelen, ( 
{ Blyth,Orwell,Oufe,Clare J 

Thames, Mole, Wey 

Rother, Arun, Lavant, Lewes 

C Avon, Sou, Anker,Tame, 
1 Blyth, Cole 
5 Eden, Ken, Lon, Loder, 1 __ 
I Sput, Burbeck $ 

C Avon,Willy, Ifis, Nadder, 
I Kenet ( 
I c Severn* Avon, Tame, 
7 Salwarp, Stour, Arrow 


31 hundreds 
20 hundreds 



{ 6 wapontakes 
\ 2 divifions 

14 hundreds 

5 hundreds 

14 hundreds 

37 hundreds 

5 hundreds 
17 hundreds 
13 hundreds 

6 rapes 

C 4 hundreds 
I 1 liberty 


53°755 3° 24 


29 hundreds 

7 hundreds 
2 limits 



Z3 wapontakes 

Obferve that D, fignifies Duke ♦, M. 

-Town, then it is from that ; and where Blanks are, the Titles are not in Being 
/I. Bills of Mortality, and Mx. Middlefex. 


The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

T>y the 

i 5 . SILURES, 


> 7 . DIMETJE, 

The Roman emperors, after they had 
conquered Britain, divided it into provin- 
ces. Sever us feems firft to have thrown it 
into two provinces, by a line drawn from 
Claufentum to Gabrofentum, i. e. from South- 
ampton to Gate/head near Newcaftle. So 
that all the country on the eaft-fide of the 
line was called Britannia prima, as lying 
nearer to the fea and to Rome, which in 
the language of Dio is tl K^tw, i. e. Bri- 
tannia inferior -, as all on the weft-fide was 
named Britannia fecunda, and by Bio v "Avw, 
or fuperior. But fince Sextus Rufus rec- 
kons four provinces in Britain, it is pro- 
bable that Maxima Cafarienjis and Flavia 
Cafarienfis were taken out of the other two 
by Conflantine the great, and not by Maxi- 
mus Clemens, as Pancirolus reports : For 
Sextus Rufus, who wrote in the reign of 
Valentinian I. mentions Maxima Cafarien- 
fis \ whereas Clemens Maximus was an ufur- 
per under Theodofius the great. Ammianas 
Marcellinus, who lived under the fame 
Theodofius, mentions the province Valencia •, 
and alter him the Notitia imperii num- 

Inhabitants of 


f HerefordJhire. 
\ Radnorfhire. 
15. < Brecknock/hire, 
J Monmouthfhire. 
** Glamorgan/hire. 

i Montgomery fhirei 
f Caermarthenfhire* 
17, \ Pembrokefhire. 
^ Cardigan/hire. 

bers five provinces in Britain, and among 
them Valencia. It was added to the other 
four by 'Theodofius, father of Theodofius the 
great ; and feems before to have been part 
of Maxima Cafarienfis? 

The Romans having abfconded this 
ifland, as I have told you before, it is pro- 
bable that the Britains no longer regarded 
their provinces, but fell again into their 
ancient divifion of the land, as they had 
flill preferved among themfelves a kind of 
government •, and thus the Saxons found it 
divided, who entirely overthrew both the 
ancient government and diftinction of the 
parts of this nation, and impofed both 
their language and policy upon the con- 
quered nation, as I have fhewn before : in 
which form William the conqueror found 
it, and for its better government divided 
the whole land of England and Wales into 
feveral counties or fhires, two ecclefiaftical 
provinces, and fix circuits ; which, as they 
now exift, with feveral other appendages, 
will belt appear from the oppofite Scheme. 


A Chorographical Defer iptio?i of England. 

BEING thus accompanied and in- 
ftructed, it was to be my peculiar 
care to improve my journey to the ufes 
I firft intended, at my departure from 
Li/bon ; and in particular to render it, for 
the future, fubfervient to my mercantile 
way of life : Therefore I began to take 
minutes of the foil, produce, and manu- 
factures of every county through which 
we paiTed ; and made my particular ob- 
ftrvations on the genius of the people, 
their different methods of dealing; and 
diflinguifhed the feveral cities, towns, and 
villages, which are moft remarkable for 

trade and navigation ; of all which take 
the following true, though rude and un- 
polifhed account. I begin with Carnival, 
the county in which I landed. 

Cornwal is the moft weftern county 0$ Cornnval. 
England, and is fo wafhed by the fea on the 
north, fouth, and weft, and the river 
Tamer on the eaft, that it is a perfect penin- 
fula fhaped like a horn. Iprefently found 
the people of this county valued them- 
felves upon fome pretentions above the 
other part of the nation, which I was in- 
formed was their ability in wreflling, 
and ftrength of body ; their having moft 

a Britannia Prima feems to have been the fouth part of Britain : Secunda probably was Wales. Maxima 
Cafarienjis and Valencia feem to have been thofe countries that lay upon the frontiers of Scotland. And 
Flavia Cafarienjis was, like enough, the heart of England. 



'LAND, anno I731. 

Counties Names in 
Alphabetical Order. 

Names of fucb as 

have tbeir Titles 

from the County 

or chief Town. 








Berkshire, Er. 



Cornwal, D. 

Cumberland, D. 
Derby fhire 
Devonshire, D. 

Dorfetlhire, D. 


Effex, Er. 




Kent, D. 




Middlefex, Er. 

Norfolk, t). 

Northumberland, D. 

Rutlandlhire, D. 

Somerfetlhire, D. 


Suffolk, Er. 

Surrey, Er. 

Suffex, Er. 


Westmoreland, Er. 

Wiltfhire, Er. 





Eleft. P. of Hanover 

Prince William 




C Dunelm {Bp.) \ 
I Dr. Chandler J 


Prince Frederick 




tants //j 




°/S l 3 

ty has paid 
















Howard, duke 
of Norfolk 




Pawlet, D. of Bolton" E 

{ Somerfet, duke 
I of Beaufort 


Ern. Augustus, 
biShop of 

Names of the. Rivers in 
each County. 

Oufe, Ivel 
Thames, Ifis, Kenet 
Tame, Oufe, Colne 

Cam, Oufe, Grant 
Dee, Weever 

Fawey, Loo, Alan 

Eden, Derwent, Irthing, 

Derwent, Trent 
j Dart, Taw, Ex, 
( Tamer, Turridge 

Stower, Frome 

Tine, Derwent, Ware, Tees 

C Thames, Stower, Colne, 
( Lee, Chelmer 
j Severn, Avon, Ifis, Wye, 
\ Stroud 

Avon, Stour,Itchin 
Frome, Lug, Arrow, Wey 

Colne, Lee 

Oufe, Nen 
C Thames, Medway, 
I Stower, Derwent 

Merfee, Ribble, Lon, 
^ Irk, Irwell 
Slower, Swift, Reek 

Humber, Weland, Trent, 

Witham, Nen 

Thames, Colne 


Rapes, Laths, 

Wapontakes, Sec. 


9 hundreds 
22 hundreds 

8 hundreds 

16 hundreds 
7 hundreds 

9 nurd reds 

5 hundreds 
30 hundreds 

28 hundreds 

Oufe, Yare, Waveney, Frin 

Nen, Oufe, Weland 

Tine, Tweed 

Trent, Idle, Maun, Snite 

C Thames, Tame, Ifis, 
( Charwell, Windrufn 
Weland, Chatter 
5 Severn, Feme, Tern, 
( Roden, Rea 
j Severn, Avon, Frome, 
I Parot, Tor, Tone 
C Trent, Dove, Line, Sou, 1 
I Churnet,Blytri,Pink,bV. J 
C Stower, Deben, Brelen, 
I Blyth,Orwell,Oufe,Clare 

Thames, Mole, Wey 

Rother, Arun, Lavant, Lewes 

( Avon, Sou, Anker.Tame, 

I Blyth, Cole 

{ Eden, Ken, Lon, Loder, 

I Sput, Burbeck 

f Avon.Willy, Ifis, Nadder, 

I Kenet 

C Severn* Avon, Tame, 7 

*£ Salwarp, Stour, Arrow J 

i Humber, Your, Aire, ") 
Caldor, Derwent, Dun, > 
Oufe, Nide, Svi all, Tees J 

1 8 hundreds 

21 hundreds 

33 hundreds 

12 hundreds 

8 hundreds 
3 hundreds 
c, laths 

5 hundreds 

5 hundreds 
C 3 hundreds "i 
\ 25 wapontakes J 
( 5 hundreds 
( 2 liberties 

31 hundreds 
20 hundreds 





6 wapontakes 
2 divifions 

14 hundreds 
5 hundreds 
14 hundreds 

37 hundreds 

5 hundreds 
17 hundreds 
13 hundreds 

6 rapes 



C 4 hundreds 
j 1 lit 


29 hundreds 

C 7 hundreds 
/ 2 limits 

23 wapontakes 


Obferve that D. fignifies Duke •, M.|_ Town . then it is from that . an d where Blanks are, the Titles are not in Being j 

if. Bills' of Mortality, and Mx. Middlefex. 


The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

By the 

i 5 . SILURES, 



>7. DIMET^ 

The Roman emperors, after they had 
conquered Britain, divided it into provin- 
ces. Sever us feems firft to have thrown it 
into two provinces, by a line drawn from 
Claufentum to Gabrofentum, i. e. from South- 
ampton to Gate/head near Newca/ile. So 
that all the country on the eaft-fide of the 
line was called Britannia prima, as lying 
nearer to the fea and to Rome, which in 
the language of Bio is -n Kara, i. e. Bri- 
tannia inferior ; as all on the weft-fide was 
named Britannia fecunda, and by Bio i "Avw, 
or fuperior. But fince Sextus Rufus rec- 
kons four provinces in Britain, it is pro- 
bable that Maxima Cafarienfis and Flavia 
Cafarienfis were taken out of the other two 
by Confiantine the great, and not by Maxi- 
mus Clemens, as Pancirolus reports : For 
Sextus Rufus, who wrote in the reign of 
Valentinian I. mentions Maxima Cafarien- 
fis ; whereas Clemens Maximus was an ufur- 
per under Theodofius the great. Ammianus 
Marcellinus, who lived under the fame 
Theodofius, mentions the province Valencia ; 
and after him the Notitia imperii num- 

Inhabitants of 


15. <£ Brecknock/hire. 

i Montgomery fhire, 
Benbighfhire 9 
f Caermarthenfhire, 
17, } Pembrokefhire. 
[ Cardigan/hire. 

bers five provinces in Britain, and among 
them Valencia. It was added to the other 
four by Theodofius, father of Theodofius the 
great ; and feems before to have been part 
of Maxima Cafarienfis? 

The Romans having abfconded this 
ifland, as I have told you before, it is pro- 
bable that the Britains no longer regarded 
their provinces, but fell again into their 
ancient divifion of the land, as they had 
ftill preferved among themfelves a kind of 
government •, and thus the Saxons found it 
divided, who entirely overthrew both the 
ancient government and diftinction of the 
parts of this nation, and impofed both 
their language and policy upon the con- 
quered nation, as I have fhewn before : in 
which form William the conqueror found 
it, and for its better government divided 
the whole land of England and Wales into 
feveral counties or mires, two ecclefiaftical 
provinces, and fix circuits •, which, as they 
now exift, with feveral other appendages, 
will beft appear from the oppofite Scheme. 


A Chorographical Defcription of England. 

BEING thus accompanied and in- 
ftructed, it was to be my peculiar 
care to improve my journey to the ufes 
I firft intended, at my departure from 
Lijbon ; and in particular to render it, for 
the future, fubfervient to my mercantile 
way of life : Therefore I began to take 
minutes of the foil, produce, and manu- 
factures of every county through which 
we paired ; and made my particular ob- 
fervations on the genius of the people, 
their different methods of dealing; and 
diflinguifhed the feveral cities, towns, and 
villages, which are moft remarkable for 

trade and navigation ; of all which take 
the following true, though rude and un- 
polifhed account. I begin with Cornwal, 
the county in which I landed. 

Cornwal is the moft weftern county of ComivaL 
England, and is fo warned by the fea on the 
north, fouth, and weft, and the river 
Tamer on the eaft, that it is a perfect ^#/#- 
fula fhaped like a horn. I prefently found 
the people of this county valued them- 
felves upon fome pretentions above the 
other part of the nation, which I was in- 
formed was their ability in wreflling, 
and ftrength of body ; their having moft 

3 Britannia Prima feems to have been the fouth part of Britain ; Secunda probably was Wales. Maxima 
Cafarienfis and Valencia feem to have been thofe countries that lay upon the frontiers of Scotland. And 
Flavia Cafarienfis was, like enough, the heart of England. 


A Brief Account of the State of each COUNTY in ENGLAND, 




CmalUt WrtW in 

Alphabetical Ordir. 

Namet of fucb at 
ha ve their Titles 
from the County 
cr cbitf Ttu/n. 

Antiquity of the 

fitlt in the 
frefent Name 
and Family. 

Area of 



Principal CammiJ lif//« 
in each County. 

Noma of the 
chief or County 


In iubat 

the 'Judge 
it fituate. 

tmii -f 

die of 


■ v /'.' 

Ibeir Difiaetitl 
ewi Bearing 
from London 
computed at 


Njmfjtr of 
tath Cnotty. 




In nvbat 
Diocfjr each 
County it. 

Name 1 cf the 

Citiet in each 





[ : 


1 1 










r ■ 

I 1 







I I 
1 1 


< ; 
1 a 











1 too 



2 79 









1 500 






tanti in 




• : 





2 'j 






I : 

I I 

; 1 




1 1 










■j haipaia 

Ham.-! if the River, in 
tach County. 



Rapet, Laths, 

Wapentakes, &c. 

Berklhire, Er. 



Cornwal, D. 

Cumberland, D. 
Derby (hire 
Devon !h ire, D. 

DorfetQiire, D. 

Dor him 

Eflcx, Er. 

G lo uce Iter fli ire 



Huntington (hi re 
Kent, D. 



Middlesex, Er. 

Norfolk, D. 

Northumberland, D. 

RutbndChire, D. 

Somerfetfhire, D. 
Suffolk, Er. 
Surrey, Er. 
SuAcx, Er. 
Wtftmoreland, Er. 
Wiltfhirc, Er. 




EleeX P. of Hanover 

£V.Ed.6. D.W.j. 
D Q^Anne 






1 040OOO 






I z^czr: 

1 1 5OOOO 


1 I480OO 







1 1 4000c 



. 6760OC 

. 540OOC 


corn, cattle, cheefe 
fail-cloth, malt 
wood, corn, cattle 

corn, fowl, faffron 

C corn.cattle.ehceie, J 
I fait, &c millftones J 
C fill,, copper, tin, 1 
I fowl, fineflate J 

copper, blacklead, fiih 

coals, iron, lead 
C corn, cat tie, wool, ) 
( r:. , cloth, ferges J 

corn, cattle, ftone 

coaU, iron, lead 

( corn, wood, faffron ) 
( cattle, fifh, fowl J 
$ corn, cloth. Heel, ) 
I timber J 
( corn, cloth, cattle, ) 
I wool, honey .bacon J 
4 whcat,wood ( wool, I 
I cider J 

wheat, malt, wood 

corn, cattle, wood 

fruit, cattle, corn 

oxen, coals, oats 
coai<, wood, fheep 
cattle, wool, fowl 

roots, hay, cattle 

t corn, wool, honey, 7 
I faffron, Huffs J 
t cattle, corn, wool, J 
( faltpetre J 
lead, coals fifh, fowl 
( corn, malt, coals, ) 
I liquorice, fifh, fowl J 

corn, malt, cattle, wock 

wool, wood, corn.cattlt 

fuel, iron, corn, cattle 

C lapis calaminarU, ) 
I cattle, lead, wood J 

coals, iron, lead 

( butter, cheefe, } 
( linen, woollen ) 
\ fullers-earth, box, ) 
I corn, walnutj J 
j ) 
I tic, malt, wool j 

wood, wool, cheefe 

j cloth, ftuff:, bats, J 
\ Hocking) J 

(beep, wool, cloth, woo 
cyder, fait, cheefe 

cloth, corn, cattle 

Bedford. D. 



Cambridge, D. 

Chefler, Er. 


Derby, Er. 

Dorc heller 



Gloucefter, D. 

Southampton, D 

Hereford, V. 

Hertford, Er. 

Huntington, Er 
( Canterbury, 1 
( Maidltonca/ J 

Lancafler, D. 

Lciceftcr, Er. 

Lincoln, Er. 



Northampton, Er 
Nottingham, Er. 

Oxford, Er. 

Shrewsbury, Er. 

( Briftol I 

I Wells J 

Stafford, Er. 




try if J 
I Warwick,** J 

i Salisbury 
Worcclkr, jV. 

•Vork, D. 









i z 










i 2 



> ■' 



5 = 
S a 




; ; 

j i 

> ; 



1 : 










v ; 
1 S 










. 30 

1 20 


2 40 
j 00 

3 °S 

1 40 

3 5° 

2 30 

' 35 


! '5 

1 '5 

2 47 

4 ; 

1 35 
1 20 


1 00 

° SS 

' 55 
1 o> 

1 20 


1 52 

3 <=5 

2 10 

1 00 


' 35 
' S 1 

2 00 

2 '3 
1 20 


33 WNW 

; | N nL'.ir 
13; NW 
■ 75 W by S 

214 NWbyN 

107 NW by N 
160 WbyS 

92 wsw 

1 86 N by W 

25 NE 

7; W by N 


104 WNW 

2 + 'NNW 
40 SE by E 

160 NWbyN 
So NW by N 

108 N 

8 NW by W 

!,- NE by N 
Go NWbyN 

«s " b y w 

98 NNW 

47 WNW 
67 NNW 

103 WbyS 

104 NW 
60 NE 

35 S 

. by W 
204 NNW 
70 WbyS 
87 NW 1 ■)■ V, 

1 js Nby W 


1 i 






2 53 






I l27Lon.Wc. 
I 73 M*- 







3' 2 

T 5 2 








I2 5 







J loLon. 
( 31 Mx. 


5 s 

' S 





$ pir: Ely 
I p. Norwich 



j p. Chefter 
{ p. Carlifle 
Licchf. & Cov. 


C Briftol with 
| that city 



( p- London 
I p. Lincoln 
( pCjnterbr. 
1 p. Roc heller 











( P Hei 

I p.Lit.iCov. 

Bath and Well. 

t Litchfield 
I Sc Coventry 




( p Lit.&Cov. 
J p. Worcefler 

( pan 1 

I part Carlifle 



r York, except 
J Richmond w f 
I InChelterd 


1 2170 


2 S374 



1 5000 



39 2 4 2 




t 108000B.M. 
\ 5000 Mx. 




2 3747 

2 'S37 





74' 2 S 





'34 2 5S 





t 550060 
i 25000 





1 16420 


1721 10 
1 7 1 090 









2 4 













2 4 

Oufc, Ivcl 
Thames, Itis, Kcnet 
Tame, Oufe, Colne 

Cam, Oufe, Grant 
Dee, Wecver 

Fawey, Leo, Alan 

{ Eden, Derwcnt, frilling, ) 
\ Levcn J 
Derwcnt, Trent 
t Dirt, 1 ■ \ 

\ i a:ncr, TurnJge J 

Slower, Fromc 

Tine, Derwcnt, Ware, Tees 

5 Th.imcs, Slower, Colne, 1 
( Lee, Chelmcr J 
( Severn, Avon, His, Wye, / 

( Stroud J 
Avon, Stour.-Itchin 

Frome, Lug, Arrow, Wey 

Colne, Lee 

Oufc, Ncn 

( J ii [ties, Mcdway, 7 
j Stoivcr, Derwcnt J 
( Merfee, kibble, Lon, / 

{irk, lrv,ell J 
Slower, Sivilt, Reck 
t Humbcr, Weland, Trent. ? 
\ Witham, Ncn J 

Thamei, Colne 

Oufc, Yare, Wavency, Frin 

Ncn, Oufe, Weland 
Tine, Tweed 

Trent, Isllc, Mnun, Snite 

( Thames, Tame, Ills, ) 
iCk ri 11, '■' mJruli. J 
W'cland, Chatter 
5 Severn, Feme, Tern, 1 
1 Rodcu, Rca 5 
5 Severn, Avon, Frome, I 
\ I * not, lor, Tone J 
t Treot, Dove, Line, Sou, ) 
? Churaet.Blyth.Pink.tjrr. J 
( Slower, Debcn. Brclcn, ^ 
I Blyti,OrweU,Oofe,CU« J 

Thames, Mole, «cy 

Rothcr, Arun, Lavant, Lewes 

J Avon, Sou, Ankcr.Tame, ? 
j Blyth, Cole i 
1 nn, Loder, ) 
I Spul, fiurbeck ) 
t Avon, Willy, Ifls, Naddcr. i 
I kenct ( 1 
r Severn, Avon, Tame, 5 
7 Salwarp, Stour, Arrow J 

f Humbcr, Your, Aire, 1 
I Clldor, Derwcnt, Dun, > 

I , feea J 

i ... 








9 hundreds 
;2 hundieds 
8 hundreds 

1 6 hundreds 
7 hundreds 


Prince William 



( Dunelm {Bp.) \ 
I Dr. Chandler J 


Prince Frederick 

Fitz Roy 



George 1. 
Henry 7. 

g.j.i. aw.&M. 

James 1. 
George 1 . 
Charles 2. 
George 1. 

Charles 2. 

Edward 6. 

Henry 8. 
Henry 8. 


5 hundreds >*_ 
30 hundreds 

28 hundreds 





























18 hundreds 

2 1 hundreds 
33 hundreds 
1 2 hundreds 

8 hundreds 

3 hundreds 
c laths 

i hundreds 

6 hundreds 
( 3 hundreds ) 
atakes 1 
( ; hundreds I 
I 2 liberties J 

31 hundreds 
zo hundreds 


I Canterbury 

I RochtAer 





Queen Elizabeth 

James 1 . 


James 1 . 


( London 
( vVeftminfler 









t Howard, duke \ 
\ of Norfolk J 



PawIct.D.of Bolto 

{ Somerfet, duke ] 
1 of Beaufort J 

r Em. Auguflus, - 
) billiop of 
I Ofnaburgh \ 

Charles 2. 

Queen Anne 
£/-.H.8.D.Q ; An 
Er.H.6. Z).W. 3 

Edward 6. 

Charles 1. Ja. 2 

James t. 

Richard 3. 

George 1. 

James 1. 

James 1 . 

i£r.Ed.6. />.W-3 

Er.H.S. D.Ch.i 


George 1 . 

{ 6 wapori takes ) 
I z divitions J 

14 hundreds 

■ y hundreds 

14 hundreds 

37 hundreds 

j hundreds 

17 hundreds 

13 hundreds 

6 rapes 

C 4 hundreds ) 1 
I 1 liberty 5 1 

29 hundreds 1 

( 7 hundreds 1 1 
I 2 limits ] 1 

23 wapontakes 1 


( Briftol part 
\ Bath & Wells 




Obfcrve that D, fignifics Duke •, M. Marquis ; Er. Earl KVifcount : And that when D. or Er. &c. ftand next after the County, theTitle is from thence ; but if after the County-Town, then it is from that ; and where Blanks are, the Titles are not in B jmgl 

to the Royal Family. Alfo that E. fignifies Eaft, W. Weft. N. North, S. b'outh, Lon. London, We. Wcftminfter, p. Part, d. Dioccfe, B.M. Bills of Mortality, and Mx. Middlekx. 


to England and Scotland. 


of the old Britijh blood in their families; 
and their peculiar honour of giving title of 
duke without creation to the eldeft fon of 
the king of Great -Britain. 
Soil and This is not the moft fruitful part of 
j>rodud. E n gland> the foil being for the moft part 
mountainous, thin, and rocky underneath : 
yet the vallies are fat with corn and good 
pafture, the hills are rich in tin and cop- 
per mines ; and they every where abound 
in wild-fowls, efpecially the dainty wood- 
cock. Nor muft I forget their produce 
of eringo, famphire, fine flate, and mar- 
Trade and bl e - But their chief metal and manufac- 
manufac- ture is jin. When the ore is brought above 
lures. ground in the ftone, it is broke with ham- 
mers, and then carried to the damping 
mills, which make it ready for other mills, 
whereby it is ground to powder. After 
it is warned and cleared from earth, &c. 
it is melted at the blowing-houfes in- 
to pigs of three or four hundred weight, 
marked with the owner's name, and the 
value is fet upon it at the coining-houfe, 
where it is afiay'd, to know what it is worth. 
The times for coining or making it, are 
Midfummer and Michaelmas ; and for fuch 
as have not their tin then ready, there is 
a poft-coinage at Lady-day and Cbrijimas. 
The ftamp is, the feal of the duchy of 
Cornwal. The tinners are regulated by 
Stannary laws, fo called from ftannum, the 
Latin word for tin ; and the trials of 
their caufes are by juries, returned by the 
mayors of the ftannary towns ; for which 
purpofe, courts are held by the lord war- 
den of the ftannaries, who has alfo a 
deputy. When all the legal duties are 
fatisfied, the tinner may fell his tin where 
he will ; only if the king, or the duke of 
Cornwal, have a mind to be purchafers, 
they have a right of pre-emption. 

The coinage towns are, Lejkard, Leji- 
withiel, Truro, Heljion, and Penfance ; and 
the tinners are reckoned at leaft 100,000. 

The mundic, in which the tin lies as in 
its bed, yields fuch a quantity of lapis ca- 
laminaris, for making brafs, that inftead 
of importing copper and brafs, which year- 
ly heretofore did amount to 100,000^. 
they now export as much, if not more. 

In this county alfo is carried on a great 
trade for pilchards ; which are caught be- 
tween July and November, of which the 
merchants export vaft quantities to foreign 
markets, and for which they fit them by 
fuming, preffing and pickling : Thefe are 
faked but not gutted, the entrails being 
reckoned the beft part ; and, after have- 
ing been piled in heaps in a cellar for ten 
days, and preffed, to drain off the fuper- 
fluous moifture of the blood and fait, 
they are barrelled up with pickle, for 
France -, but without it, for Spain, Italy, 
and other hotter countries. 
Vol. I. 

We pafs through this county into De-Devon* 
von/hire, travelling eaftward j which being/"*, 
not fo much incompaffed with the fea is 
of a more pure air •, and both the roads Soil. 
are better, and the foil more fruitful -, 
though DevonJJjire has many both hills 
and woods. 

Its commodities are corn, cattle, wool, Comma- 
s', and its manufactures, kerfes, ferges, dlties * ncl 
druggets, perpetuanas, long-ells, fhalloons, ™™ ac " 
narrow cloths, £jV. as alfo bonelace. 

That part called the South-hams is famous Cyder and 
for its noble rough cyder : In other parts of tin - 
it mines of tin have been formerly difcovered 
in fuch abundance, that in king John\ time 
the coinage of Devon/hire was fet to farm 
for ioo^. a year, when Cornwal paid but 
66 £. 18 j. 4.d. and it has four ftannary 
towns, with as many ftannary courts, and 
towns of coinage ; which are Plympton, 
Taviftock, Ajhburton, and Chagford; but 
there is very little tin dug in this country 

Veins of loadftone are found here, which, Load- 
I was told, a learned naturalift fays ge- ftone * 
nerally run eaft and weft, contrary to the 
received opinion, that the loadftone gave 
a northerly direction ; becaufe its natural 
pofition in the mine is fuppofed to be 
north and fouth. Here are quarries of 
good ftone for building, and alfo of flate budding 
for covering houfes ; and of the latter and tiling, 
great quantities are exported. 

Proceeding ftill eaft ward, we entered Dorfet- 
the pleafant and fruitful county of Dorfet,fi jire ' 
or Dorfetjhire, which not only produceth 
great plenty of corn, pafture, cattle, wild Pr ° duce 
fowl and fifh ; but hemp and flax •, and „"f a ™ " 
great quantities of cloth are made here, t ures. 
both woollen and linnen. Nor can any 
fhire match its plenty of excellent ftone 
in the quarries at Portland and Purbeck, Quarries 
(in the laft of which marble has been dug of ftone - 
up fometimes) ; and from Blacknore foreft Forefts of 
may be brought fufficient timber to ferve timber, 
the whole county : And what a conveni- 
ency this is to the inhabitants, appears, 
from the elegance of the buildings, not 
only of the gentlemen's feats, but in their 
towns. Many kinds of earth, that are 
ufeful, are difperfed up and down the 
county i particularly, the beft tobacco- 
pipe-clay, which, as I was told, would 
fell at London for 30 J. a ton. 

From hence we travelled into Somerfet- Somerfet- 
Jhire, fo called from its being the warmeftA™- 
county in the whole ifland of Britain. It 
is a very rich, plentiful, populous and plea- Itscharac- 
fant county, famous among the graziers ter * 
for its large fheep and oxen -, and among 
merchant-adventurers, for its commodious 
havens. But the roads in winter are very 
foul and bad for travellers. 

It abounds with grain of all kinds, of its pro* 
which it fupplies home and foreign markets du&. 
O o. with 


The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

with vaft quantities. Its hills afford mines 
of coal, lead, and copper. Wood thrives 
here,as well as in any mire in the kingdom $ 
and teazles (a fort of thirties ufed by the 
cloth-dreffers) grow fcarce any where elfe. 
Ocre is dug up, on and about Mendip hills ; 
and of lapis calaminarh (without which, 
and copper, there's no making of brafs) 
more is dug up here than in all the king- 
dom befides. As this county is rich in 
pafture* no wonder it yields fuch great 
quantities of cheefe, of which the belt 
and biggeft in England 2st made at Chedder, 
and reckoned as good as Parmefan ; and it 
is worthy both the obfervation and imita- 
tion of fuch as defire to excell in this 
branch of trade, that the whole milk of 
the parifh is, by the agreement of the pa- 
rifhioners, preferved for the making of it. 
Its oxen are as large as thofe of Lancajhire 
and Lincoln/hire-, and the grain of the 
flefh is faid to be finer. Its vales feed and 
fatten a prodigious number of fheep, and 
of the largeft fize. Its maftiff dogs are 
the boldeft of all others of the kind at 
baiting the bull, a fport in which the 
ruder fort of people among them, and 
fome of the low-bred gentry, take per- 
haps too much delight* as well here, as 
in other parts of this nation. 
Manufac- ^11 forts of cloth is manufactured here j 
trade ^ as broad and narrow kerfeys, druggets, 
ferges, duroys and fhalloons, together with 
flockings and buttons ; and in the fouth- 
eaft parts of the fhire are made great quan- 
tities of linen. The value of the wool- 
len manufacture alone here, in the firft 
hands, has been rated at a million a year j 
and if a calculation was made of its other 
manufactures ; and its produce by mines, 
tillage, feeding, grazing, dairies, &c. it 
would undoubtedly exceed any county of 
the kingdom in riches both natural and ac- 
quired, Torkfhire not excepted; due al- 
lowance being made for the difference in 
extent. As to foreign trade, furely no 
fhire but Middle/ex will compare with one 
that has the city of Briftol to boaft of; 
not to mention the coafting trade in the 
little ports of Bridge-water and Minhead. 
Wilt/hire. We then entered Wiltjhire, the north- 
ern part of which is full of pleafant ri- 
fings, and water'd with clear ftreams. It 
was once overfpread with woods, which are 
now in a manner quite deftroyed. The foil 
of this part of the country, being clay, 
is confequently troublefome fometimes to 
travellers -, but here is a great variety of 
.delightful profpects, to make them amends. 
And my tutor told me, that a good author 
of their own made this remarkof Wilt/hire; 
1 That an ox, left to himfelf, would, of 
* all England, chufe to live in the north 
' of this county, a iheep in the fouth part 

6 of it, and a man in the middle between 
* both •, as partaking of the pleafure of 
' the plain, and the plenty of the deep 
' country.' The foil of the vale is very 
fruitful, and affords great quantity of as 
good cheefe as any in England ; and tho' 
that of the hills is in fome places chalky, 
and barren enough, yet its cheapnefs makes 
it beneficial to the neighbouring farmers. I 
have been told on the fpot, that on the downs 
betwixt Sandy-Lane and Marlborough, and 
between the Devizes and Salt/bury, hun- 
dreds of acres have been rented at a groat 
an acre per Annum. But the numerous 
flocks of fheep fed there turn much more 
to the profit of the proprietors. The a- Manufac- 
bundance of wool which thefe fheep pro- tures ' 
duce, invited the inhabitants to fall very 
much into the clothing trade ; and the 
beft broad cloths, both white arid dyed, in 
England, are made in the weft and north 
parts of this county, and indeed, in the 
fouth and eaft parts too, but not in fuch 

Fuel is not very plenty in this county, 
which has no coal pits, nor indeed much 
wood : 'Tis productive, however, of all 
forts of grain, efpecially wheat. 

From Wiltjhire we departed for Hamp- Hampjhire 
(hire or Hantjhire, by fome called the 
county of Southampton. This is the coun- 
ty where I faw, what my tutor had before 
told me, the tract of land, called New 
For eft, which was enlarged by William the #«» Fo- 
Conqueror at the deftruction of feveral* 7 ^' 
towns and villages, and 36 parifhes, being 
corriputed 50 miles in compafs ; and be- 
came remarkable for the death of two 
of his fons and a grandfon, who loft their 
lives ftrangely in this foreft. 

The air of this county is moft pure and Air » foiI » 
piercing, efpecially the downs, of which ^i pr °' 
there is a ridge that runs almoft athwart 
it, and affords plenty of game. The foil 
is various as to its fertility, the hilly parts 
being barren, like other downs, and fit 
only for fheep ; but the lower grounds are 
fruitful in corn and herbage. It produces 
great quantities of all manner of grain, 
particularly wheat and barley, with which 
it fupplies the flouriihing markets of Farn- 
ham, Bajingftoke, and Reading -, and their 
teams of horfes, many of which are fit 
for the beft coach in the kingdom, fhew 
the wealth of the farmer. The arable 
ground, tho' very ftony, is fruitful •, for the 
ftones lie loofe upon the foil : and thofe 
who are well (killed in agriculture affirm, 
that they keep it warm, and that there- 
fore, the taking them away would do more 
hurt than good. This county is particu- 
larly famous for its honey, with which they Its honey, 
make moft excellent mead and metheglin. 
Hampjhire bacon is allowed by all to be the 


to England and Scotland. 




its hogs, beft in England, the fwine being fupplied there, is all open fandy ground, and barren 
with acorns in plenty, from the New Fo- heath ; for which reafon, the county is not 
reft, and other woods, in which they are unaptly compared to a coarfe cloth with a 
fuffered to run at large : And the delicacy fine lift or hem. In fome places there are 
of their flefh is attributed to their not long ridges of hills or downs, with war- 
Its manu- being pent up in ftyes. Kerfey and cloth rens for rabbets and hares, and parks for 
fafture. are made here; and tho' not in fo great deer; and its rivers, the chief of which, Ri v 
plenty as in Wiltjhire, Somerfet/hire, and befides the Thames, are the Mole, the JVey, 
Gloucefterjhire, yet there is enough made, and the Wandle, abound with fifh. And 
not only for home conilimption, but for a the chief commodities of this county, be- Cor 
foreign trade. Its fea coafts fumifli oifters, fides its corn, are box-wood, walnuts, and dities - 
lobfters, and other falt-water fifh. And in- fullers-earth, which laft is fold at a groat a 
deed, both for profit and pleaiure, there's bufhel at the pits near Ryegate, and is fent 
not a more inviting county in Great- Britain, up to London for the ufe of the woollen 
Berkjbin. Adjoining to Hampjhire is the inland manufactures all over England. 
Air, foil, county of Berks ; whofe air is generally N. B. This earth is prohibited exporta- 
duce Pr °' nea ^ tn y anc * *" weet '■> tne tol fertile enough, tion by the fame laws, and under the 
where 'tis cultivated ; and the whole coun- fame penalties as wool itfelf. 
ty, which is one of the mod pleafant in Our tour through Surrey was pretty Suffix. 
England, is well ftored with cattle and agreeable in regard to the many fine feats 
timber, particularly oak and beech, in the which we met with, but I was more 
weftern parts, and in Windfor foreft ; pleafed to turn off into Sufex, a maritime 
which alfo abounds with wild-fowl, and county upon the Englijh channel ; whofe 
other game ; as its rivers Thames and Ken- downs near the coaft are charming, and 
net, the one on the north, the other on its vallies, or the Wild of Sufex,\ as it is 
the fouth fide of it, do with fifh, efpecially commonly called, very plentiful, efpeci- 
fine large trout and cray-fifh. It has been ally in oats. The downs are very hjo-h 
obferved, that land is dearer here, than in green hills, well known to travellers, ef-Thefomh 
other parts the fame diftance from London, pecially fuch as deal in wool or fheep ; downs - 
The chief manufactures of this county are there being great numbers bred here, whofe 
woollen cloth,failcloth,and malt; there being wool, which is very fine, is too often ex- 
great crops of barley in the weft part of the ported clandeft inely to France by farmers 
Vale of county, particularly the vale oWhite-Horfe, and jobbers, who are called owlers. Many Produce. 
White- fo named from the bare fide of a chalky hill parts of the downs being a fat chalky 
Borje. r eprefenting that animal, which the inha- foil, are, on that account, very fruitful, 
bitants once a year, about Midfummer, take both in corn and grafs. The middle part 
fome pains in trimming, to keep it to of the county is delightfully chequer'd 
its fhape and colour, and then conclude with meadows, paftures, groves, and 
the day with mirth. 'Tis fuppofed by corn-fields, that produce wheat and bar- 
fome, that the ground there was formed ley. The north quarter is fhaded withManufec- 
into this figure by the Saxons, who had woods, from which they make abundance ture - 
the White-Horfe for their arms. of charcoal; and they fupply timber for 
Surrey. Having regaled ourfelves four days with the navy docks, and fuel for the iron works, 
the fowl and delicious fifh of Berk/hire, there being not only plenty of ore on the 
we paffed into Surrey, which I could not eaft fide towards Kent, but many great for- 
find to be remarkable for any particular ges, furnaces, and watermills, for both 
trade or manufacture ; excepting the corn caft and wrought iron, which, though it 
market at Croydon, and the feveral branches is faid to be more brittle than the Spanijh, 
of trade carried on in the borough of yet cannon are caft with it ; and the beft 
Southwark : but as that borough is con- gunpowder in the world is made in this 
tiguous to London, I mail remark their county. A great deal of its meadow 
trade together. In general, I obferve this ground is turned into ponds and pools, to 
Air. to be a healthy, pleafant county ; and drive hammer-mills by the flafhes. Here 
therefore it boafts of feveral royal palaces, we were regaled with the delicious bird, 
and many feats of the nobility and gentry, called the wheat-car, for which this county The 
Soil. But the air, as Well as the foil, of the is particularly famous. 'Tis no bigger ^beat-ear 
middleandextreme parts is vaftly different, than a lark, and is taken by digging a 
the air being mild in the latter, which. is hole in the ground, into which they put a 
very fruitful in corn and hay, with a fine fnare of Jiorfe-hair, and then cover the 
mixture of woods and fields, efpecially hole, very near, with the turf, turnin°- 
on the fouth about Holm/dale, and on the the graffy fide downwards ; this bird bein? 
north towards the. Thames ; but the air is fo very timorous, that the ihadow even of 
bleak in the heart of the county, which, a cloud frightens them into thefe little ca- 
except a delightful fpot indeed here and vities. They are fo fat that, when caught, 


M The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

they cannot be carried many miles without confined to the city or fuburbs, of which 

being tainted: and even in plucking them hereafter: But it is amazing to fee in theManufac- 

they muft be handled as little as poffible : neighbouring fields the immenfe tale of tures - 

and they are fatten: when the wheat is ready bricks and tiles which are daily making for 

to be cut down. the fupply of new buildings. The trade 

I was told, that in winter the roads were being wholly carried on in the port of 

fo deep in forne parts, that they were ob- London, it will be more properly remarked 

liged to draw their coaches with oxen. when I give an account of that great and 

Kent. We at laft arrived in Kent, which is the opulent city. 

moft eaftern county on the Englijh chan- Having ftaid fome time in London, vitEJfex. 

nel, and of which I had retained great proceeded on our journey crofs Bow- 

hotions, from the account my tutor had Bridge,vih\ch divides Middle/ex from EJfex y 

jgiven of its having been an entire king- a county fo called, as has been before re- 

dom of itfelf in the time of the heptar- lated, from the Eaft-Saxons t by whom it 

chy, and how the Kentijh men obliged was inhabited. 

William the Conqueror to confirm their an- The air is generally temperate; but The air 

rient privileges. This county ftands as it near the fea and the Thames, among the and foil « 

were in a corner, and may properly be di- hundreds, it is moift; and the inhabitants 

vided into three parts, according to the na- are fubject to agues. It abounds with 

ture of its foil ; viz. The downs, which corn, cattle, wood, and wild-fowl •, and 

may be faid to have health without wealth •, the north parts of it, efpecially about 

the marjhy parts, which have wealth with- Saffron- Walden, produce great quantities 

out health; and the middle, which enjoy of faffron; the beft in the world: The 

both health and wealth. But foil in fome places thereabouts being fo 

Soil and The county, in general, abounds with rich, that after three crops of faffron it 

produft. plantations of hops, fields of corn, paf- yields good barley, for near twenty years 

tures, and woods of oak, beech, and chef- together, without dunging. In other 

nuts, and fine orchards of cherries and parts it produces hops, 
pippins; and, about Boxley, Foots, Cray, It is particularly obferved of this county, 

North Cray* &c. are many woods of birch, that, generally fpeaking, the foil is belt 

from whence the broom-makers are fup- where the air is worft, and e contra ; for 

plied, who live in Kent-ftreet % Southwark. the parts next to the fea and the Thames 

The cattle here, of all forts, are reckoned among the fenny hundreds, which are fo 

larger than they are in the neighbouring aguifh, abound with rich paftures and 

counties ; and the Weald of Kent is noted corn lands ; whereas the inland parts, tho* 

for its large bullocks, as well as for its healthy, are many of them gravelly and 

great timber for fhipping. Here are fe- fandy, and not fo good either for corn or 

veral parks of fallow deer, and warrens of grafs, but more productive of furze, broom, Produce. 

greyifh rabbets. Here are mines of iron, brakes ; yet there are others of clay and 

and pits of marie and chalk ; woad, and loam foils, which bear excellent corn and 

madder, for dyers; wool, flax, faintfoyn; pafturage. No county affords provifions 

and on the cliffs, between Folkjlone and of all forts in greater plenty than this both 

Dover, is plenty of famphire. by land and water, for the fupply not only 

Mddhfex. From Kent we croffed the water at of its own inhabitants, but of the city of 
Greenwich, and arrived at Limehoufe, in London. Many good and ferviceable 
the county of Middlefex. This is but a horfes are bred in the marines. Abun- 
imall county, but pleafant, fruitful, and dance of fat oxen and fheep are alfo brought 
dignified with the city of London, the ca- from thence to their markets ; and corn is 
pital of the nation, and the city of Weft- weekly fent up to that city in great quan- 
minfter, which is the feat of the Britijh tities. Great dairies of cows are alfo kept 
monarchs. It abounds with rich and plea- here, which bring forth calves admired for 
fant villages ; and I may in one word com- the whitenefs and delicacy of their flefh, in- 
pleat its character, when 1 declare it to be fomuch that, As good as an Effex calf, is a 
my opinion, that here are more ingenious common proverb, with the citizens, to de- 
men, and more money fpent in coftly ap- note what they like, as is the other faying, 
parel, eating, drinking, plays, operas, and As valiant as an Effex lion, to ridici)le 
other diverfions and gaities of life, than in what they defpife, 

any other tract of land of the fame cir- About forty-five miles north eafl of LondonM&nuhc* 

cumference in the whole world befides. in this county is carried on the great manu- tures - 

As to the produce, manufactures, and facture of Colchefter baize, fo famous 

trade of this county, I am informed, that throughout Spain, Portugal, and their 

the whole county almoft is cantoned out American plantations ; which are brought 

into corn or pafture, and garden grounds to London in waggons containing eighty 

near the city. The manufactures are chiefly or ninety hundred weight each, drawn 


ft? England and Scotland. 


with fix horfcs only ; the roads being fo very 
hard and level. N. B. The Ejfex farmers 
buy lean calves at Smithfield market, Lon- 
don, and having fatted them, bring them 
to the fame place to fell again. 
rj r > Hertfordjhire is an inland county, and 

Aire. abounds in grafs, wood, and corn fields, 
covered with loofe ftones. As there is 
little or no manufacture in this (hire, which 
is full of malfters, millers, dealers in corn, 
&c. fo their trade would be inconfiderable, 
was it not for its being every way a great 
thorowfare, and for its neighbourhood to 
London, which makes the chief market towns 
to be much frequented, for the fale of 
wheat, barley, and all forts of grain, 
not only the growth of this, but feveral 
other counties. Wheat, barley and malt are 
a its chief commodities. And the barley of 
Hertfordjhire is fo much prized in London^ 
that many hundred quarters are fold by that 
name in a year, of which not a grain was 
ever fown in this county. 

Bedford- From Hertfordjhire we travelled into 

/hire. BedfordJhire,vihkh. we found to be a fruitful 
country ; efpecially the north parts, which 

Produft. yield plentiful crops of plump, white and 
ftrong barley, which, made into malt, is 
frequently fold in London, and other parts, 
for that of Hertfordjhire. It has forefts and 
parks well ftored with deer, fat paftures 
with cattle, produces great quantities of 
butter and cheefe, with fuller*s earth, and 
woad for dying, and has plenty of poultry. 

Manufac- I ts chief manufactures are bone-lace, and 

tures. ftraw hats. 

The woad, for which this county is 
famous, is the plant with which the an- 
cient Britons ufed to dye their bodies, that 
they might appear the more terrible to 
their enemies •, but rather, as fome think, 
to preferve them from the inclemency of 
the weather. It is cultivated here after this 
manner : it is fown every year, and the 
old woad, except what they fave for feed, 
is plucked up. The beginning of March 
is the feafon for fowing it, and the middle 
of May for cropping it. It is beft in a 
dry year •, but more plentiful in a wet one. 
It is cropped commonly four or five times 
a year as it comes up •, but the firft crop 
is befl, and every one after it gradually 
worfe. When gathered, it is immediately 
ground fmall in a mill, till it becomes fit 
to ball ; and when balled, it is laid upon 
hurdles to dry •, and then ground into 
powder. After this it is fpread on a floor, 
and watered, which is called couching -, and 
then it is turned every day till it is per- 
fectly dry and mouldy, which is called fil- 
vering. After filvering it is weighed, and 
put into a bag containing two hundred 
weight, and then fent to the dyer to try 
it, who fets a price on it according to its 
Vol. I. 

goodnefs. The beft is commonly valued 
at 1 8 £. a ton. 

Adjoining to Bedford/hire is the county Bucking, 
of Bucks, taking its name from beech-trees, hamjbire. 
in which it abounds, as I am told, more 
than any other part of England. Confe- 
quently this fhire is diverfitied with plea- 
fant woods and fine dreams, which ren- 
der it a defireable country ; befides the qua- 
lity of its air, which is generally good, 4ir. 
efpecially on the Chili em-hills, fo that- 
there is not a better in the whole ifland : 
and even in the vale, where it is not alto- 
gether fo good, it is much better than in 
other low dirty counties. Its chief rivers 
are the Thames, the Oufe, and the Calne. 
The foil, being generally marie or chalk, Soil, 
is very fruitful, efpecially in corn ; and 
though it is flony on the Chili em-hills, yet 
amidft thofe ftones there come up good 
crops of choice wheat and barley. It 
abounds too with phyfical plants, perhaps, 
more than any other county. As the land Grafmg 
in the vale is proper for grafing, fo it and cattle, 
abounds with cattle. There are fome 
grafiers here, who perhaps have 4 or 500 /. 
a year in land of their own, and yet rent 
three times as much, which they keep all 
in their own management : and it is very 
certain, that one fingle meadow, called 
Buryfield, in the manor of Quarendon, was 
lett not many years ago for 800 £. a year. 
But the foil here, though fo good to feed 
fheep, is too rich to breed them ; and it 
is common to give 10 £. for a ram to 
breed. The fheep of the vale of Ailejbury 
are the biggeft in England, and their mut- Their 
ton is very good ; yet whoever has eaten m " ct ° n 
of that of Banjlead, Bagjhot and Tunbridge, zn ee * 
muft own there is better. The beef here 
is fo good, that Buckinghamjhire bread and 
beef was formerly a proverb ; meaning, ^ 

that the former was the fined, and the 
latter the fatteft in England. 

The manufactures of this fhire are pa- Its manu- 
per and bone-lace; the former made at fa & ure8 - 
Wycomb mills, and the latter at Newport- 
Pagnel, where the lace is very little infe- 
rior to that of Flanders. And here I can't 
forbear remarking how far the Englijh de- 
generate from their native capacity of im- 
proving manufactures, in the particular 
cafe of paper, which, notwithstanding they 
have greater plenty of the beft rags, they 
commonly make out of old rotten mate- 
rials, the fhavings and cuttings of paper, 
till it will not bear the weight of the prefs ; 
and fell their beft rags abroad fo cheap, 
that the Dutch, French and Genoefe, are 
able to import paper, made chiefly of Eng- 
lijh rags, cheaper and always better than 
any that is made in England -, which is a 
great overfight. 

My tutor, who was an Oxonian, having 
P p brought 


The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

Oxford- brought us to the confines of Oxford/hire, 
fi ire - affined me that it would be worth my 
while to fee and fpend a few days in the 
famous city and univerfity of Oxford ; to 
which I readily condefcendedj but fhall 
refer my minutes of that agreeable feat of 
learning to its proper place -, and at prefent 
I Only obferve, that Oxfordshire enjoys a 
fweet healthful air, and is a very plentiful 
country •, for the plains are judicioufly dif- 
pofed into corn-fields and meadows, and 
its few hills exalt their heads with lofty 
woods, and harbour great plenty of all 
forts of game. I did not meet v. ith any 
particular manufacture in the whole county. 
Gkucejier- From Oxford we departed for Gloucejier- 
fiire. fhire, which abounds with all forts of 
Produft. grain* cattle, fowl and game, and every 
thing that other counties produce, and 
altogether as excellent in their kinds, efpe- 
cially bacon and cyder; and its rivers af- 
ford as great plenty of fifh, efpecially fal- 
mon from the Severn, together with lam- 
preys and conger-eels. But, to give a 
truer idea of this county, we mail confi- 
der it in three parts, according to its ufual 
divifion, viz. 
Cote/- i . Cotefwould, the hilly part of the coun- 

*would ty, bordering on Warwick/hire, Oxford- 
Mis, fhire, and Berkfhire. It is not very fertile, 
and lies expofed to the winds and cold, fo 
that its corn is flow in coming out of the 
ground ; from v/hence arOfe the proverb in 
this county, It is as long in coming as Cotef- 
would barley : but then it is healthy, and 
feeds a multitude of fheep, whofe wool is 
exceeding fine, and fo improved by the 
inhabitants, that they may be reckoned as 
golden fleeces to the county, many of 
whofe towns are fo eminent for the cloath- 
Its manu-ing manufacture, that they have no others 
^dure. fit to be named with it. It has been com- 
puted that before Englifh wool began to be 
clandeftinely exported to France, fifty thou- 
fand cloths were made yearly in this fhire, 
which are eftimated at ten pounds a cloth, 
the fine with the coarfe ; and the number 
of fheep kept in the county, of which 
moft are fed in this part of it, is com- 
puted at four hundred thoufand. It is 
faid, that the fine Spanifh wool came ori- 
ginally from the Cotefwould fheep •, one of 
the Englifh kings, either Richard I. or Ed- 
ward I. having made a prefent of the 
breed to the then king of Spain. 

The Vale 2 - The ^ e > w ^^ cn IS tne mi -ddle part of 
the county, and fpreads into a fruitful 
plain lying on both fides of the Severn, is 
a quite different clime from the Cotefwould, 
where, if it be true that there are eight 
months in the year winter, and four too 
cold for fummer, here it is certain are 
eight months fummer, and four too warm 
to deferve the name of winter. It is in 

this part of the county that excellent 
cheefe is made, which is the fatteft and 
moft agreeable to the palate of any in 
England y though that which is fo called 
in London comes, for the moft -part, out of 
Wiltfhire ; the real cheefe of this county 
going more to Brijlol than to London. 

3. The foreft of Dean, which is the Foreft of 
moft weft part of the county, lies between Dean ' 
the Severn and the Wye. It was hereto- 
fore covered with wood, and contained 
thirty thoufand acres of it, being twenty 
miles long, and ten broad ; and it was 
then fuch a harbour for robbers, efpecially 
towards the banks of the Severn, that in 
the reign of Henry VI. an act of parlia- 
ment was made on purpofe to reft rain 
them. But fince fo many rich veins of 
iron have been difcovered, and forges + 
eftablifhed here by acts of parliament for 
working it, which require vaft quantities 
of wood to fupport them, the woods are 
not only reduced to narrower bounds, but 
many towns and villages have been built 
in the foreft, as is ufual where any ma- 
nufacture is carried on -, infomuch, that 
here are three hundreds, twenty- three pa- 
rifh-churches, three market-towns, one mayor- 
town, one cajlle, and one abbey. Where Its excel- 
the woods are ftill preferved, the oaks are 1 ?" 1 ; oalc " 
reckoned the beft in England; the foil, tim er '- 
which is a wet clay, being proper for the 
growth of them. The oak-timber of this 
foreft was anciently fo famous, that moft: 
of that employed in building of Englifh 
fhips was fetched from hence : and this 
was fo well known to the Spaniards, that 
their invincible armada, which was fent in 
1558 to invade England, was ordered ex- 
prefsly to deftroy this foreft, in hopes 
thereby of quite ruining the Englifh navi- 
gation. Formerly, I was told, the valleys 
of this county, which now are with more 
profit to the owners turned into orchards, 
were full of vineyards. In a word, this 
county abounds in corn, wood, wool, iron, 
fteel, cyder, falmon, and cheefe. 

We ftill kept within land, and arrived Monmouth- 
in Monmouthfhire, which was formerly zr ire - 
Welch county. Its air is temperate and Tts air and 
healthy, the eaft parts are woody, and 
the weft parts are a little mountainous j 
but in the general it is fruitful enough, 
and the hills feed cattle, fheep, and goats, 
while the valleys produce plenty of grafs 
and corn, efpecially the latter, of which 
here is as good wheat as in any county of 
the kingdom, and yet lands never fell for 
more than twenty one years purchafe. The 
Brijlol merchants fend their fhips hither 
to take off great quantities of its corn for 
Portugal and other countries. Coals are 
fo cheap here, that it is common to fee a 
good fire in the meanefl cottage ; for a 


to England and Scotland. 


horfe-load cofts but 2 d. at the mouth of 
the pit. 
Manufac- The principal manufacture of the coun- 
ture. ty is flannel. The gentlemen here gene- 
rally fpeak Englijh, though the current 
language of the vulgar is Welch. The 
natives were formerly reckoned a valiant 
and courageous people, and the moft fkil- 
ful archers of all the Welch borderers ; yet 
they were cruelly harrafied after the Nor- 
mans came into England by the lords of 
the marfhes, to whom feveral of the Eng- 
lijh kings granted all they could conquer 
here for their own. 
Hereford- Our next route was into Hereford/hire, 
/Aire. which, they fay, has alfo been a Welch 
county-, and its prodigious quantities of 
orchards and fruit trees, the very hedges 
being full of them, have obtained to this 
county the agreeable name of the orchard 
of England. This county abounds with 
all things necefiary for life; but more ef- 
Produft. pecially with corn, wool, falmon, and cy- 
der ; and its wool and cyder is generally 
Manufac- counted the beft in England-, yet this cy- 
ture. der, fo much admired, is made of the 
red-ftreak-apple, which is fcarce eatable ; 
and grows no where fo well as in this 
Worcejler- After a fhort flay we arrived in Worcef- 
Jhhe. terjhire, whofe air and foil are fo kindly, 
Air and tnat xl 1S inferior to none of its neighbours, 
foil. either for health or pleafure, the former 

being fweet all over the county, the latter 
rich both in tillage and pafturage, the hills 
being covered with flocks of fheep, and the 
vallies abounding in corn and rich mea- 
dows. Neither is it lefs happily accom- 
modated with water ; for it has in all parts 
Rivers, very fine rivers, as the Severn, Stour, Avon, 
Teme, &c. which furnifh it plentifully with 
fifh of the moft delicious kinds. The no- 
ble Severn directs the courfe of its rich 
flream from north to fouth through the 
very middle of the county •, and the Avon 
from Warwick/hire runs into that river 
through the fouth part of the fhire. Its 
Commo- commodities, befides corn, cattle, cheefe, 
duies. wool, cloth, fluffs, cyder, lampreys, &c. 
are perry and fait, and the latter fuch in a 
Product, peculiar manner. Its perry is made of 
pears, and the befl kind of it is very pa- 
lateable, efpecially if it be three or four 
years old, when it is racy and fpiritous. 
Hops are lately very much cultivated in 
this fhire, which commodity, and their 
fait, are fent down the Severn in a fort of 
veflels called troughs, of which at leafl 
twenty are conftantly employed to Briftol, 
Bridgewater, and other places, Somerfet- 
Jhire and Dorfet-Jhire being .chiefly fup- 
plied with the latter by this traffick. 

%tT hk Stil1 returnin S to the north-eaft we en- 
pl tered Warwick/hire •, whofe air is excellent, 

the foil rich, and its principal commbdiri s 
are corn, malt, wool, wood, iron, coal, 
and cheefe. 

'Tis divided into two parts, the Felden* 
and the Woodland 5 that on the fouth fide, 
and this on the north fide of the Avon ; by 
which it is certain, that as the former was 
a champaign, the other was a woody coun- 
try. The firft afforded all the ppfture^Proiua. 
and corn grounds •, and the fecond was of 
little ufe, befides fuel ; but the iron works, 
in the adjacent countries, have fo confumed 
the wood, that they have long fince made 
way for the plough; and at piefent, what 
by marie, and other good contrivances, all 
this part yields abundance of corn; fo that 
the Felden, which ufed to fupply the other 
with com, cheefe, and butter, is now 
turned, in a great mcafure, into pafturing. 
The foil of both is good, and produces- 
excellent corn and cheefe, efpecially the 
latter, which has fo much the preference, 
that the very name of it given to that of 
other counties, which is not fo good, is 
enough to carry it off. 

Of late years this county has been alfo 
diftinguifhed by a filk manufactury of rib- 
bons and other fmall wares at Coventry ; 
as alfo for hard wares at Birmingham; 
whofe proprietors have their warehoufes ac 

The next county eaflward is Nor thump- Northamp- 
ton/bin. Here I found the foil very fruit- ton fi ir '> 
ful both in tillage and pafturage, but it is Soil and 
not well flocked with wood, nor (by reafon P rodu<a - 
of its diftance from the fea) can it be fup- 
plied with coal as duly as other counties, 
fo that winter fuel, as I was informed, here 
is exceeding dear. It abounds with fheep 
and other cattle, wool, pigeons, and falt- 
petre ; and they fay it has been obferved, 
that there is lefs wafte ground in this than 
in any other county of England, there be- 
ing but one barren heath in it, and that 
near Whittering. 'Tis a plain level coun- 
try, and fo populous, that from fome pla- 
ces may be feen no lefs than thirty fleeples 
at one view. Its manufactures are fcrges, Manufac- 
tammies, fhalloons, boots and fhoes. tures - 

Our nextprogrefs was into Huntington- Hunting- 
Jhire, which I was informed, having for- ton/tire. 
merly been a very woody country, and 
harbouring much game, was fo called 
from its being moft proper for hunting. 
It ftill abounds with willows, marfhy on 
the north-eaft fide, but plentiful of paf- 
ture ; and though it muft be allowed in- 
ferior, both as to the foil and produce, to 
many other counties, it is pleafant, diver- 
fified with hills, and yields plenty of corn 
and cattle. 

Keeping ftill to the eaft we paffed into CambiVg. 
Cambridgejhire, in which is feated another-^"'- 
famous univerfity of the Englijh nation. 


Air and 







The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

The air and foil of this county are very cording to the ftatute, and fold in man 

different, according to its different parts : kets and fairs for all uies both by fea and 

The air is very good about Cambridge, and land, but more particularly to the cheefe- 

all the fouth and eaft parts; but damp and mongers of London. Here alfo I met with 

foggy, and therefore not fo wholefome, in fome manufactures of woollen and linen Cloth, 

the ifle of Ely, and other northern low cloth. 

watry tracts, that are part of the great le- Keeping now to the fea coaft we entered Norfolk, 
vel of the fens^ called Bedford-Level, and the county of Norfolk, which has a grea- 
often fubject to inundations. The foil ter variety of foil, than is, perhaps, in Soil, 
however in general is very fruitful; the any other county, and in that refpect it 
dry barren parts being improved in fome is called ( juftly enough) the reprefentative 
places from five to thirty millings an acre of all England, for the beft and worft of 
by the cinque-foil (that grafs which the foils; but even the latter, i.e. fens and 
trench call Saint-Foin, becaufe they marfhlands, and the fandy heaths, are ex- 
brought it from the Holy-Land) and the ceeding profitable ; the former affording 
low fpungy parts, by draining the fens, rich pafture for cattle, and the latter feed- 
Its chief commodities are excellent corn, ing great flocks of hardy ftrong fheep, of 
efpecially barley, of which they make vaft a peculiar kind to this county, called Nor- 
quantities of malt, cattle, butter, faffron, folks, and vaft numbers of filver-hair'd 
colefeed, hemp, fifh, and wild-fowl. The rabbets. The light, deep, and clay grounds, 
principal manufactures of this county are are very fruitful in rye and pcafe, wheat 
paper and bafkets. and barley; and near Waljingham, they 
N. B. See an account of the univerfity produce faffron. On the banks of its ri- 
of Cambridge hereafter. vers, and its rivulets, are many fine mea- 
A t laft we arrived in the maritime coun- dows and paftures ; and near its towns are 
ty of Suffolk, looking to the northern many fprings, groves, and coppices : fome 
ocean ; whole air is very clear and whole- villages are faid to keep no lefs than five 
fome, fweet and pleafant, even near the thoufand fheep. The lord of every town 
fea-fhore, becaufe the beach is generally orders how many, and what fort of fheep 
fandy and fhelly* which fhoots off the fea the people fhall have, directs their walks 
water, and keeps it from ftagnation and both in winter and fummer, where they 
ftinking mud. The phyficians, as they fhall be folded for the fake of their dung, 
told me* reckon it as good an air as any in and how they fhall be driven from place to 
the kingdom. place. Its product confifts chiefly in corn, Commo- 

The foil is various ; that near the fea is wool, honey, and faffron ', the beft faffron dicies. 

fandy, and full of heaths, yet abounds growing near Walfingham: And the manu- 

with rye, peafe, and hemp, and feeds factures of this county are chiefly ftuffs, Manufac. 

great flocks of fheep. That called High crapes, and ftockings. tures. 

Suffolk, or the Woodlands, which is the in- Proceeding northerly, We came mtoi; nco i n . 

ner part of the country, tho' it abounds Lincoln/hire, which is ufually divided into/hire. 

with wood, yet has a rich deep clay and three parts, viz. Holland on the fouth-eaft 

marie, which produces good pafture, that fide, Keflevan on the fouth-weft, and Lind- 

feeds abundance of cattle. The part fey on the north, which laft is much the 
which borders on EJfex and Cambridge biggeft ; for its divifion takes in all that lies 

likewife affords excellent pafture ; and north of Lincoln city, and of the Fofs-Byke, 

which king Henry I. cut betwixt the Wit ham 
and Trent. 

The firft is a foft marfhy ground, 
abounding with rivers and fens, and has 
therefore a bad air. 

The fecond has an air more wholefome, 
as it is lefs affected by the fogs from the 
was an improvement firft fet on foot in fens; and a foil more fruitful, 
this county. The third is generally reckoned healthy, 

Its chief commodities are butter and efpecially on the weft fide, 
cheefe, the latter of which is fomewhat the The inland country produces corn, the Soil and 

worfe for the fake of inriching the former ; fens colefeed, and the richeft paftures ; foproduft. 

but it is much the better for long voyages, that their cattle are bigger than in any 

by reafon of its drynefs, and the fea fo county except Somerfet, which took a 

mellows it, that it has been fold for twelve breed from thence about threefcore years 

pence a pound. The butter, which is ago, and has much improved the fize by 

made here in great quantities, and con- their richer paftures. And their horfes are 

veyed to many parts of England, is incom- reputed to be no ways inferior to the 

parable ; it is packed up in firkins, ac- lorkfbire breed. 


about Bury, and fo to the north and north- 
weft, 'tis fruitful in corn, except towards 
New-market, which is for the mod part 
green heath. 'Tis faid, that the feeding cat- 
tle and fheep on turnips, which practice has 
now obtained almoft the general approba- 
tion of the Englijh grafiers and farmers, 


to England and Scotland. pi 

£tieeftkr< Once more we left the fight of the fea and full of good coal. The chief com- 

Jhirt. more, and entered the inland county of modities are cattle, corn, malt, wool, 

Leicefier, which enjoys both a good air coal, wood, liquorice, cheefe, butter, lea- 

Produft. and a good foil, that produces wheat, barley, ther and tallow. It alfo yields marie of 

peas, and oats ; but its moft natural and plen- feveral forts, and a ftone not unlike ala- 

ciful crops are beans, efpecially in that part bafter, only fofter •, which, when burnt, 

of Sparkingho hundred, which lies about makes a plafter harder than that of Paris, 

the village, called from thence Barton in wherewith they generally floor their upper 

the beans, where they are fo luxuriant, rooms. The chief manufactures are flock- Manufac- 

that towards harveft time, when I faw ings, glafs, and earthen wares; and 'tis^ures. 

them, they look'd like a foreft. The Nor- noted for fine ftrong ale, a liquor made 

folkians are not fonder of dumplins, than of malt and hops much admired by the 

the Leiceftrians are of beans ; which tho' Englijh. 

tHey are in other countries food only for To the weft of Nottingham/hire lies Derbyjh, 
horfes or hogs, unlefs eaten when they are Derby/hire; an inland county, and accord- 
green, in this they are efteemed good for ing to its different parts, dcferving of a 
men all the year round. Perhaps they are different character •, for the eaft and fouthsoil and 
more tender and fweeter here than in other parts, which are full of gentlemen's feats produdt. 
places, for this reafon in the very nature and parks, are well cultivated and fruitful 
of things, viz. that where any grain thrives in all kinds of grain, efpecially barley, 
beft, 'tis always the fweeteft and whol- which makes many of the inhabitants 
fomcft of the kind. The people have not maltfters, who have a good trade both for 
only a pleafure of eating, but a profit of their malt and ale. The weft part on the 
felling them to their neighbours, who in- other fide of the Derwent is barren, con- 
deed deride them by the name of bean- fifting of nought but bleak hills and moun- 
bellies, and have a proverb which fays, ' tains, except forhe fields of oats, and is 
Jhake a Leicefterfhire man by the collar, and therefore called the Peak, from the Saxon 
you jhall hear the beans rattle in his belly ; word Peaeland, which fignifies an emi- 
but the yeomen fmile at what is faid to nence ; neverthelefs there is fome grafs on 
rattle in their bellies, while they know the hills, and plenty in the vales, which 
good filver thereby rings in their pockets, feed great flocks of fheep and other cattle ; 

There are no manufactures in this coun- yet by reafon of its fubterraneous riches in 

ty, except it be ftockings, which has been mines and quarries, this tract is almoft as 

Of late much encouraged ; fo that the fhep- profitable to the inhabitants as the other 

herd and hufbandman engrofs almoft all part ; for its mountains and quarries yield 

to themfelves •, for as the latter fupplies great quantities of the beft lead, antimony* 

other counties with its corn and pulfe, the mill-ftones, fcythe-ftones, and grindftones, 

former fends its wool into many parts of marble, alabafter,' a coarfe fort of chryftal, 

England, which fetches them good money, azure, fpar, green and white vitriol, allum* 

The great want of fuel, in the inland pit-coal, and iron ; for the forming of 

country efpecially, is fupplied by a very which, here are forges, where fuch quan- 

rich coal mine, at a place called Cole-Orton, tities of wood are confumed every day, as 

from whence 'tis fold at good rates to the well as what is ufed at the lead mines and 

neighbouring counties. coal delfs, that the country has very little 

Their fheep are of the Lincoln/hire breed, (if any) left. This Peak abounds with won- 

fomewhat bigger than thofe of Cambridge ders or curiofities, which the inhabitants 

and Norfolk -, and the country is pretty well generally reduce to feven : viz. i . The 

Itock'd with deer, for which here are fe- famous palace of the duke of Devon/hire, 

veral parks. called Chat/worth houfe. 2. Mam-tor, a 

Moft of the gentlemen here are grafiers, wonderful mountain. 3. Eden-hole. 4. 

and in fome places the latter are fo rich, Buxton wells. 5. Weeding well, or 'Tides 

that they grow gentlemen, it being com- well. 6. Pool's-hole. 7. The dev.l's a — e, 

mon here for grafiers to rent farms in this or peak's a — e. 
county from 500^. to 2000^. a year. From admiring the wonders of Derby- y or M, 

The horfes bred, or rather fed here* are Jhire, we returned eaft ward, and crofTed part 

the largeft in England, being generally the of Nottingham/hire into the noted county 

black fort for the coach and dray, of of York, the largeft county in England, or 

which great numbers are continually fent rather a county full of fhires. But firft, to 

up to London. write of it in general, I found that the 

Hotting- Adjoining to Leicefierjhire on the north commodities of York/hire are in a partial- Commo- 

amj ire. roa d j s ^ count y f Nottingham, which, Jar manner allum, jet, lime, liquorice, hor- dities and 

excepting the large foreft of Sherwood, is fes : Its manufactures, knives, bits, fpurs, manufac- 

an exceeding fruitful place, efpecially on ftockings, &c. But the greateft of all is' 

the fouth-eaft, and the weft fide is woody cloth, with which it in u good mcafure 

Vol. I. Qj} fupplies 



9 1 

The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

fupplies Germany and the north, The com 
and cattle, with which it abounds, are not 
mentioned, becaufe thefe are what they 
have in common with other counties. Iron 
and lead mines have been in more plenty 
than of late years, tho' no lefs than 40,000 
perfons are employed in the iron manufac- 
tures, under about 600 mailer cutlers, 
who are incorporated by the ftile of the 
cutlers of Hallamjhire. And now in parti- 
Eivifion. cular, this county is divided into three parts, 
or ridings, each of which is as large, if not 
larger than any ordinary county ; which are 
diftinguifhed by weft, eaft, and north, from 
their fituation with refpecl: to the city of 
Fork) and contain, viz. 

C Wapentakes > 

tor Hundreds 5 Market-towns, 
Contents. The Weft riding 10 24 

Eaft riding 4 8 

North riding 12 17 



Air and 


The al- 
lum ltone 


And firft of the weft-riding ; its air, 
though fharp, is generally reckoned more 
healthy, than that of the other two Ri- 
dings. The foil, on the weft fide of it, is 
hilly and ftony, and therefore not very 
fruitful j tho* in the valleys, there's plenty 
of good meadow-ground and pafture. But 
that part of it towards the river Oufe is a 
rich foil, producing wheat and barley, tho' 
not in fo great plenty as oats, which are 
cultivated with fuccefs, even in it's worft 

In this Riding are trees feldom found in 
other counties, as firs, yews and chefnuts ; 
and 'tis remarkable, not only for its many 
parks and chaces,but for mines of lime-ftone 
for manure, and quarries of ftone for 
building, and of another fort, whereof the 
people make allum ; which is of a blueifh 
colour, and will cleave like cornifh flate. 
The mine lies deep, and requires great 
pains to dig up ; but being calcined, 'tis 
made into allum by various percolations 
and boilings. This Riding is noted alfo 
for jet and liquorice, for fine horfes and 
goats, befides other cattle -, for making 
and curing legs of pork into hams, like 
the Portuguefe and Weftphalian ; and for 
the manuracturies of cloth and iron. 

The eaft-riding is the fmalleft of the 
three, confined within the rivers Derwent, 
Oufe, Humber, and the German ocean. Its 
fouth-eaft part, called the wapentake of 
Holdernefs, is a fruitful fpot •, and the parts 
which lie on the fea coaft and the Derwent 
are rich, and full of towns •, but the middle 
of this divifion is overfpread with barren, 
fandy, dry, uninhabited woulds, which 
are called Torkfwould, being great downs 

and hills that produce lbme corn, and feed Soii and 
great numbers of black cattle, horles and P roducl - 
fheep, whofe fleeces may compare with 
thofe of Cot/would ; but they are generally 
fent to the marfhes to be fattened. The 
foil about thefe woulds abounds with 
chalk, flints, fire-ftones, &c. and in di- 
vers parts of it there are mines of coal 
and free-ftone. Thefe woulds extend a 
great way into the wapentakes of Bainton, 
Buckcrofs, and Dickerings ; and at the 
foot of them, near Bug thorp and Lepping- 
ton, are found the ftones called aftroites, 
which are dug out of a blue clay on the 
banks of a rivulet between Bugthorp and 
the Woulds, though many of them are 
warned by the rains into the brook. The Air and 
air cannot be fuppofed to be the pureftnvers. 
every where in this Riding, confidering 
how great a part of it is incompaiTed by 
the fea and the Humber. 

The North-riding is as it were the nor- Nortb-ri- 
thern frontier of the two forementioned^- 
ridings ; extending along the coaft from 
that called Robin-Hoods -Bay, on the north 
fide of Flamborough-head, as far as Whitby, 
being bounded on the north with the ri- Bounds 
ver Tees, which feparates it from Durham. and extent 
It runs from the fea in a narrow tracl: of 
near fixty miles, as far as Weftmor -eland, 
and is bounded on the fouth and weft with 
the Derwent and Ure, which part it from 
the eaft and weft Ridings. 

The eaft part of this country towards SoiI - 
the ocean is called Blackmoor, i. e. a land 5 ^" - ** 
black and mountainous, being all ovex moor ' 
rugged and unfightly, by reafon of craggs, 
hills, and woods. The north-weft part 
of it, which is of a large extent, and 
called Richmond/hire, is almoft one con- Richmond- 
tinued eminence, or ridge of craggy^™- 
rocks, and vaft mountains, the fides of 
which yield pretty good grafs here and 
there, and the bottoms and valleys are not 
unfruitful. The hills afford great ftore of 
lead, pit-coal, and brafs ; and in a charter 
of Edward IV. mention is made of a mi- 
neral or copper mine near the very town of 
Richmond. On the tops of thefe moun- 
tains, as well as elfwhere, plenty of ftones, 
like fea cockles, are found in firm rocks 
and beds of lime-ftone, fometimes at fix 
or eight fathom under ground. The miners 
therefore call them run lime-ftones, as fup- 
pofing them to be produced by a more 
than ordinary heat, and a quicker fermen- 
tation than they allow to the production 
of the other parts of the quarry. The 
hills here towards Lancafhire have a pro- 
fpecl: fo wild, folitary and unfightly,' and 
all things are fo ftill, that the neighbours 
have called feme rivulets here Hellbecks,Hellbecks. 
efpecially that at the head of the river Ure, 
which, with a bridge over it, of one entire 


to England and 'Scotland. p<; 

/lone, falls fo deep, that it ftrikes one with and ftony ; At the fame time 'tis a place 

horror to look down. There is fafe har- lb defolate, that it has but one inn, and 

bour in this tract for goats, deer, and ftags, that in the middle of it, for entertaining 

which are very remarkable and extraordi- travellers. 

nary for their bulk and branchy heads. The hufbandmen all along the fhore 
The river Ure rifes here out of the weft about Whitby are almoft continually em- 
mountains, and runs through Wenefdale, a ployed in making a particular manure for 
valley well (locked with cattle and land. their land. For this purpofe they gather 
SiuaUale. Swaldale is another divifion of this Ri- the fea wreck, and lay it on heaps, and 
ding, being a dale fo called from the river when 'tis dry they burn it. While this is 
Swale, which runs through it, wherein doing they ftir it to and fro with an iron 
Paulinus the archbilhop of York is faid to rake, to prevent its burning to allies, and 
have baptized 10,000 Saxons in a day* fo it condenfes and cakes together in fuch 
'Tis a pretty broad, pleafant vale, with a, body as they call kelp, which is alfo of Kelp, 
grafs enough, but it wants wood, for tho' ufe in making allum. 

there's a place near it called Swaldale fo- The air is colder and reckoned more Its air* 
reft, there are fcarce any trees in it now, wholfome in this than in the other two 
whatever there were formerly. Near it is Ridings. As the air is colder here than in 
Wenefdale, a very rich fruitful valley ftocked the other Ridings, it not only produces 
with vaft herds of cattle, for which there's more pit-coal than they do, but is Furnifh'd 
delicate pafture. The moft woody foreft with very large forefts of fuel, as Apelgarth, 
Galtra in this Riding is that of Galtres, called, in Lune, and New Foreft in the wapentake of 
foreft. Latin, Galaterium Nemus, which in fome Gillingweft^ befides Pickering foreft in the 
places is thick and fhady, in others fiat, wapentake of that name, and Galtres above- 
wet and boggy. This foreft in the reign mentioned. 

of Edward III. extended itfelf( they fay) to As the fea-coaft here fwarms with her- 

the very walls of Tork ; and it muft have rings at their proper feafon, and large tur- 

been a place of fome note in the reign of buts, fo its rivers abound all the year with 

Henry VII. becaufe it appears from a pa- variety of frefh fifh. 

tent in Rymer y s Feeder a, that he appointed From Richmond we foon pafs'd by Tierce- Durham* 

his fon prince Henry warden of this foreft. bridge into the county of Durham, former- 

Thepro- Befides coals already mentioned, this ly called the patrimony of St. Cuthbert, and 

duce of Riding produces marble, allum, jet and endowed with more privileges, as I was 

this Ri- CO pp eras# The allum is a mineral dug out told, than any other county, till the re/or- 

Iuallum °f a roc k> of tne colour of flate at firft, mation -, and now r tis efteemed the richeft 

mines and but, when burnt, it changes to a mere bifhoprick in England. 

works, ruddy colour, and then 'tis fteeped in pits of They who delight in a good fharp air A j r 

water dug for that purpofe, after which 'tis will probably take pleafure in that of this 

boiled and clarified, as it comes to us. bifhoprick, which is obferved to be colder 

The chief allum-works here are carried on in the weft parts than the eaft, where the 

by the duke and duchefs of Buckingham,* warm breezes from the fea diflblve both ice 

at Whitby, where was the greateft plenty of and fnow. In the weftern parts of it the 

its mine. fields are barren and naked, the woods thin, 

J ct - As for jet, geat, or black amber, in and the hills bald •, but the lead and coal 

Latin, gagates, though the name is gi- mines make fome amends for that ft erility of 

ven to the agate, 'tis very different from foil. The eaft, fouth, and north parts are 

it, tho' fome miftake it to be the fame, more fruitful, efpecially where the huf- 

*Tis found in feveral places of this county bandman has beitowed due labour upon 

by the fea fide, in the chinks and clefts of it. Upon the whole, though we meet 

the rocks. 'Tis naturally of a reddifh here with variety of meadows, paftures and 

rufty colour, but when polifhed, 'tis a corn fields, the foil of the bifhoprick is Soil and 

mining black. not in general to be reckoned among theproduft, 

Copperas. l ts copperas is extracted out of fome of moft fruitful •, yet 'tis thick fet with towns, 

the earth that is dug out of the allum and very rich in mines of coal, which is Coa j 

mines; for in fearching for the allum exported from Shields, Sunderland) and 

earth, there arife veins of metals, and foils Hartlepoole to London, and other places, 

of diverfe colours, efpecially thofe of ocre all under the name of Newcajlle coal. In 

and murray, from which they extract cop- moft parts of this county coal lies fo near 

peras as well as allum. the furface of the earth, that the waggon 

Marble. Its marble is hewed out of the rocks and cart wheels often turn it up in the beat^ 

near Egglejlone in Richmond/hire, where be- en road, and thereby the veins are difec- 

gins that mountainous traci, in the north- vered. Not to enter into the difcuflion of 

weft part of this fhire, called by the in- aaturalifts upon coal, I fhall make ufe of 

habitants Stanemocr, becaufe 'tis fo rugged the learned Camden's words , • Some would 


* Since dead. 


The Foyage of Don Gonzalss, 

have this fea-coal to be a black, earthy 
bitumen, others to be jet, and others 
to be lapis 'thracius \ all which that great 
mafter of mineral learning, Georgius 
Agricola, proves to be the very fame. 
For certain, this of ours is nothing but 
bitumen hardened and concreted by heat 
under-ground, for it calls the fame fmell 
that bitumen does, and if water be 
fprinkled on it, it burns the hotter and 
clearer •, but whether or no it is quenched 
with oil, I have not tried. If the lapis 
obfidianus be in England, I Ihould take 
it for that which is found in other parts 
of this kingdom, and commonly goes 
by the name of canned or candle-coil, 
for that is hard, mining, light, and apt 
to cleave into thin flakes, and to burn 
out as foon as it is kindled.* Later in- 
quirers into the nature of this mineral af- 
fert, that befides the bituminous part eafily 
difcerned in the burning, there are fome- 
times vitriolic and ferrugineous, with a 
mixture of ocre and terrene parts. Indeed, 
vitriol is frequently found in the mines, and 
ocre often adheres to it. The abundance 
of this product in the bifhoprick is the 
reafon that the inhabitants apply little to 
any other traffic or manufacture. The 
foil is farther kind to them in yielding lead 
and iron ; and the treafure of mines is fo 
much fooner brought home than thofe of 
manufactures and traffic, that where the 
One abound, the other are generally neg- 

We pafifed from the barren fur face, but 
rich bowels of the county of Durham, by 
the town of Gatejide, into Newcaftle, 
which is a town and county of itfelf ; and 
we from thence proceeded to make our ob- 
fervations on the county of Northumber- 
land, which heretofore gave name to one 
of the kingdoms in the Heptarchy. We 
Soil. found the foil various : That on the fea- 
coaft is very fruitful, if well manured and 
cultivated, bearing good wheat, and moft 
forts of other grain ; and on both fides of 
the Tine there are very large meadows. 
The weft parts indeed are very mountain- 
ous, but abound with rich mines of coal, 
&c . and afford good pafture for fheep ; 
and though thefe northern parts are gene- 
rally bleak in the winter with nipping frofts, 
yet the fhepherds here, being defended by 
the mountains, dwell in their huts called 
/heals, during the winter-feafon, and at- 
tend their flocks alfo all the fummer in the 
open fields. The men of this county, I 
was told, are remarkably good foldiers; 
and it abounds with ancient and good fa- 
Its coal, milies. It abounds more with coal, efpe- 
cially about Newcaftle, than any other 
county in England -, which, tho* it be not 
fetched out of the fea, but dug out of the 


ground, as that which in other countries is 
Called pit-coal, yet being brought by fea 
to all the other parts of England, and car- 
ried alfo by fea to Scotland, as well as 
France and Flanders, it is thence called 
fea-coal. It is almoft impoflible to exprefs 
the vaft trade that is brought into this 
county by the tranfportation of coals to 
all parts, infomuch that London alone, be- 
fore there was half the number of brew- 
ers and diftillers that there is now, was 
faid to confume 600000 chaldrons in a 

Notwithstanding Northumberland is ^Cumber* 
very large county, and does not want inland. 
peculiars to recommend it to a traveller, 
we pofted with more than ufual expedi- 
tion to return by Cumberland, from whence 
we fetout, foon after we could take a curfory 
view of that and the other counties we had 

left unfurveyed. Cumberland is bounded 

on the weft by the Irijh fea, by which 
means it enjoys a good maritime trade; 
and its hills yielding good pafture, and 
Valleys plenty of all forts of grain* it may 
not be improperly numbered among the 
fruitful counties of the ifland : It alfo not 
only abounds with wild-fowl and fifh, for 
pleafure and fupport of life; but with pit- 
coal and mines of lead and copper, to ena- 
ble them to carry on a foreign trade with 

The happy foil of Cumberland was no Wejlmorii 
fooner left, but we pitied the poor inha- land. 
bitants of that hilly and marfhy county of 
Weft mor eland\ though as we proceeded 
fouthward we found it not without fome 
bleffings of Heaven* or fruitful fpots of 
ground ; and merely prompted by necef- 
fity, as I fuppofe, in fome parts of this 
county the natives endeavour to make up 
the deficiences of their foil by their art 
and induftry: for, arriving at Kendal^ we 
(beyond all expectation) found it to be a 
rich, well-inhabited town, and carrying on 
a great trade of woollen cloth, druggets, 
ferge, cotton, ftockings and hats. 

We ftill kept by the more of the Irijh lanca- 
fea, and pafled forward into the county/" - '- 
palatine of Lancafter. And here I ob- 
ferved, that the foil, where it is plain and Soil and 
level, commonly yields wheat and barley -,produa. 
the hills are generally ftony and barren, 
but their bottoms produce excellent oats. 
In fome parts the land produceth good 
hemp, and the pafture ground feedeth 
both oxen and cows of a larger fize than in 
any other county. Here is plenty of tim- 
ber, coal, lead, iron, copper, antimony, 
black-lead, lapis calaminaris ; and allum, 
brimftone, and green vitriol, found in the 
coal-pits. Here alfo is found, in the manor 
of Haigh, a fort of coal, called cannel or 
candk-zotX, which not only makes a much 


to England and Scotland. 

better or more chearful fire than pit-coal «, and the water is fo very cold at the bottom 

but when polifhed, will not foil a white lin- of the pit, that when the briners fome- 

nen cloth, though it is as black as jet. times go about to cleanfe it, they cannot 

In the marfhy part of this county the ftay in it above half an hour, and in that 

natives burn turfs, which they have in time they are forced to drink ftrong waters, 

great plenty ; and it abounds with many The fprings are rich or poor in a double 

good trading towns, efpecially in the fenfe ; for a fpring may be rich in fait, but 

fuftian, linen check, and narrow both lin- poor in the quantity of brine it affords, 

nen and woollen wares, at Pre/ion, Black- It is a miftaken notion of the briners, that 

bourne, Bolton^ Bury, Rochdale, Warring- the brine is ftrongeft at the full and change 

ton, but efpecially at Manchejler and in its of the moon. The quick ufe of the pit 

neighbourhood. In this county is alfo adds extremely to the ftrength of the brine, 

that famous town Liverpool, fo noted 
through the world for its extenfive trade. 

tbejhire. The pleafure I took in viewing the ma- 
nufactures in Lancajhire detained us more 
than ufual ; but at laft we fet forward for 

Produce. Chejhire, whole product is more particu- 
larly cheefe and fait. Its cheefe is faid by 
moft authors, and commended by molt 

Its manu 

for much or frequent drawing makes way 
for the fait fprings to come quicker, and 
allows the lefs time for the admifllon of 
frefli fprings. 

It is obferved by the briners, that they 
make more fait with the fame quantity of 
brine in dry than in wet feafons. They 
ufe for their fuel Stafford/hire pit-coal. 

eaters to be the beft in England, except fuch The pans in which they boil the fait are 

as have tafted the Chedder cheefe of Somer- fet upon iron bars, and clofed up on all 

Jet/hire, which muft be allowed to e>:cell fides with clay and bricks, that neither 

it by far ; which by fome is attributed to flame nor fmoak may get through. They 

the excellency of its paiturage, which muft firft fill their pans with brine out of the 

be allowed to be the richeft of any on the 
weft fide of Britain. Of this cheefe I 
was informed from credible hands, that 
London takes off 1 4000 tons a year ; that 
the navigation of the Trent and Severn 
carries off near 8oco tons more, and that the 
kingdoms of Scotland and Ireland do not 
buy up lefs than 4000 tons of the fame 
yearly •, befides what is carried off by land 
carriage, and confumed in Wales, and the 

pit, from which it comes to them in feve- 
ral wooden gutters : then they put into 
their pans, among their brine, a certain 
mixture made of about twenty gallons of 
brine, and two quarts of calf's, cow's, 
or chiefly fheep's blood, mixed into a 
claret colour. Of this mixture they put 
about two quarts into a pan that holds 
about three hundred and fixty quarts of 
brine. This bloody brine, at the firft 

inlandcounties: which together, upon a mo- boiling up of the pan, brings up a fcum, 

derate computation, cannot amount to lefs which they are careful to rake off with a 

than 30000 tons a year. Nor could I think wooden handle thruft through a long 

myfelf impofed upon by this eftimate,when fquare of wainfcot board, twice as big as 

I am a witnefs, that you cannot go into a good fquare trencher. This they call a 

any good houfe,publick or private, through- loot. They then continue the fire as quick 

out England, but you are lure to be enter- as they can, till half of the brine be 

tained after victuals with Chejhire cheefe. wafted •, and this they call boiling up of 

But all the cheefe that paffes for Chejhire the Jrejh : but when it is half boiled away, 

at London, and other places, is not made they fill their pans again with new brine 

in this county •, for great part of it comes out of the fhip (the name they give to a 

out of Wales, where fome pretend the great ciftern by their pan's fide) into 

goats are milked as well as the cows for which their brine runs through the wooden 

that ufe. It affords great ftore of all forts gutters from the pump, which ftands in 
of victuals, corn, flefh, fifh, and of the 

beft falmon. It drives a confiderable trade, 
not only by importing, but by return, as- 
having within itfelf falt-pits, mines, and 

As to the fait made in this county, it 
being a method quite new to me, and the 
means of driving a confiderable trade, I 
thought it worth my while to be more di- 
ligent in my fpeculation about it ; by which 
I found, that about Nantwich, North- 
Wtcb, and Middlewich, about thirty miles 

the pit. Then they put into the pan two 
quarts of the following mixture : they 
take a quart of whites of eggs, beat them 
throughly with as much brine till they are 
well broken ; then they mix them with 
twenty gallons of brine, as before was 
done with blood ; and thus that which 
they call the whites is made. As foon as 
this is in, they boil fharply till the fecond 
fcum rifes •, then they fcum it off as be- 
fore, and boil it very gently till it corn, 
to procure which, when a part of th6 

from the fea, are feveral fait fprings near brine is wafted, they put into each pan of 

the river Weaver, and feldom exceed four the contents aforefaid, about a quarter of 

yards in depth, which is called the falt-pit; a pint of the beft and ftrongeft ale they 

Vol. I. r r 



$6 The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

can get. This makes a momentary ebul- during their whole time of boiling. They 
lition, which is foon over, and then they have their houfes like barns open up to the 
abate their fires, yet not fo, but that they thatch, with a louver-hole or two to vent 
keep it boiling all over, tho' gently ♦, for the fleam of the pans, which is fuch, that 
the workmen fay, that if they boil faft I am confident no plafter will ftick, but 
here, which they call boiling on the leach, the board will warp, and the nails will 
becaufe they ufually at this time lade in ruft, fo as quickly to fret to pieces, 
their leach-brine, which is fuch brine as Grey fait is the fweepings of the fait 
runs from their fait, when it is taken up which are conftantly fhed and fcattered 
before it hardens ; if, I fay, they boil faft about on the floor, not without take- 
here, it waftes their fait. After all their ing much of the dirt, which occafions 
leach-brine is in, they boil gently till a its greyifhnefs. This does not fell at half 
kind of fcum comes on it like a thin ice, the price of white fait, and is only bought 
which is the firft appearance of the fait, up by the poorer fort of people, to fait 
Then that finks, and the brine every- their bacon, coarfe cheefe, &c. Catts of 
where gathers into corns at the bottom to fait are made of the word fort of fait, 
it, which they gently rake together with when yet wettifh from the pans, molded 
their loots. They do it gently* for much and intermixed with cummin-feed and 
ftirring breaks the corn ; fo they continue aihes, and fo baked into a hard lump in 
till there is but very little brine left in the the mouths of their ovens. The ufe of 
pans. Then with their loots they take it thefe is only for pigeon-houfes ; but loaves 
up, the brine dropping from it, and throw of fait are the fineft of all for trencher ule. 
it into barrows, which are cafes made with There is no difference in the boiling of 
flat cleft wickers in the fhape almoft of a thefe from the common way of fine fait, 
fugar-loaf, with the bottom uppermoft. 3 but in the making up fome care is ufed ; 
"When the barrow is full* they let it ftand for, firft, they cut their barrows, which 
fo for half an hour in the trough, where they intend for fait loaves, with a long flit 
it drains out all the leach-brine above- from top to bottom, equally on both fides ; 
mentioned. Then they remove it into they then tie both fides together with cords ; 
their hot-houfe behind their works, made then they fill this barrow with fait boiled 
there by two tunnels under their pans car- as ufually * but in the filling are careful to 
ried back for that purpofe. The leach- ram down the fait with the end of fome 
brine that runs from the barrows they put wooden bar,- continuing this till their bar- 
into the next boiling, it being fait melted, row be filled to their minds j then placing 
and wanting only to be harden'd. This it fpeedily in their hot-houfe, they let it 
work is performed in two hours in the ftand there all the time of their walling ; 
fmaller pans, which are fhallower, and wherefore they prepare for their loaves at 
generally boil their brine more away ; the beginning of the work, that they may 
wherefore their fait will laft better, though have all the benefit of their hot-houfes ; 
it does not granulate fo well, becaufe when and when thefe begin to flack, they take 
the brine is wafted, the fire and the ftir- out the loaves, and untie the cords which 
ring breaks the corns. But this fait weighs faften'd the barrow, that both fides may 
heavier, and melts not fo foon ; and there- open eafily without breaking the loaf, 
fore is bought by them who carry it far. Then they take the loaf and bake it in 
In the greater pans, which are ufually an oven, where houfhold-bread has been 
deeper, they are about half an hour longer baked, and juft drawn out. This they do 
in boiling ; but, becaufe they take their twice or thrice, till they fee it is baked 
fait out of the brine, and only harden it firm ; and this being placed in a ftove, or 
in their hot-houfe, it is apter to melt a chimney-corner, and covered clofe with 
away in a moift air ; yet of this fort of a hofe of cloth or leather, like the fugar- 
fait, the bigger the grain is, the longer it loaf papers, will keep very white j and 
endures ; and generally this is the better when they have occafion to ufe any, they 
granulated, and the clearer, though the fhave it off* with a knife, as is done with 
other be the whiter. This kind meafures loaf-fugar to fill the falt-cellar. 
to good profit, therefore it is much bought Our next route was into Stafford/hire, Stafford* 
by them who fell again. which alfo is compofed of various foils •J hire - 
They never cover their pans at all, for the moor-lands of this county, which its foil. 

1 , 11 . I L 

a When the troughs or barrels fet in the earth to receive the fait water from the pit are full, of which 
notice is given by a bell, they lade the water into their leads, of which they have fix in every wich-houfe, 

and immediately put fire to them to boil up the fait. Thefe brine-pans are attended by certain women 
called wallers, who with little wooden rakes draw the fait from the bottom as the brine is feething, and 
put into the above-mentioned wickers or barrows, where they let the fait ftand for the water to drain 
from it. 


to England and Scotland. 


are mountainous, and therefore reckoned 
the moft barren, produce a fhort but fweet 
grafs, by which they bring up as fine large 
cattle as thole of Lancajhire ; and the grafiers 
fay, that they will feed better, and much 
more, in the rich paftures and meadows 
that adorn the banks of the Dove, Trent, 
Blythe, Charnet, &c. all in the north part 
of this county. Dove- bank, or the banks 
of the Dove, is reckoned the bed feeding 
ground in England, for the reafons above- 
mentioned •, and by thefe rich paftures and 
meadows the great dairies are maintained 
in this part of Stafford/hire, which fupply 
the noted Uttoxeter-market with fuch vaft 
quantities of butter and cheefe. Sheep 
are alfo fed in the northern as well as the 
fouthern parts in great numbers, but they 
are fmall, and their wool is coarfe. They 
generally have black nofes, and their wool 
is fomething finer in the fouth than in 
the north. Much of it is manufactured 
in this county in the cloathing-trade and 
felting. Nor is the arable ground lefs 
fruitful than the pafture ; for even the bar- 
ren moor-lands, when manured by the 
hufbandman with marie and lime mixed 
with turf afhes, produce good oats and 
barley \ the laft not fo plenty indeed, but 
as good as in the fouth. And as to the 
fouthern parts, and fome adjacent parifhes 
in the north, they produce all forts of 

ts pro- grain, as wheat, rye, barley, pulfe, tfc. 

u &- In thefe parts they alfo fow hemp and 
flax ; fo that this (hire, all things confi- 
dered, may be called Terra fuis contenta 
bonis, i. e. that can fubfift of ltfelf with- 
out the help of any other county. 

As to fubterraneous productions, both 
the moor-lands and wood-lands yield lead, 
copper, iron, marble, alabafter, mill-ftones, 
coal and fait, near as good as that of Che- 
jbire, &c. Of this fort of lands confifts the 
chace of Canock-wood, and moft of the 
warrens and parks of the nobility and gen- 
try. In the more fruitful part of the 

^3 county are found marles of feveral forts 
and colours, moft of which are laid upon 
their lands with very great fuccefs •, and 

I of fome they make very good bricks, 

efpecially of the reddifh clay- marie. Here 
are other ufeful earths, which has caufed 
the beft manufactory for earthen and ftone 
wares in England to be promoted in this 
county. There is a brick-earth, which 
burns blue, and is fuppofed to be that 
fort whereof the Romans made their urns ; 
fullers-earth \ potters-clay, particularly a 
fort ufed in the glaffes at Amblecot, where- 
of are made the beft in England-, for which 
reafon it is fold for 7 d. a bufhel, and fent 
as far as London, Briftol, &c. flip, a red- 
difh fort of earth, wherewith they paint 
divers veffels ; yellow and red ocres, which 

are obferved to lie chiefly in their beft 
lands ; and tobacco-pipe-clay, of which the 
beft fort is found in Monway -field, between 
Wednejbury and IVillings forth. It produces 
alfo valuable ftones, and minerals of va- Stones and 
rious forts -, as, 1. The fire-ftone for hearths minenl 
of iron furnaces, ovens, 65V. 2. Rocks of 
lime-ftone ; 3. Iron-ftone, dug at Darle- 
fton, Apedale, and many other places. The 
beft fort of iron-ftone, called mufh, is as 
big fometimes as the crown of a hat, and 
contains a pint of a cold fharp liquor, yet 
fo pleafant to the tafte, that the workmen 
are fond of it : this fort is found at Rufhali, 
and the beft fort of iron wares, as kevs, 
&c. are made of it ; 4. The blood- ftone, 
or hematites, found in the brook Tent. 
which is very weighty, and if a little wet 
will draw red lines like ruddle ; ^-.-Cop- 
per-ore, or ftones dug out of Eclon-hill, 
in the parifh of Wetton -, 6. Lead -ore, 
dug in a yellowifti ftone with cawk and 
fpar in Townsfield, on the fide of Lawton- 
park ; 7. Quarry -ftones, mill-ftones, and 
grind-ftones of feveral colours ; 8 . Ala- 
bafter, and good marble of divers kinds, 
fome of which exceeds any brought from 
beyond fea j and there are whole moun- 
tains of it in the lordffiip of Grindon at 
Yelperjley-tor, Poivke-hill, &c. 

To fupply the fcarcity of wood, which 
is feldom ufed in this county for fuel, there 
is plenty of turf and peat, cannel-coal, 
peacock, and pit-coal. The cannel-coal, Coal, 
which has been formerly mentioned in my 
account of Lancq/Jjire, is fuppofed to take 
its name from the Britifh word canwill, 
fignifying a candle, becaufe it gives fo 
bright a flame, that in the dark it fupplies 
the place of a candle. The peacock-coal, 
which is dug up on Hanley - green, near 
Newcaftle under Line, is fofter than can* 
nel-coal, and therefore not capable of be- 
ing poliftied as that is. It is fo called, be- 
caufe it has all the colours in the peacock's 
train, when turned towards the light ; but 
it is better for the forge than the kitchen, 
which is fupplied by the pit-coal, dug 
about Wednejbury, Dudley and Sedgeley, and 
is preferred by fome to cannel-coal ; for it 
burns into white alhes, leaving no fuch 
cinder as the coal from Newcaftle upon Tine. 
Of this fort of coal there is fuch plenty 
in this county, that commonly there are 
twelve or fourteen collieries, and twice as 
many out of work within ten miles round, 
which afford from two thoufand to five 
thoufand tons a year ; but it will not be 
ferviceable in malting till it is charred ; 
when it is fo freed from all its unpleafant 
fumes, then it makes fit winter-firing for 
a chamber. The coal thus prepared is 
called cook, and gives as good heat almoft 
as charcoal. This pit-coal often takes fire 



The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 


in the pit, which may be afcribed to the 
bitumen in the coal, which being put into 
a ferment by water, produceth fire, and fo 
the pits take fire of themfelves. 
Shropjbhe. We at laft arrived in the county of 
Afr, foil, Salop, where the air is very healthy, as it 
and pro- g ener ally is, in fuch as are mountainous or 
hilly. The foil, which is in many parts 
of a reddifh clay, is various as in other 
places ; the fouth and weft parts, which 
are the mod hilly, not being altogether 
fo fruitful as the low grounds i of which 
this county has its fhare. Plenty of wheat 
and barley is produced here, together with 
the other forts of grain neceffary for hu- 
man life, befides inexhauftible pits of coal, 
which did it enjoy the advantage of wa- 
ter-carriage, as Newcaftle, &c. does, this 
county would alfo vie with it in plenty 
of that product. By the Severn fide are 
rich, large meadows, that yield abundance 
of grals and hay for the cattle, which are 
chiefly fed on the up-land paftures •, and 
the hilly country, on the borders of Wales, 
is excellent fheep-pafture. Here are alfo 
mines of copper, lead, iron-ftone, and lime- 
ftone. Over moft of the coal-pits there 
lies a ftratum of a blackifh, hard, but very 
porous fubftance, containing great quanti- 
ties of bitumen, which being ground to 

powder in the horfe-mills, fuch as are 
ufed in grinding flints to make glafs, and 
well boiled in coppers of water, the earthy 
and gritty parts fink to the bottom, but 
on the furface fwims the bituminous mat- 
ter, which, by evaporation, is brought to 
the confiftency of pitch ; or by the help 
of an oil diftilled from the fame ftone, 
and mixed with it, may be thinned to a 
fort of tar •, and both fubftances ferve par* 
ticularly for caulking of {hips as well as 
pitch or tar, if not better ; for they do 
not crack as the common pitch or tar, 
but always keep black and foft, and might, 
as it is imagined, be very ferviceable againfl 
the worm, fo mifchievous to fhips. 

Thus we furveyed the air, foil, producl:, 
and manufactures of the fouth part of this 
plentiful and rich ifland. Hence forward we 
laid afide all anxious fpeculations, and re- 
folved with eafy journies to fet out for 
London, if poflible, to be there againfl 
the king's birth-day. But as the manu- 
factures and trade are chiefly confined to 
particular towns in thefe counties, I fhall 
now retrofpeft and fupply what has been 
only occafionally or fuperficially mention- 
ed on that head, by giving fome account 
of thofe places in England, which are molt 
noted either for making or felling goods. 


Containing an Account of the principal Towns of Trade and Manufactures in 



N this I fhall obferve the method of 
the foregoing furvey of the counties, 
and begin with Falmouth, the town where 
I firft landed. 

Falmouth. Falmouth is by much the richeft and 
beft trading town in the county of Com- 
ival. 'Tis fo commodious an harbour, that 
fhips of the greateft burden come up to 
its key. 'Tis guarded by the caftle of St. 
Maws and Pendennis, which have both go- 
vernors and garrifons ; and there is fuch 
fhelter in the many creeks belonging to 
it, that the whole royal navy may ride 
here fafe, whatever wind blows. 'Tis 

Its trade. we ^ built, and its trade is mightily in- 
creafed fince the eftablifhment of the pac- 
quets between this place and Portugal, and 
the Wejl -Indies, which not only bring over 
vaft quantities of gold in fpecie, or in 
bars, on account of the merchants of Lon- 
don, but the Falmouth merchants carry on 
a trade with the Portuguefe in fhips of their 
own •, and they have a great fhare too in 
the gainful pilchard trade. The cuftom- 
houfe for moft of the towns in this county 
is eftablifhed at this town, where the du- 
ties, including thofe of the other ports, are 

very considerable. It is computed to be 
about two hundred and ninety miles from 

In the fame county I faw the town of Pad/low. 
Pad/low, fituate at the mouth of the river 
Camel, in the Brijlol channel. This town 
lies convenient for trade with Ireland. i ts tra d c . 
From hence to St. Ives is a moft pleafant 
fruitful country, the hills on the left a- 
bounding with tin, copper, and lead, 
which are all carried to the other fhore ; 
the chief bufinefs of this, befides the trade 
in flate-tiles, being the fifhing of herrings, 
which come up the channel in O&ober. 
The inhabitants, for their particular love 
of mirth and good chear, gave occafion to 
the phrafe of the Good-fellowfhip of Pad/low. 
Near to this place is New-I/land, noted for 
good camphire and fea-fowl. 

In the county of Devon we arrived at 
the city of Exeter-, it is the fee of a Exeter. 
bifhop (which was transferred hither from 
Crediton by Edward the confeflbr) and one 
of the principal cities in the kingdom for 
its buildings, wealth, antiquity, and number 
of its inhabitants, is the Augujla of the 
Romans , and the Ifca of Ptolemy and An- 

to England and Scotland. 


toninus. It has its name from the river Ex, 
on which it ftands. It has fix gates, be- 
fides turrets, and with the fuburbs is two 
miles in compafs. It is advantageouily 
fituate on rifing ground. 
Its trade. As great a trade as is now carried on in 
this city for ferges, perpetuanas, long-ells, 
druggets, kerfeys, and other woollen 
goods, in which it is computed that 
600,000 £. a year at leaft is traded for in 
Exeter \ yet it was fo late as the 30th of 
Henry VIII. before the markets, for wool, 
yarn, and kerfeys, were erected here. The 
merchants before that time drove a con- 
fiderable trade to Spain and France, and 
the latter were incorporated in the reign of 
queen Mary I. by the name of the governor, 
confuls, and fociety of merchant-adven- 
turers trading to France. There were 
weavers here before Henry VIII. but Cre- 
diton kept the wool-market and cloth- 
trade, after the bifhoprick was transferred 
from thence hither, and very much op- 
pofed the fettling of any market here for 
wool, yarn, or kerfeys, which however 
was effected, and a cloth-market fet up 
in North-gat e-ftreet, which about thirty 
years after, viz. in 1590, was removed to 
South-gate-ftreet, where in 1660 standings 
were erected for the ferge-market, now 
kept weekly, which is faid to be the 
greatefb in England, next to the brigg- 
market at Leeds in Torkfhire -, and that 
fometimes as many ferges have been fold 
in a week, as amount to 60 or 80,000/. 
for befides the vaft quantities of their wool- 
len goods ufually fhipped for Portugal, 
Spain, and Italy, the Dutch give large 
commissions for buying up ferges, perpe- 
tuanas, &c. for Holland and Germany : 
That to France is not very considerable, 
and indeed too much of what there is, is 
in the hands of fmugglers ; which practice, 
fo mifchievous to the fair merchant, has 
been more fuccefsful on the fouth coaft 
than any other parts of England. It is 
particularly remarked of this city, that 
it is as full of gentry almost as it is of 
tradefmen, and that there have been more 
mayors and bailiffs of it, who have de- 
fcended from good families, or given rife 
to them, than of any other of its bignefs 
in England ; for the great trade and flourifh- 
ing ftate of this city tempted gentlemen to 
fettle their fons here, contrary to the prac- 
tice in the midland and northern counties ; 
where, according to the vain and ruinous 
notion of the Normans, trade was left to 
the vulgar, and gentlemen were not to 
foul their fingers with it. 
Pljm.utb. Plymouth, at the influx of the rivers 
Plym and Tamar into the channel, was 
anciently no more than a fifhing town, 
but is now the largest in the mire, contains 
Vol. I. 

near as' many fouls as Exeter, and is one. 
of the chief magazines in the kingdom, 
owing to its port, which is one of the big- 
eft and fafeft in England, consisting of two- 
harbours, capable of containing 1000 fail. 
It is defended by feveral forts mounted i"ts 
with near 300 guns, and particularly by itrei1 S tJl - 
a ftrong caftle erected in the reign of king 
Charles II. upon St. Nicholas Ijland ; but 
the towns people look upon this caftle, 
rather as an awe upon, than for a defence of 
the town, and this fortification, within the 
circuit of its walls (which take up at least 
two acres) contains a large magazine- houfe 
full of ftores, and five regular baftions. 

It has a good pilchard-fifhing on the Trade. 
coaft, drives a considerable trade to the 
Streights and the Weft-Indies, and has a 
cuftom -houfe. 

Barnftaple, on the river Taw., compound- BanfapU: 
ed of Bar, (which in Briti/h is the mouth 
of a river) and Staple (which in Saxon de- 
notes a mart of trade :) It had walls for- 
merly, with a caftle, enjoy'd the liberties 
and privileges of a city, and had alfo an 
haven, which became fo fhallow, that 
moft of the trade removed to Biddiford: 
Yet it has ftill fome merchants, and a Its trade,; 
good trade to America and Ireland, from 
whence 'tis an eftablifh'd port for landing 
wool ; and it imports more wine, and other 
merchandife, than Biddiford, and is every 
whit as considerable ; for tho' its rival 
cures more fifh, yet Barnftaple drives great- 
er trade with the ferge-makers of Tiverton 
and Exeter, who come up hither to buy 
fhad-fiih, wool, yarn, &c. 'Tis pleafantly 
fituate among hills, in the form of a 
femicircle, to which the river is a diame- 
ter : There is a fair and ftrong bridge 
over it, of fixteen arches, and a paper 
mill. The ftreets are clean and well 
paved, and the houfes built of ftone, as 
are all the towns hereabouts. 

Biddiford, (fo called from its situation, Biddiford. 
i. e. By the Ford) an ancient port and cor- 
poration on the T'owridge, which a little 
lower joins the Taw, and falls with it into 
Barnftaple bay, in the Briftol Channel. 
There is a very fine bridge over this ri- its fine 
ver, which was built in the 14th century, bridge, 
on 24 beautiful and ftately Got hick arches. 
Tho' the foundation is very firm, yet it 
feems to fhake at the {lightest ftep of a 
horfe. There are lands fettled for keeping 
it constantly in repair •, the revenues or 
which are received and laid out by 
a bridge-warden, chpfen by the mayor 
and aldermen. 'Tis a clean, well built, 
populous place, and has a street that fronts 
the river, three quarters of a mile long, 
in which are a noble key and cuf- 
tom-houfe, where fhips of good burden 
load and unload in the very bofom of 
S f the 

loo The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

the town. There is another ftreet, of a by the difference of the infuranee, and 
good length, as broad as the St. Roch-ftrect rifk between this port and London : Thefe 
at Lijbon, well-built, and inhabited by conveniencies, and a fhorter cut through 
wealthy merchants, who fend fleets every the channel to the Land's-end, gave the 
Trade, year to the Weft-Indies, particularly Virgi- merchants of Briftol a great advantage in 
nia and Newfoundland, and to Ireland, from trade over thofe of London ; and to this 
whence *tis an eftablifhed port, as well as advantage may in fome meafure be attri- 
Barnjlaple, for landing wool : Forty or buted the great number of wealthy men 
fifty fail of mips belonging to this port rifen up within a few years in this city j the 
have been employed to fetch cod from mop-keepers of which, who are, in gene- 
Newfoundland : and others are fent to Li- ral, wholefale men, have fo great an in- 
verpool and Warrington, to fetch rock fait* land trade, that they maintain carriers, juft 
Method which is here diflblved by the fea-water as the London tradefmen do, not only to 
ofmaking into brine, and then boiled up into a new Bath, and to Wells and Exeter, but to 
fait, which is justly called fait upon fait ; Frome, and all the principal counties and 
and with this they cure their herrings. towns, from Southampton, even to the 
Briftol. j n Somerfetfhire we arrived at the city of banks of the Trent. Moreover, by means 
Briftol, the fecond city in the dominions of thofe two great rivers, the Severn and 
of the king of Great-Britain, for trade, the Wye, they have the whole trade of fouth 
wealth, and number of inhabitants, not- Wales as it were to themfelves ; and the 
withstanding York boafts of greater anti- greatest part of that of north Wales. 
quity and extent of ground, and Norwich The largeft mips lie at Hungroad, four HungroaJt 
of more churches. The Britains, accord- miles down the river } two miles below and &"g- 
ing to Camden, call it Caer Oder nant which is Kingroad, another ftation. Here™" * 
Baden, i. e. the city Oder a in Baden (or thofe mips are difcharged by lighters, 
Bath) valley 5 and the Saxons, Brightflow, which carry the merchandize to the key. 
or a famous place. For the building, equipping, and repair- 
Its trade. As to the trade of this city, 'tis well ing of fhips, there are fhipwrights, and all 
known to all traders to be the moft con- other proper artificers, yards and docks, and, 
fiderable of any port in the Britifh domi- large rope-walks in the fkirts of the town, 
nions, London only excepted, efpecially to One of this city's principal branches of 
the Weft-Indies, to which its merchants trade, and which has been prodigioufly in- 
were the first adventurers, and always creafed fince the revolution, is that to Ire- 
greater traders in proportion, than that land, from whence it imports tallow, lin- 
metropolis. It was even computed, about nen and woollen, and bay-yarn. The 
twenty-fix years ago, when it employed no Streights trade, for all forts of fruit, oil* 
lefs than 2000 fail of mips, that the trade, £$V. is very considerable at this port ; and 
in proportion to the bignefs of the two fo indeed is that to all other countries, 
cities, was above three times as great as except Turkey and the Eaft-Indies. 
that of London. Indeed the Briftol mer- In this city there are alfo fome confi- Manufac 
chants had a very good trade to the Weft- derable manufactures of woollen ftuffs, 
Indies, at the time of the civil war, which particularly cantaloons, which is carried on 
they have increafed much more, not only chiefly by French refugees ; glafs ware is as 
thither, but to all parts of the world fince plenty and cheap at Briftol, as in any place 
the revolution. Before that, they knew of the world, here being no lefs than 
little of the Guinea trade, and hardly any fifteen glafs-houfes,(whicharefervedby the 
thing of the Butch, the Hamburg, the Nor- Kingfwood andMendip-hills coal mines) fome 
way, and the Eaftland commerce ; all which for glafTes, others for bottles, of which there 
'have fince been very flourifhing in this is a great demand at the hot well and Bath 
port. In time of peace, fifty Weft-India for exporting their mineral waters, and in 
fhips have arrived here in a fleet, or very general for wine, beer, cyder, &c. 
near one another, many of them mips of Frome-Selwood is the chief town of what F'-ome-SeU 
considerable burthen. In the late war with was anciently one great forest in the east™ 5 " * 
France, they built a fort of galleys, called part of Somerfetfhire, and the weft part of 
runners, which being well armed and Wiltfhire, and therefore then called Sel- 
manned, and furnifhed with letters of wood/hire. 

marque, overtook and mafter'd feveral The inhabitants are reckoned to be 

prizes of that nation. Many of thefe fhips about 13,000; of whom 'tis faid one half 

were then alfo carriers for London merchants, are new comers within thefe twenty years ; 

who ordered their merchandife to be landed in which time there have not been lefs than 

hereandfentuptoG/0#£<?/^rbywater,thence 2,000 honfes built on new foundations, 

by land to Lechlade, and thence down the They are not indeed very fumptuous, nor 

Thames, to London -, the carriage being fo the streets very fpacious, the latter efpe- 

reafonable, that it was more than paid for daily being very irregular, and for the 


to England and Scotland. ioi 

greatefl: part up hill and down hill. 'Twas adjunct. This Port Peris lay at the up- 

trovernM formerly by a bailiff, and now per end of the creek, but, the fea retiring 

by two conftables, of the hundred of from it, the inhabitants followed it, which 

Frome, chofe at the court-leet. The in- occafioned the building of this town. 

habitants of this town, who had Ihewn When the civil wars begun, this town The great 

their zeal for the glorious revolution, en- was fecured for the parliament, and con- magazine 

deavoured, in the reign of king William, to tinued in that interefl till the reftoration, fo r " s a [* 

procure a charter incorporation, but in vain, when Catherine the infanta of Portugal ar- the king- 

becaufe, as they fay, they were oppofed in rived here, and was met by king Charles Il.dom. 

it by a neighbouring lord. to confummate their marriage. That 

Tts wool- As to the woollen manufacture, it thrives king added very much to the ftrength, 

J. e " manu *here to fuch a degree, that feven waggons extent, and magnificence of its fortifica- 

have been fent out with cloth weekly from tions by land, and to its naval preparations. 

this town for Blackw ell-hall in London, £$e. He made it one of the principal chambers 

Indeed all of it is not made at Frome -, for in the kingdom for laying up the royal 

the clothiers of the neighbouring villages, navy, furnifhed it with wet and dry docks, 

of Elm-Mells, Whatley, Noney, &c. bring ftore-houfes, rope-yards, and all materials 

their goods hither for carriage to London ; for building, repairing, rigging, arming, 

and each of thefe waggons have been victualling, and completely fitting to fea 

known to hold 140 pieces, which being mips of all rates, from the leaft to the 

valued at 1 4 /. one with another, make the greatefl. King James II. added greatly 

value of the whole to amount, in the year, to the fortifications, and made the duke 

to above 700,000^, in this quarter of the of Berwick its governor. It has alfo 

county. d welling- houfes, with ample accommoda- 

Twenty years ago more wire cards, for tions for a cornmifiioner of the navy, and 

carding the wool for the fpinners, were all the fubordinate officers, and mafter- 

made here than in all England befides ; workmen, neceffary for the conflant day 

Leeds, Hallifax, and other towns in York- and night fervice of the navy in this port ; 

Jhire, as well as the weftern parts of the and it is furprifing to fee the exadl order in 

kingdom, being fupplied with them from which the furniture is laid up in the yards 

hence : And here were no lefs than twenty and ftore-houfes, fo that the workmen can 

mafter cardmakers j one of whom, Mr. find any implement in the dark. After 

John Glover, employed 400 men, women, the revolution, this port flourifhed mighti- 

and children, at one time, in making them ; ly, being the conflant rendezvous of the 

for even children of feven or eight years of grand fleets and fquadrons ; for convoy of 

age, could earn half a crown a week. This merchant fhips homeward and outward 

fhews how much the concern and depend- bound. By thefe means it is fo increafed 

ance of this town have been in and upon and inriched, that the houfes of the inha- 

the woollen manufacture. The cloths made bitants are near double to what they were 

here are, for the mofl part, medleys of a- before, and the fortifications as regular as 

bout feven or eight millings a yard. The thofe of any port in Europe. Here is aits fortifi- 

riverhere,whichaboundswithtrout,eels,ciV. good counterfcarp, and double mote, with cations. 

rifes in the woodlands, and runs under its ravelins in the ditch, and double palifa- 

flone bridge, towards the Bath, on the does, and advanced works to cover the 

eafl fide of which it falls into the Avon, place from any approach where it may be 

This town has been a long time particular- pra6ticable.* The town is alfo the flrono-eft 

ly noted for its rare fine beer, which they on the land-fide, by the fortifications raifed 

keep to a great age, and is not only the of late years about the docks and yards. 

nectar of the common people, but is often Within thefe few years the government has 

preferred by the gentry, to the wines of bought more ground for additional works ; 

France and Portugal. and, no doubt, it may be made impreg- 

Portf- Port/mouth is the key of England, and nable, fince a fhallow water may be brought 

mouth. its only regular fortification ; it flands at the quite round it. 'Tis amazing to fee the 

entrance of a creek of the ifland of Port- immenfe quantities here of all forts of mi- 

fey, which is about fourteen miles in com- litary and naval ftores. The rope houfe 

pafs, furrounded, at high tides, by the is near a quarter of a mile long. Some 

fea-water, of which they make fait, and of the great cables made here require 100 

joined to the continent by a bridge, where men to work at them, and their labour is 

was anciently a fmall caflle and town, call- fo hard, that they can work but four hours 

ed Port Peris or Porchejier, the place that in a day. The leaft number of men con- 

Vefpafian is faid to have landed at when he tinually employed in the yard is faid to be 

came to Britain: *Tis termed by Ptolemy a thoufand, and that but barely fufficient. 

fuym tap**, i.e. a great harbour-, but the The docks and yards, in friort, refemble a 

Saxons called it Port only, without any diftinct town, and are a kind of marine 



The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

Corporation within themfelves, there being 
particular rows of dwellings, built at the 
publick charge, within the new works, for 
all the principal officers. The fituation of 
the place is low, and fo full of water and 
ditches, that it is reckoned aguifh. The 
ftreets are not over-clean, nor the fmells 
vefy favoury ; but the continual refort of 
feamen and foldiers to it renders it always 
full of people, and makes thofe people 
feem always in a hurry. The inns and 
taverns are perpetually crowded, but their 
bills are not the moft moderate. The 
place is in want of frefh water ; and though 
the adjacent country abounds with all forts 
of provifions, yet the great confumption 
here makes them dear •, as are alfo, lodge - 
ings and fuel. Here is a garrifon, but the 
number uncertain, according to the occafion. 
Here are all the proper officers to take care 
of the revenue ; and the garrifon, docks, 
&V. are fumifhed with them in their fe- 
veral diftinctions. Here is a very fine new 
key, for laying up the cannon ; and the 
arfenal at Venice is not fo regular, nor bet- 
Its har- ter difpofed. A thoufand fail of mips 
bour. ma y r ^ e f a f e j n this harbour. The mouth, 
not fo broad as the 'Thames at Weflminfier, 
is fecured on Gofport fide by four forts, and 
a platform of above twenty great guns, 
level with the water ; and on the other fide 
by South-Sea caftle, built by Henry VIII. 
Go/port. Gofport is a large town, of great trade, 
where the failors wives live for the moft part, 
and where travellers generally chufe to 
lodge-, every thing being cheaper and more 
convenient there, than in Port/mouth •, and 
boats are continually paffingfrom the one to 
the other, it being juft as Southwark is to 
London, excepting that there is no bridge ; 
but it is all called Port/mouth, though they 
are different parifhes. 
New Such has been the late increafe of bufi- 

buildings. ne f s at p Drt j- mu tb, and fo great the con- 
fluence of people, that as the. town does 
not admit of any inlargement for buildings, 
a fort of fuburb to it has been built on the 
heathy ground adjoining, which is like to 
out-ftrip the town itfelf, for number of the 
inhabitants, and beauty of the houfes •, 
and the rather, as it is independent on the 
laws of the garrifon, and unincumbered 
with the duties and fervices of the corpo- 
ration. The failors are entertained here, 
in time of war, by the ladies of pleafure, 
as they are at Amflerdam, and all other 
places where there is a great refort of fhip- 
Newbury. Newbury or Newbery, q. d. the New 
Borough, is fo called in regard to its rife 
on the decay of the Spina of the Romans, 
which is dwindled into a village, with a 
few good inns in it, called Spinham Land, 
though ftill reckoned a part of Newbury. 

This town is famous for the two great en- 
gagements there between king Charles I. 
and the parliament-army •, the firft on the 
20th of September 1643, anc * the fecond 
on the 27th of Oftober 1644; both almoft 
on the fame fpot of ground, and the king 
prefent at both. Notwithftanding its 
name, it is a place at lead as old as the 
conqueft; and the manufacture of cloth 
throve here once to fuch a degree, that, 
in the reign of Henry VIII. here flourifhed 
John Winfchcomb, commonly called Jackj ac % f 
of Newbury, one of the greateft clothiers Newbury, 
that ever was in England: For he kept the § re;it 
100 looms in his houfe; and, in the ex- clothier * 
pedition to FloMen-field againft the Scots, 
marched with one hundred of his own 
men, all arm'd and cloath'd at his own 
expence ; and he built all the weft part of 
the church. Alfo Mr. Kenric, the fon of 
a clothier of this town, and afterwards 
a merchant in London, left 4000 ,£. to 
this town, as well as 7500 to Reading, to 
encourage the clothing trade. It has loft 
moft of this manufacture fince it removed 
to the weft, buc makes a great quantity of 
fhalloons and druggets, which, with its 
other trades, renders it ftill a flourifhing 
town. It ftands moft pleafantly, in a 
fruitful plain, the river Kennet running 
through it. It was made a corporation by 
queen Elizabeth, and is governed by a 
mayor, high-fteward, recorder, aldermen, 
and capital burgefTes. The ftreets are fpa- 
cious, particularly the market-place, in 
which ftands the Guildhall. 'Tis noted 
alfo for its excellent trout, eels, and cray- 
fifh, and has all manner of provifions in 

Birmingham, Bremingham, or Bermin- Birmlng- 
cham, is a large populous town in Warwick- ham. 
fhire\ the upper part of it ftands dry on 
the fide of a hill, but the lower is watry. 
Swarms of the meaner fort of people are 
employed here in the iron- works, in which 
they are fuch ingenious artificers, that their 
performances in the fmall wares of iron 
and fteel are much admired both at home 
and abroad. The noife of files, hammers 
and anvils, is the continual mufick of this 
place. 'Tis much improved of late years 
by many new buildings, both publick and 

Norwich city, about one hundred and Norwich. 
eight miles from London, in the county of 
Norfolkfiznds near the conflux of the river 
Venfder oxWinfder, and the river7^nr,which 
is navigable from hence to Yarmouth, thirty 
miles by water. It was fpoiled and burnt 
by Sueno, king of Denmark, but foon 
grew populous again, and wealthy, and, 
in Edward the confeffor's days, had thir- 
teen hundred and twenty burgefTes, and 
paid twenty pounds to the king, befides 


to England and Scotland. 


fix fextaries of honey, a bear, and fix dogs 
to bait him. At the drawing up of the 
furvey after the conqueft, it paid feventy 
pounds in weight to the king, five pounds 
line to the queen, and furnilhed her with 
an ambling palfrey. Although it fuffered 
very much by the infurrection of Ralphs 
earl of the Eaft- Angles, again ft William 
the conqueror, in whofe time it was be- 
iicged and reduced by famine, yet that 
damage was abundantly repaired, when 
the epifcopal fee was removed hither from 
Thetford, which was in 1096, the year 
that the cathedral was founded. In the 
reign of king Stephen, it was in a manner 
rebuilt, and made a corporation. Henry 
IV. granted them a mayor, and two fheriffs 
in (lead of bailiffs, by whom they had till 
then been governed, according to the char- 
ter of king Stephen ; and in the centre of 
the city, near the market-crofs, they built 
a mod beautiful town-houfe. In the year 
1348, near 58,000 perfons were carried 
off here by a pellilence ; and in 1507, the 
city was almoft entirely confumed by fire. 

It flands on the fide of a hill from north 
to fouth, near two miles in length, and 
one mile in breadth. The inhabitants are 
wealthy ; the city populous, though not 
full of houfes, there being void enough 
within the walls for another colony ; and 
though it is, upon the whole, an irregular 
town, yet the buildings, both puh.'ick and 
private, are very neat and beautiful. It 
has been pretended, but never proved, 
that it had once fixty-feven parifhes in it ; 
though were it true, it cm only be in- 
ferred, that the parifhes were fmaller, and 
not the city bigger than now ; for it does 
not appear from any hiftory, or traces of 
antiquity, that the wafte ground within 
its walls was ever filled up, either with in- 
habitants or habitations. It muft be owned, 
however, to be a city of great trade itfelf, 
and adds not a little to that of Yarmouth, 
by the vaft cargoes of coal, wine, fifh, oil, 
and all other heavy goods, which it re- 
ceives from thence by the river Tare. Its 
manufactures are, generally fpeaking, fent 
to London, though they export confiderable 
quantities alfo from Yarmouth to Holland, 
Germany, Sweden, Norway, and other parts 
of the Baltick and northern feas, which is 
alfo no inconfiderable addition to the trade 
of Yarmouth. 

It had a flint-flone wall, three miles in 
circumference, now very much decay'd, 
which v/as finifhed in 1 309, and was then 
beautified with forty towers. It has twelve 
gates, and fix bridges over the Yare, and 
was thirty years ago reckoned to contain 
8000 houfes, and at lead 50,000 inhabi- 
tants, out ot whom is formed a regiment 
of foldiers for defence of the city, befides 

Vol. I. 

an artillery company. It has thirty-two 
neat and beautiful churches, befides the 
cathedral, chapels, and meeting-houfes of 
all denominations. The roof of the ca- 
thedral, which is a large venerable anci- 
ent flructure, is of excellent workmanfhip, 
adorned with the hiftory of the bible, in 
divers little images, carved as it were to 
the life. It has a fpacious choir, and a 
ftrong fteeple, higher than thatofGrantham, 
but lower than that of Salijhury : it is above 
105 yards from the top of the pinnacle to 
the pavement of the choir under it. The 
weather-cock, which flands upon the top 
flone, is three quarters of a yard high, and 
above a yard long. The bifhop's palace, 
with the prebends houfes round the clofe 
of the cathedral, makes a very good ap- 
pearance. St. Peter's of Mancroft, near 
the market-place, is a ftately fair edifice, 
with an admirable ring of eight bells, 
reckoned one of the chief pariih-churches 
in England. There are two churches for 
the Dutch and French Flemings, of whom 
there are great numbers here, who have 
fingular privileges granted them, which 
are tenderly pieferved. Some of the 
churches are covered with thatch, and all 
of them crufted with flint-flone curioufly 
cut, as the churches in Italy are with 
marble ; but it is thought flrange from 
whence thofe ftones fhould come, becaufe 
Norwich flands in a clay country, and no 
flint or chalk within twenty miles of it. 

The other remarkable buildings are, 
1. The duke of Norfolk's palace, which 
was once reckoned the largeft houfe in 
England, out of London. 2. The caflle, 
fuppofed to have been built in the time of 
the Saxons. It flands on a hill, almoft in 
the heart of the city, furrounded by a 
deep ditch, over which there is a flrong 
bridge, with an arch of an extraordinary 
bignefs. It is the common jail for Nor- 
folk, and by it flands the fhire-houfe, a 
handfome building, where the aflizes are 
always held for the fummer circuit. 3. 
The town- hall, in the market place. 4. 
The guild-hall, formerly the monaftery 
church of Black-friars. 5. The houfe of 
correction, or Bridewell, a beautiful ftruc- 
ture, built of fquare flint-flone, fo nicely 
joined, that no mortar can be ken. 6. 
A lofty market-crofs of free-flone, built 
after the manner of a piazza, as beautiful 
and commodious as any almoft in the 
kingdom. 7. The king's fchool, founded 
by king Edward VI. for the in ft ruction of 
boys in grammar learning j to be nomi- 
nated by the mayor for the time being, 
with the confent of the majority of the 
aldermen. The other buildings are, in 
general, very handfome and lofty, efpeci- 
ally about the market-place ; and as there 

T t were 


The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

were formerly a good number of thatch'd 
houfcs in the bye-lanes and ftreets, an or- 
der was made, that all that v/ere there- 
after new built or covered, mould be tiled. 
Some authors call this city an orchard in a 
city, or a city in an orchard, by reafon of 
the pleafant intermixture of its houfes and 
trees. It has four hofpitals, one of them, 
viz. St. Helen's, Or Domus Dei, as it is 
called, was formerly founded for the en- 
tertainment of ftrangers j but king Henry 
VIII. converted it into an hofpital for the 
poor of the city ; and it now confifts of 
a mafter, chaplain, and eighty poor men 
and women, who are all clothed in grey, 
and muft be fixty years of age. Doughty's 
hofpital confifts of fixteen poor men, and 
eight women, all clothed in purple. The 
boys and girls hofpitals, founded by two 
feveral mayors of the city, contain thirty 
of each -, and the boys, at a proper age, 
are put out apprentices. Here are twelve 
charity-fchools, where 210 boys, and 144 
girls, are taught, clothed, and fupplied 
with books. 

King Henry IV. made this city a county 
of itfelf : it is governed by a mayor, re- 
corder, fteward, two fherirTs, 24 aldermen, 
and fixty common-council ; with a town- 
clerk, fword - bearer, and other inferior 
officers. The mayor is chofe always on 
May-day by the freemen, who return two 
cut of the aldermen to their court, to 
chufe one of them, who is fworn into his 
office, with great pomp and folemnity, on 
Tuefday before Midfummer-eve. The fherirTs 
are alio annually elected, one by the court 
of aldermen, and another by the freemen, 
on the laft Tuefday in Augufi, and fworn 
on Michaelmas- day ; and the aldermen are 
chofe by the freemen of the ward only. 
The common-council are chofe in Mid- 
lent. The mayor is a juftice of the peace, 
and of the quorum, during his year (as are 
alfo the recorder and fteward) within the 
city and its liberties ; and after his mayor- 
alty, he is a juftice of peace during life. 

The worfted manufacture, for which 
this city has long been famous, was firft 
brought hither by the Flemings, in the 
reign of Edward III. and afterwards im- 
proved to great perfection by the Dutch, 
who fled from the duke d' Alva's bloody 
perfecution, and, being fettled here by 
queen Elizabeth, taught the inhabitants to 
make great variety of worfted fluffs, as 
fayes, baize, ferges, fhalloons, &c. in 
which they carry on a vaft trade, both at 
home and abroad, and are lately come to 
weave druggets, crapes, and other curious 
fluffs ; of all which, it is faid, this city 
vends to the value of no lefs than 100,000/. 
a year. All hands are daily employ'd, 
and even children earn their bread in this 

manufacture. Eight wardens of the wor- 
fted weavers, four out of the city, and 
four out of the neighbouring country, are 
annually chofe, and fworn to take care 
that there be no frauds in the fpinning, 
weaving, or dying the faid fluffs. Here 
is another company of woollen manufactu- 
rers, called the Ruffia company, who have 
a feat in the town-hall, with this infcrip- 
tion, Fidelitas artes alit. The feat of the 
other company, under the warden, has 
this infcription, Worfted reformed. The 
weavers here employ all the country round 
in fpinning yarn for them, and alfo ufe 
many thoufand packs of yarn, which they 
receive from other countries, even as far 
as Torkfhire and Weftmoreland. A calcu- 
lation was lately made, from the number 
of looms then at work in this city only, 
that there were not lefs than one hundred 
and twenty thoufand people employ*d in 
their manufacture of woollen, filk, (3c. in 
and about the town, including thofe em- 
ploy'd in fpinning the yafn ufed for fuch. 
goods as are all made in this city. There 
is a flocking manufacture alfo here, which 
has been computed at 60,000 /. a year. 

Great Yarmouth, in the fame county, and Yarmouth. 
about 133 miles from London, feems to 
have rifen out of the ruins of the old Ga- 
riannonum. It is a large, well-built, popu- 
lous town j much increafed of late years 
in buildings, fhipping, and in people ; 
and is infinitely fuperior to Norwich in 
fituation, traffick, and wealth. The prin- 
cipal rendezvous of the colliers between 
Newcaflle and London, which ufed to be 
the honour of Ipfwich, feems now to be 
here ; the roads, as they are called, op- 
pofite to the town, on the eaft fide of it, 
being efteemed a fafe harbour, or riding 
for fhips ; and therefore much frequented 
by all the veffels which pafs and repafs 
from the north parts of the world to Lon- 
don, or farther fouth ; though there are 
dangerous banks of fands in the neigh- 
bourhood, drove thither by the high winds, 
on which, in violent ftorms, fhips have 
been often caft away j and the inhabitants 
are at two or three thoufand pounds a 
year charge to keep the harbour clear of 
the fands and mud. Its being the centre 
of the coal trade, and its great commerce 
to France, Holland, and the north and eaft 
feas, and above all its herring-fifhery, make The her- 
Yarmouth the greateft town of trade on""S 
all the eaft coaft of England, except Hull ; ery ' 
for befides all its other commerce, it has 
the fole trade of red-herrings, i. e. the Its trade, 
whole herring fifhery of the eaft coaft of 
England ; where, including the little town 
of Leoftojf, fifty thoufand barrels, which 
fome magnify to forty thoufand lafts, con- 
taining no lefs than forty millions of red 


to England and Scotland. 109 

herrings, are generally taken and cured in from the draw-bridge almoft: to the fouth 

a year. Thefe are, for the molt part, ex- gate, is the faireft, largeft, and longeft in 

ported by the merchants of Yarmouth, the all Britain, or perhaps in Europe, that of 

reft by thofe of London, to Italy, Spain, Seville in Spain only excepted. Here the 

and Portugal ; which, with the camblets, mips lie fo clofe to one another with their 

crapes, and other fluffs they export to bowfprits over the fhore, that one may 

thefe and other places, efpecially Holland, ftep from it into any of the fhips directly, 

to which they fend a vaft quantity of and walk from one to another, as over a 

woollen goods every year, occafions very bridge, for fometimes a quarter of a mile 

large bufinefs, and employs abundance of together, or more. On this key are a 

men and fhips. cuftom-houfe and town-houfe, both fine 

The fifhing fair here, or feafon for catch- buildings, as are many of the houfes on it 

ing herrings, is at Michaelmas -, during inhabited by the merchants ; for the key 

which all the fifhing veffels, that come is fo fpacious, that in fome places it is 

for the purpofe of fifhing for the mer- near a hundred yards from the houfes to 

chants, from any part of England, as great the wharf. 

numbers do from the coafts of Kent and From the river Tare, which gives name 
Suffex, Scarborough, Whitby, &c. are al- to this town, and is navigable to Norwich, 
lowed to catch, bring in, and fell their there is a navigation into two ftreams, that 
fifh free of all toll or tax, as the burghers are alfo navigable : one, viz. the Waveney y 
or freemen of Yarmouth are. to Beccles on the fouth, by which it has a 
The town is bound by its charter, trade with the north part of Suffolk, and 
granted by Henry III. to fend the fheriff the fouth parts of Norfolk. The fecond 
of Norwich every year a hundred herrings is called the Thyme, and gives it a trade to 
baked in twenty-four pafties, which are to the north part of the county towards north 
be delivered to the lord of the manor of JValJham. Upwards of i ioo fhips belong- 
Eaft-Carlton, in this county, who is to ed to this port, near fifty years ago, be- 
give a receipt for them, and convey them fides what the merchants might be con- 
to the king, wherever he is. cerned in belonging to others. 

The only inconvenience with which this Here is almoft as great a fifhing for 
town is reproached, is the fmell, which is mackarel in the fpring, as there is for her- 
indeed offenfive to ftrangers, during the rings in September. Befides, they have a 
fifhing fair ; and while the fifh are land- fifhing-trade to the north fea?, for white 
ing, and under the operation of curing, fifh, called the north-fea cod, and a con- 
that is, of fmoking, or, as they here call fiderable trade to Norway and the Baltick 
it, hanging the herrings. Juft fo London for deals, oak, pitch, tar, hemp, flax, 
may be faid to ftink of fmoke, Wapping canvafs, fail-cloth, and all manner of na- 
of tar, Seville of oil, &? c. but lucri dulcis val ftores, which they confume, for the moil 
cdor. part, in their own port, where they build 
Defcrip- Thetown,whichhastwoparifh-churches, a great number of fhips every year. 

and a beautiful handfome port, makes a They have a comicfel way of carrying Yarmouth* 
very good appearance from the fea, and is people all over the town, and from the coach, 
as fine within as it feems to be without, fea-fide, for fix-pence. They call it their 

It is the neateft, the compacted, and moil coach, but it is only a wheelbarrow, drawn 

regular built town in England, the ftreets by one horfe, without any covering. As the 
being ftrait, and parallel with one another, merchants, and even the generality of tra- 
from north to fouth ; and as it flands in ders in Yarmouth have an univerfal reputa- 
a peninfula, between the harbour and the tion for their fair-dealing, fo their feamen 
fea, the crofs lands, which they call rows, are efteemed the ableft and moil expert 
cutting through the buildings from eaft in England •, but the coaft is noted for Yarmouth 
and weft, give a view crofs all the ftreets, being one of the moil dangerous and fatal coaft. 
from the key to the fea. It is walled and to the colliers and coafters, of any all 
fortified, but not very ftrongly. Its chief round the ifland. Moft of the flieds, out- 
ftrength by land is the river or haven, houfes, pales, partitions, and the like, for 
which lies on the weft-fide, with a draw- twenty miles upon the more, from Winter- 
bridge over it: the port or entrance fecures ton-Nefs to Cromer I and farther, are made 
the fouth, and the fea the eaftj but the of the wrecks of fhips, and the ruins of 
north-end, which joins it to the main-land the merchants and failors fortunes ; and in 
ot Norfolk, is open, and only covered fome places are great piles of wrecks laid 
with a fingle wall, and fome old demolifh- up for the purpofes of building. There 
ed works. But the beauty of Yarmouth is are no lefs than eight light-houfes kept Light- 
its market-place, the fineft and beft fur- flaming every night, within the length of houfes; 
nifhed of any town in England, of its big- about fix miles, two of which are fouth, at 
nels : and its key or wharf, whichreaches or near Gouljlon, between Yarmouth and 

Leojloff \ 



The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

Leoftoff; two more at Caftor, a little town to 
Winter- the north of Tarmouth ; two more at Winter- 
ton- Nc/s. ton town ; one more at Winterton-Nefs, the 
moft eafterly point of land in Nor* 
folk, which is called the lower-light; 
and the laft is ftill farther north, where 
the more, falling off to the north-weft, 
warns the failor, as he comes from the north, 
to keep off, that he may be fare to weather 
the Nefs of Winterton, and go clear of the 
land into the roads •, for from that point 
the more falls off for near fixty miles to 
Some cau- the weft^ as far as Lynn and Bofton. There 
tions for are alfo abundance of fea-marks, beacons, 
failing. anc j otner warning-pieces along the more 
all the way from this place to Cromer-, for 
the danger is this : If the mips coming 
from the north are taken with a hard gale 
of wind at fouth-eaft, or any point between 
north-eaft and fouth-eaft^ fo that they can- 
not weather Winter ton- Nefs, they are 
thereby kept within the great deep bay 
of Cromer, called by the feamen the 
Devil* s-thr oat, which is formed between 
the two points of Winterton, and the 
Spurn-bead in Torkjhire ; and if the wind 
blows hard, they are often in danger of run- 
ing on fhore upon the rocks about Cromer, 
on the north coaft of Norfolk, or ftrand- 
ing upon the flat fhore between Cromer 
and Wells. All they have to truft to 
then, is good ground-tackle to ride it out : 
and if they cannot, by reafon of the vio- 
lence of the fea, then to run into the bot- 
tom of the great bay, to Lynn or Bofton, 
which is a pufh very difficult, and even 
defperate, fo that fometimes in this dif- 
trefs, as I am told, whole fleets have been 
Joft here all together ; particularly in 1 6g6, 
near two hundred fail of colliers and coaft- 
ers, being too far embay'd to weather 
Winterton- Nefs, and running away for 
Lynn Deeps, miffed their way in the dark, 
fo that they were all drove aftiore, and 
darned to pieces, with the lofs of about a 
thoufand people. Ships bound northward 
are in the fame danger •, for if, after pafs- 
ing by Winterton- Nefs, they are taken 
fhort with a north-eaft wind, and cannot 
put back into the roads, as very often hap- 
pens, they are drove upon the fame coaft, 
and embay'd in like manner. 

At the entrance of the harbour, on a 
little flip of land, there is a little plat- 
form with guns, which is all its fecurity, 
the great guns (formerly planted round 
the town-walls) being removed by king 
Charles II. 

Derby, the county-town, about a h\m- Derby. 
dred and twenty-two miles from London, 
has its name from having been a park, or 
fhelter for deer, which is partly confirmed 
by the arms of the town, liz. a buck 
couchant in a park. It ftands on the weft- 
fide of the river Derwent, and the fouth- 
fide of it is watered by a little rivulet, 
called Mertin- Brook, which has nine 
bridges over it before it falls into the Der- 
went. It has a fair ftone-bridge of five 
arches over the latter, on which there 
formerly flood a chapel dedicated to St. 
Mary, now converted into a dwelling- 

The town is neat, large, well-built, 
and populous, and is divided into five 
parifhes, which have each their church ; 
but that of All-Saints, or All-Hallows, is the 
moft remarkable for its light and archi- 
tecture, having a beautiful Gothic tower* 
which, by an infcription in the church, 
appears to have been erected about the 
reign of queen Mary, and one half of the 
expence paid by the batchelors and maidens 
of the town. 

The trade of this town is not very con- Trade, 
fiderable ; for though it is a ftaple for 
wool, yet it depends chiefly upon a retale 
trade in buying corn and felling it again to 
the highland countries, and in making 
malt, and brewing ale, of both which 
great quantities are fent to London. 

This town has a curiofity to boaft of,sir<7JWr<w 
which is the only one of its kind in the three Lombe\ 
kingdoms, viz. a machine "erected by Sir fllk " milI# 
Thomas Lombe, an alderman of London, 
for the manufacture of filk, which was , 
brought out of Italy at the hazard of his 
life. It is a mill in an ifland of the Der- 
went, facing the town, which works the 
three capital engines made ufe of by the 
Italians, for making organzine, or thrown 
filk, which, before the fame was erected, 
was purchafed by the Englifh merchants 
from Italy, with ready money. By this 
wonderful piece of machinery, one hand- 
mill twifts as much filk as could be done 
before by fifty, and in a better manner. 
The engine contains 26,586 wheels, and 
97,746 movements-, which works 73,726 
yards of filk-thread every time the water- 
wheel goes round, which is three times in 
a minute, and 3 1 8,504,960 yards in one 
day and night. One water-wheel gives 
motion to all the reft of the wheels and 
movements, of which any one may be 


• This machine was thought of fuch importance by the legiflature, that in 1732, on the expiration of 
the patent, which the introductor of it had obtained for fourteen years, the parliament granted Sir Thomas 
14,000 £. as a further recompence for the very great hazard and expence he had incurred in introducing 
and erecting the engine, on condition of his allowing a perfect model to be taken of it, in order to fecure 
and perpetuate the art of making the fame for the future. The model of it is kept in the record-office ia 
the tower of Londsn. 

to England and Scotland. 


ftopt feparately. One fire-engine Jikewife 
conveys warm air to every individual 
part of the machine -, and the whole is 
governed by one regulator. The houfe 
which contains this engine is five or fix 
ftories high, and half a quarter of a mile 
in length. 
Hallifax. Hallifax, in the county of York, about 
174 miles from London, (lands on the 
left fide of the Calder, extending from 
weft to eaft upon the gentle defcent ot a 
hill. It is a pariOi, the mod populous, if 
not the mod extenfive in England, being 
twelve miles in diameter, and above thirty 
in circumference •, and having twelve cha- 
pels in it under the mother-church of Halli- 
fax, (a vicaridge) two whereof are pa- 
rochial, befides fixteen meeting-houfes, 
all which, except the quakers, are called 
chapels, and mod of them have bells and 
burying-grounds. They fent out 12,000 
men, fo long ago as the reign of queen 
Elizabeth, to join her forces againft the re- 
bels, under the earl of JVeJimoreland •, and 
in Camden's time, they uied to fay, that 
they could reckon more men in their pa- 
rifh, than any kind of animal whatever j 
6 Whereas (faysCamden) in the moftpopu- 

* lous and fruitful places of England elfe- 

* where, one fhall find thoufands of fheep, 
' but fo few men in proportion, that one 
1 would think they had given place to fheep 

* and oxen, or were devoured by them.' 
Its trade. j-j e tnen accounts for the prodigious 

increafe of the inhabitants, by admiring 
the induftry of a people, ' who, notwith- 
' (landing an unprofitable barren foil, not 
' fit to live in, have fo flourifhed, fays he, 
' by the cloth trade (which they had not 
' followed above feventy years) that they 
' are very rich, and have gained a reputa- 
' tion for it above their neighbours.' 

If fuch was the character and condition 
of the place then, what muft it be fince 
the great demand of kerfeys for cloathing 
the troops abroad ? Some will have it, that 
it is thereby increafed one fourth within 
thefe fixty years, efpecially as they have 
lately entered into the manufacture of Ihal- 
loons, of which few, if any, were ever 
made in thefe parts before ; lb that it has 
been calculated that 100,000 pieces are 
made in a year in this pariih alone, at the 
fame time, that almoft as many kerfeys are 
made here as ever. And it has been af- 
firmed, that one dealer here has traded by 
commiffion for 60,000/. a year to Hol- 
land and Hamburgh, in the fingle article of 

'Tis remark'd, that this and the neigh- 
bouring towns are all fo employ'd in the 
woollen manufacture, that they fcarce fow 
more corn than will keep their poultry ; 
and that they feed very few oxen or fheep j 

Vol. I. 

fo that what corn they have, comes chiefly 
out of the Eaft-Riding, Lineolnftjire and 
Notti;?gba;nJhire, their black cattle from 
thence and from Lancajhire, their fheep 
and mutton from the adjacent counties, 
their butter from the Eaft and North-Ri- 
dings, and their cheefe from Che/hire and 
JVarwickfhire. Their markets are throng- 
ed by fuch prodigious numbers of people 
to fell their manufactures, and buy provi- 
fions, that none are more crouded in the 
North of England, except thole of Leeds 
and IVakefield. 

Leeds, in the fame county, is about 1 86 Leeds, 
miles from London. The name is derived 
by fome from the Britijh word llwydd, i. e. 
apleafantfttuation, from the Saxon word leod, 
i. e. -people. It (lands on the north fide of 
the river Aire, over which it has a magnifi- 
cent (lone bridge to the fuburbs, which are 
very large. It has been a long time fa- 
mous for the woollen manufacture, and is 
one of the largell and mod flourilhing 
towns in the county. 

It is furprifing to a ftranger, when he Its trade. 
fird comes to this town, to fee a long 
ftreet full of (hops, or dandings piled up 
with pieces of cloth for (ale on a market- 
day. The merchants of this place, York 
and Hull, (hip them off at the latter, for 
Holland, Hamburgh, and the north, from 
whence they are difperfed through the Ne- 
therlands, Germany, Poland, &c. 

Its cloth market was formerly on the 
bridge ; but on the great increafe of that 
trade, it has been fold in that called the 
High-Jireet, or Bridgegate- ftreet, where, 
every market-day in the morning, numbers 
of treiTels are ranged and covered with 
boards ; and upon the ringing of the 
market-bell at fix in the dimmer, and fe- 
ven in the winter, the clothiers in the inns 
bring out their cloth. When the bell 
ceafes, the chapmen come into the market, 
where they match their patterns, and 
treat for the cloth in a few words, and 
with a whifper, becaufe the clothiers dand 
fo near each other ; and perhaps 20,000 /. 
worth of cloth is fold in an hour's time. 
The bell rings again at half an hour after 
eight, upon which the fcene is changed, 
the clothiers and their chapmen, with 
their trefifels, difappear, and make room 
for the linen-drapers, hard-ware men, 
(hoemakers, fruiterers, &c. At the fame 
time the fhambles are well dored with all 
forts of fi(h and flefh ; and of apples 500 
loads have been counted here on a day. 
There's a magnificent hall in the town, 
where they alfo fell great quantities of 
white cloth. It has a cupola and bell at 
top like Blackwell-hall in London, to give 
notice when the fale begins. There is a 
noble moot or guild-hall, adorned with a 
U u foe 

io8 The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

fine ftatue of queen Anne'm white marble, This is of great note for its fait works, Salt- 

erected by alderman Milner. Both thefe here being above 200 pans for boiling fea worl "* 

halls were erected about 17 14. The ri- water into fait, of which fuch a vaft quan- 

ver Aire being navigable here by boats, tity is made here, as not only furnifhes the 

opens a communication from this town city of London, but all the towns on or 

with Wakefield, York, and Hull, to which near the coaft between this place and that 

places it exports other goods, befides the city, and upon the navigable rivers that 

woollen manufacture, and furniihes the come into the fea on that fide ; alfo all 

city of York with coals. the counties which are furniihed by the na- 

tunder- Sunderland, in the county -palatine of vigation of the Thames, and the meadows 

land. Durham, and about 264 miles from Lon- to the weft and fouth of London. *Tis 

don, ftands on the fouth bank of the river faid, that in thefe works they confume 

Ware, and is a populous well-built bo- near 100,000 chaldron of coals every year, 

rough and fea-port, with a very fine as may be partly conjectured from the vaft 

church : the fea furrounds it almoft at mountains of allies which are raifed near 

high-water, making it a peninfula. It is the works, there being no other way to dif- 

Its coal- much talked of for the coal trade ; but pofe of them. This place is therefore 

trade. the Sunderland coal burns fo flowly, that chiefly inhabited by the people employed in 

it is faid to make three fires ; it has much thofe works, though there are alfo feveral 

pyrites with it, and burns to a heavy red- fubftantial captains or mafters of mips, 

ilri cinder, which is iron by the magnet : who live on this fide, all chiefly employed, 

Yet were this harbour fo deep as to admit not only in the falt-works, but the coal 

fhips of the fame burden as the river Tine trade, this as well as North-Shields being 

does, it Would be a great lofs to Newcajlle. the ufual ftation for moft of the Newcajlle 

However, the place is inrich'd by the coal coal fleet, till the coals are brought down 

trade ; for great quantities of it are found from Newcajlle in barges and lighters, 
upon the banks of the river Ware (which Leverpool, Litherpool, or Lirpool, in Lan- Liverpool, 

here falls into the fea) and of the beft cajhirejs about 183 miles from London. 'Tis 

fort of coals too, as thofe in particular not a very ancient town, but is very neat 

called Lumley coal, dug up in the earl of and populous, and the mod flourifhing 

Scarborough's park near Chejler in the Street, fea-port town in thefe parts, pretending to 

and feveral others : But the port of Sun- rival, if not to excell the city of Brijlol, 

derland is barred up, and the fhips are the fecond port in England-, its cuftoms 

obliged to take in their loading of coals in being increafed eight or ten fold within 

the open road, fo that it is fometimesvery thirty years paft: And tho' the place is 

dangerous to the keelmen or lightermen faid to be above three times as large as it 

that bring down the coal, who feldom was in the beginning of the late king 

dare to venture off to the fhips, and are James* % reign, yet abundance of new t 

often loft in the attempt. The mips houfes are building every day. The in- 

therefore, which load here, are generally habitants are univerfally merchants; and 

fmaller than thofe at Newcajlle ; but then notwithstanding their out of the way fitu- 

they have one advantage of the Newcajlle ation, drive an incredible trade, with great Its trade; 

men, viz. that in cafe of a contrary wind, fuccefs, and very large flocks, to all the 

particularly at north-eaft, which, though northern parts of the world, as to Ham- 

fair when they are at fea, yet fuffers not burgh, Norway, and the Baltick •, to the 

the mips at Newcajlle to get out of the Britijh colonies in America ; to Guinea and 

Tine ; the fhips at Sunderland riding in the Ireland; and alfo to France, Spain, Portu- 

open fea, are ready to fail as foon as they gal, and Italy : So that there is no trade 

can get in their loading ; fo that it has but that of Turkey, Greenland, and the 

been known they have gone away, deli- Eajl-Indies, in which they are not concern- 

vered their coals at London, and bearing ed. As it imports almoft all kind of foreign 

up againft the wind in their return, have goods, it has confequently a large inland 

got back to Sunderland before the fhips at trade,and mares that toIrelandandWales with 

Shields, which were loaden at their coming Brijlol, as follows : As Brijlol trades chief- 

away, had been able to get over the bar. ly to the fouth and weft parts of Ireland^ 

A great many fhips belong to this port, fromD«M»intheeaft,toG'^//w^yintheweft, 

and abundance of able feamen, who are this town has all the trade of the eaft and 

efteemed among the colliers as fome of north fhores from Dublin to Londonderry ; 

the beft in the country. as Brijlol has the trade of South-Wales, this 

Shields. South-Shields,orSheales,'mthefamecoun- has great part of that of North-Wales-,^ 

ty, is fo called to diftinguifh it from North- as Brijlol has the fourh-weft counties of 

Shields mNorthumberland,a.ndbeca.ufeh\ks England, and fome north of it as high as 

on the fouth fide of the mouth of the river Bridgenorth, if not to Shrewjbury ; Lever- 

Tine^ as the other does on the north fide, pool has all the north counties, befides 


to England and Scotland; io^ 

what goods it fends to Chefhire and Stafford- places in the fouth of England, where it is 

Jbire, by the new navigation of the rivers diflblved in lea- water, then boiled up again 

Merfee, the Weaver, and the Dane, even into a ftrongcr and finer fait, and is then 

fo near to the Trent, that its goods are as good as that ftrong fort called fait upon, 

carried by land to Burton. The merchants fait, which the Dutch make of the St. Ube*s 

of Leverpool are alfo concerned with thofe fait, and with which they cure their her- 

of Londonderry in the fimery on the north rings. They alfo (hip off great quantities 

coaft of Ireland. 'Tis moreover the mod of Cbejbire cheefe here. 

convenient and moll frequented paffage to Mancbejler in the fame county, about Mantbef. 

Ireland, for it (lands at the mouth of the 166 miles from London, Hands near the'""- 

Merfee river, or Leverpool water, as the confluence of the Irk with the Iru/ell, not 

failors call it, who fee it open to them on above three miles from the Merfee, and is 

the right, as foon as they have parted fo much improved in this and the lad cen- 

Chefter water by fea north j and tho' this tury above its neighbours, that tho' it is 

river is not near fo large as the Dee, no noc a corporation, nor fends members to 

not including the Weaver, another river parliament, yet, as an inland town, it has 

which falls into the fame mouth ; yet the perhaps the bed trade of any in thefe 

opening, at lead as high as Leverpool, is northern parts, and furpaffes all the towns 

infinitely before it, for hither mips of any hereabouts in buildings and numbers of 

burthen may come up with their full people, manufactures, and its fpacious 

lading, and ride juft before the town, market-place and college. 

if not go into their new wet dock. The fuilian manufacture, called Man- Its trade. 
The harbour is defended on the fouth fide cbefier cottons, for which it has been fa- 
by a caftle built by king John, and on mous for almoft one hundred and fifty 
the weft by a tower on the river Merfee, years, has been very much improved of 
which is a (lately flrong piece of build- late by fome inventions of dying and print- 
ing, but the town is quite open and un- ing; which, with the great variety of other 
fortified. It has three handfome churches, manufactures, known by the name of Man- 
They have built a fine new church, befides chefler goods, as ticking, tapes, filleting, 
two which they had before, and feveral and linen cloth, inrich not only the town, 
meeting-houfes ; and all the new buildings but the whole parifh, and render the peo- 
are very handfome in large fpacious clean pie induflrious. Above a hundred years 
flreets, the houfes built of brick, and as ago, there were reckoned near twenty thou- 
like London as pofiible, only not quite {o fand communicants in this town and pa- 
high; tho' if fome of them were in Italy, rifh, fince which time the inhabitants are 
they would pafs for palaces. They have much more numerous in proportion to the 
a fine town-houfe (landing upon twelve increafe of their trade. It may with pro- The 
free-flone pillars and arches, and under it priety be fliled the greatefl mere village greateft 
is their exchange. The wet-dock with its in England-, for it is not fo much as a^ l } l -'Z e "* 
iron flood-gates, at the eaft end of the town flrickly fpeaking, the highefl ma- 
town, is the only thing of its kind in Bri- giflrate being a conflable or headborough ; 
tain, London excepted, it being a mod noble yet it is more populous than York, Nor- 
work ; for tho' it has been attended with wich, or mod cities in England, and as 
a veiy great expence, it fully anfwers the big as two or three of the lcfTer ones put 
end, by accommodating the town in all the together : for the people here, including 
effential parts of marine bufinefs, whether thofe in the fuburbs on the other fide of 
for laying up (hips, or fitting them out, it the river, are reckoned at not lefs than 
being capable of containing eighty or a fifty thoufand ; which is ten times the 
hundred fail, which may lie very quiet number of people that Pre/Ion has, and k 
here, being flieltered by the town from the is faid to return more money in one month 
wed and north winds, and by the hills than that does in fifteen. Here is not 
from the ead winds. The cuflom-houfe, only a fpacious market-place, but a mo- 
a commodious elegant ftructure, joins to it. dern exchange. Here is an ancient tho* 
There's a navigation from hence farther up a firm done-bridge over the Irwell % 
the Merfee, and that for.fhips of burden which is built exceeding high, becaufe as 
too, as high almod as Warrington; and the river comes from the mountainous part 
alfo up the fouth channel, which they call of the country, it rifes fomerimes four cr 
the river Weaver; but 'tis chiefly for two five yards in one night, and falls next day 
things, i. For rock-falt, which is dug out as fuddenly. For the fpace of three miles 
of the earth, both in this, county and above the town, it has no lefs than fixty 
Chejbire, and (hipped off here in great mills upon it. The weaver's have looms 
quantities, not only for Devon/hire, Briftol, here that work twenty-four laces at a 
and other parts of Somerfetfhire, but round time, an invention for which they are 
to London, Colcbejier, and feveral other obliged to the Dutch, 



The Voyage of Don Gonzales, 

Wolver- Wolverhampton, in Stafford/hire, about 
baviptou. j j j miles f rom London ', was anciently called 
Hampton -, and fo large a parifh, that it 
was near thirty miles in compafs, and con- 
tained feventeen great villages. A priory 
was formerly built here by king Edgar, as 
Sir William Dugdale fays, at the requcft of 
his dying fitter JVulfruna ; and for this 
reafon the place was called Wulfrune*s- 
Hampton, which is fince corrupted to Wol- 
verhampton. It Hands upon high ground, 
and is a populous town, well built, and 
the ftreets well paved ; but all the water 
the town is fupplied with, except what 
falls from the fkies, comes from four weak 
fprings of different qualities, which go by 
Its wells, the names of Pudding -well, Horfe-well, 
Wafhing-well, and Meat-well; all appro- 

Ijriated to their feveral ufes. From the 
aft they fetch all the water which they 
ufe for boiling or brewing, in leather- 
budgets laid acrofs a horfe, with a funnel 
at the top, by which they fill them ; and 
to the other three wells they carry their 
tripe, horfes, and linen. To this fcarcity 
of water, and the high fituation of the 

place, is afcribed its healthy ftate, in fpite' 
of the adjacent coal-mines •, and it is faid. 
the plague was hardly ever known here, 
but the fmall-pox often, which has been 
obferved to be an indication of the whole- 
fomenefs of the air. 

The chief manufacturers of this town hs trade, 
are lockfmiths, who are reckoned the molt 
expert of that 'trade in England. They 
are fo curious in this art, that they can 
contrive a lock fo, that if a fervant be 
fent into the clofet with the mafter-key, or 
their own, it will lhew how many times that 
fervant has gone in at any diftance of 
time, and how many times the lock has 
been fhot for a whole year, fome of them 
being made to difcover five hundred or a 
thoufand times. We are informed alfo, 
that a very fine lock was made in this 
town, fold for 20 £. which had a fet of 
chimes in it that would go at any hour the 
owner fliould think fit. 

N. B. As for the city of London, its 
trade, &lc. being fo extenfive, I fhall make 
it the fubject of the enfuing chapter. 



Containing a Definition of the City of London ; both in regard to its Extent, 

Buildings, Government, Trade, &c. 

dc£ed LP ND ° N > the Ca P* ltaI ° f the kin §~ 
dom of England, taken in its largeft 

extent, comprehends the cities of London 
and Wejlminfter, with their refpective fub- 
urbs, and the borough of Southwark, with 
the buildings contiguous thereto on the 
fouth-fide of the river, both on the eaft 
and weft fides of the bridge. 
The The length thereof, if we meafure it 

breadth "* a ^""eft line from Hyde-park gate, on 
and cir-' tne weft-fide of Grofvenor-fquare, to the 
cumfe- furtheft buildings that are contiguous in 
rence. Limehoufe, that is, from weft to eaft, is 
very near five miles in a direct line •, but 
if we take in the turnings and windings of 
the ftreets, it cannot be lefs than fix miles. 
The breadth in many places from north 
to fouth is about two miles and an half, 
but in others not above a mile and a half •, 
the circumference of the whole being about 
fixteen miles. 
Situation ^he f ltuat ioti next the river is hilly, and 
and build. Hi fome places very fteep-, but the ftreets 
ings. are for the moft part upon a level, and 
the principal of them no where to be pa- 
rallels for their length, breadth, beauty, 
and regularity of the buildings, any more 
than the fpacious and magnificent fquares 
with which this city abounds. 

As to the dimenfions of the city, within 
the walls, I find that the late wall on the 

land fide from the Tower in the eaft, to -n^ C1 - r . 
the mouth of Fleet-ditch in the weft, wascuit of 
two miles wanting ten poles •, and the line tne cit y 
along the Thames, where there has been , 
no walls for many hundred years, if ever, 
contains from the Tower in the eaft, to 
the mouth of the fame ditch in the weft, a 
mile and forty poles •, which added to the 
circuit of the wall, on the land fide, 
makes in the whole three miles thirty poles ; 
and as it is of an irregular figure, narrow 
at each end, and the broadeft part not half 
the length of it, the content of the ground 
within the walls upon the moft accurate 
furvey, does not contain more than three 
hundred and eighty acres ; which is not a 
third part of the contents of our extenfive 
city of Lijbon : but then this muft be re- 
membered, Li/bon contains a great quan- 
tity of arable and wafte ground within its 
walls, whereas London is one continued 
pile of buildings. The city-gates are atTh eprin . 
this day eight, befides pofterns, ^72.c^pal 
1. Aldgate ; 2. Bijhopfgate ; 3. Moorgate ; g»t« of 
4. Cripplegate •, 5. Aider/gate ; 6. Newgate j c e Clty# 
7. Ludgate ; and, 8. the Bridge-gate. 

1 . Jildgate, or Ealdgate, in the eaft, is Aldgatt. 
of great antiquity, even as old as the days 
of king Edgar, who mentions it in a char- 
ter to the knights of Knighton-Guild. Up- 
on the top of it, to the eaftward, is placed 

a golden 

to England and Scotland. Ill 

i golden fpherc ; and, on the upper bat- or king Stephen, when the way through 
tlements, the figures of two foldiers as Ludgate was interrupted by enlarging the 
centinels : beneath, in a large fquare, king cathedral of St. Paul's and the church-yard 
James I. is reprefented (landing in gilt ar- about it. This gate hath been the county- 
mour, at whofe feet are a lion and uni- jail for Middlefex, at leaft five hundred 
corn, both couchant, the firft the fup- years- The weft, or outfide of the gate 
porter of England, and the other for Scot' is adorned with three ranges of pilafters 
land. On the weft fide of the gate is the and their entablements, of the Tufcan or- 
figure of fortune, finely gilded and carved, der. Over the loweft, is a circular pedi- 
with a profperous fail over her head,ftanding ment, and above it the king's arms. The 
on a globe, over-looking the city. Beneath intercolumns are four niches, with as many 
it, is the king's arms, with the ufual motto, figures in them, well carved, and large as 
Dieu et mon droit, and under it Vivat rex. the life. The eaft, or infide of the gate, 
A little lower, on one fide, is the figure of is adorned with a range of pilafters with 
a woman,